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(6,373 words)

Author(s): Schlesier, Renate (Paderborn) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
(Διόνυσος; Diónysos) I. Religion [German version] A. Special features and genealogy D. is amongst the oldest of the Greek gods. Of all the Greek gods, his cult is the most widespread and his image is depicted most frequently; today, he is still the most fascinating and the most attractive from a modern point of view [1]. At the same time he is mythically one of the most untypical of the Greek gods. Amongst the untypical factors are: his double birth; the fact that he was regarded from birth as a deity, des…

Chthonic deities

(2,098 words)

Author(s): Pongratz-Leisten, Beate (Tübingen) | Schlesier, Renate (Paderborn)
(Χθόνιοι θεοí; Chthónioi theoí). [German version] I. Ancient Near East The Earth and the Heavens that fertilized her with rain were central to the world view of Ancient Oriental agrarian cultures. Their separation marks the beginning of creation (Sumerian ‘Creation of the Hoe’, 6,51ff.; Hittite Kumarbi Myth ( Kumarbi),  Ullikummi, Song of) but a link holds them together (Geštinanna, ‘the Heavenly Vine’). The disc of the Earth floats in the freshwater ocean  Apsû that is governed by  Enki, who in turn live…

Cultural anthropology

(7,960 words)

Author(s): Schlesier, Renate (Paderborn)
Schlesier, Renate (Paderborn) Cultural anthropology (CT) [German version] 1. Differences in Terms (CT) The noun ‘cultural anthropology’ (CA) and even more so the adjective related to it, cultural anthropological, is one of the terms that, of the current descriptions for academic disciplines, is most dependent on context. What is to be understood in each case by the term depends on the respective context of the academic traditions, disciplines and methods, which vary from nation to nation, within which it is used; its meaning can therefore diverge considerably. Schlesier, Renate (P…


(10,167 words)

Author(s): Schlesier, Renate (Paderborn)
Schlesier, Renate (Paderborn) A. Therapeutic Method and Scientific Theory (CT) [German version] 1. Freud (CT) The term 'psychoanalysis' was invented in 1896 by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) [3], initially as a designation for the 'cathartic' method of "rendering conscious the hitherto unconscious" (“Bewußtbarmarchung des bisher Unbewußten”) [4. 381], which he first practised (together with Joseph Breuer [25]) in treating hysteria. From the application of this method it emerged that pathological symptoms of psychon…