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Meḥmed Emīn

(2,631 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahı̇r
, in modern Turkish Mehmet Emin Yurdakul (1869-1944), Turkish poet and patriot, the pioneer of modern Turkish poetry in spoken Turkish and syllabic metre. He was born in the Bes̲h̲iktas̲h̲ district of Istanbul on 13 May 1869. The family originated from Zekeriyyā Köyü, a village near Lake Terkos, in Eastern Thrace, some 30 miles north-west of Istanbul. His grandfather Ḥalīm Ag̲h̲a was a trawler owner. His father Ṣāliḥ Ag̲h̲a, later called Ṣāliḥ Reʾīs (Captain) when he owned a large trawler rowed …


(931 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahır
i, ii. — See Vol. II, s.v. iii. In Ottoman Turkish literature. After their conversion to Islam, the Turks adopted and assimilated Arabo-Persian cultural institutions, but in literature they tended to follow the Persian type. Thus it was the Persian g̲h̲azal rather than the Arabic one which became a model both in Eastern (Čag̲h̲atay) and Western (Ottoman) Turkish literature. ¶ The Turkish g̲h̲azal , which became the most popular poetical form after the mat̲h̲nawī [ q.v.], is very similar to the Persian g̲h̲azal from the point of view of technique [see g̲h̲azal. ii. In Persian literature]. …


(523 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahır
, Memdūḥ S̲h̲ewket , modern Turkish Memduh Şevket Esendal , Turkish short story writer and politician (1883-1952). He was born in Corlu in Eastern Thrace, the son of Kahyabeyog̲h̲lu S̲h̲ewket, a modest farmer of an immigrant ( göčmen ) Turkish family from the Balkans. He did not have any regular schooling but was self-taught; then when his father died in 1907, he looked after the family until 1912 when the Balkan War broke out and the family moved to Istanbul. He had joined the Committee of Union and Progress (…

Čaylaḳ Tewfīḳ

(229 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahır
, modern Turkish Çaylak Tevfi̇k , Turkish writer and journalist (1843-92). A self-taught man, he was born in Istanbul and became a civil servant. He started his career in Bursa and continued in Istanbul where he published the papers ʿAṣi̊r (“Century”, later renamed Leṭāʾif-i āt̲h̲ār ) and Teraḳḳi̊ (“Progress”). In February 1876 he published his best-known paper, the humorous Čaylaḳ (“The Kite”), which became his nick-name ¶ and which ceased publication in June 1877 after 162 numbers. In 1877 he went, with a delegation, to Hungary for a month and on his return …

K̲h̲ālid Ḍiyāʾ

(3,438 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, us̲h̲āḳī-zāde , originally meḥmed k̲h̲ālid , ḍiyāʾ al-dīn (Mod. Tkish. Halid Ziya Uşaklıgıl), 1868-1945, Turkish novelist and short story writer, the greatest representative of prose in the T̲h̲erwet-i fünūn ( Edebiyyāt-i d̲j̲edīde ) literary school of the late 19th century. His family originated from Us̲h̲āḳ in western Anatolia where they were known as Ḥelwād̲j̲i̊-Zāde. Apart from sweetmeat ( ḥelwā ) trading, they also owned the leading carpet business of the area, winning an international reputation under the management of K̲h̲ā…

D̲j̲anāb S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn

(833 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
( Cenap Şehabettin ) (1870-1934). Turkish poet and writer, one of the three representatives of the T̲h̲erwet-i Fünūn school of literature (the others being Tewfīḳ Fikret and K̲h̲ālid Ḍiyā (Ziya)). He was born in Monastir. Upon the death of his father, an army officer, killed at the battle of Plewna (1876), he settled in Istanbul with his mother and attended, as a boarder, various military high schools, graduating from the military School of Medicine in 1889 as an army doctor. He spent four years in Paris completing his medic…

Fig̲h̲ānī, pseudonym of Ramaḍān

(287 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
(?-938/1532), Ottoman poet. Very little is known of his early life, except that he was a native of Trabzon and that after a summary education he became a minor clerk in government offices in Istanbul, where together with his fellow-poets and boon-companions he frequented taverns and places of amusement, leading an irregular and dissolute life. He seems to have lived in near poverty and without proper patronage, in spite of the poems which he dedicated to the great. We are told of his extraordina…

ʿAlī Emīrī

(419 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahır
(1858-1924), Turkish bibliophile and scholar. He was born in Diyārbekr, the son of Meḥmed S̲h̲erīf, a wealthy merchant from a locally prominent family. He learnt Arabic, Persian and the Islamic sciences from his great-uncle and private tutors. At the age of 18 he published in the local paper Diyārbekr a d̲j̲ülūsiyye , a poem commemorating the enthronement of Murād V which made his name widely known in educated circles. When ʿĀbidīn Pas̲h̲a (the Mat̲h̲nāwī commentator) came in 1879 to Diyārbekr as president of the committee of reform for the east…

Ismāʿīl Ṣafā

(1,005 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
(1867-1901), Turkish poet of the transition period between the Tanẓīmāt and the T̲h̲erwet-i Fünūn schools. Born in Mecca where his father, Meḥmed Behd̲j̲et, a native of Trabzon and a minor poet of the old school (see Ibnülemin Mahmud Kemal, Son asır Türk şairleri , Istanbul, 1930, i, 177-178), was chief secretary ( mektūbd̲j̲u ) of the Ḥed̲j̲āz province, he lost his mother Sāmiye ʿĀ’ishe at the age of seven. On his father’s death in 1880, Ismāʿīl Ṣafā and his two brothers moved to Istanbul. His happy life in Arabia and the de…


(560 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahır
, ʿabd al-ḥaḳḳ ʿadnān , modern Turkish abdülhak adnan adivar , Turkish author, scholar and politician (1882-1955). He was born in Gelibolu (Gallipoli), while his father Aḥmed Bahāʾī, who came from a prominent ʿulamāʾ family of Istanbul, was ḳāḍī there. He studied medicine at the University of Istanbul and while a student, contributed to various newspapers and was in trouble with the Ḥamīdian police. Upon graduation he fled to Europe, spent a year in Paris and Zürich and settled in Berlin where he became an assi…


(283 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, Turkish poet, b. 875/1471 in Balıkesir. The son of a modest bootmaker, as a boy he practised his father’s craft but soon gave it up, moving to the capital during the reign of Bāyezīd I where, following his natural inclinations, he devoted his life to poetry. An easy and prolific versifier, he made a living from the gifts of the notables of the day, to whom he dedicated ḳaṣīdas (among others, to the sultans Selīm I, Suleymān I, to D̲j̲aʿfer Čelebi and Ibn Kemāl). In his old age he practised geomancy in a shop which soon became a sort of lit…

Ḳul Muṣṭafā, called Ḳayi̊kd̲j̲i̊

(171 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, 11th/17th century Turkish folk poet of Janissary origin. His nickname Ḳayi̊kd̲j̲i̊ (“The Boatman”) seems to have originated from his association in his youth with the corsair, later admiral, Turg̲h̲ud Reʾīs [ q.v.] in Algeria. His narrative or epic poems on contemporary important events became very popular in the army and at court, and his fame lies more in these than in his less attractive lyrics. Among his famous narrative poems, the most notable concern the assasination of ʿOt̲h̲mān II by the Janissaries; S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās’s …

K̲h̲ālide Edīb

(3,895 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
(modern Turkish, Halide Edib Adıvar), prominent Turkish novelist, writer and nationalist, (1884-1964). She was born in Bes̲h̲iktas̲h̲ not far from the Yıldız Palace, where her father Meḥned Edīb Bey was First Secretary to the Sultan’s Privy Purse ( d̲j̲eyb-i hümāyūn serkātibi ). Edīb was the adopted son of a S̲h̲eyk̲h̲ Malimūd of Salonica, who brought him up and later sent him to Istanbul for further education (Halide Edib, Memoirs , New York 1926, 200). In later life, he served as director of the Tobacco Régie in Yanya (Janina) and Bursa. K…


(874 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, ʿAzmī-zāde Muṣṭafā (977/1570-1040/1631), Ottoman poet and scholar, considered the master of the rubāʿī in Turkish literature. He was born in Istanbul, the son of Pīr Meḥmed ʿAzmī (d. 990/1582), the tutor of the prince Meḥmed (later Meḥmed III), who left, besides poems in Turkish, Eastern Turkish, Arabic and Persian, an expanded translation of the Anīs al-ʿārifīn of Ḥusayn Wāʿiẓ and an unfinished translation (later continued by his son) of the mat̲h̲nawī Mihr u Mus̲h̲tarī of the Persian poet Muḥammad ʿAṣṣār (see Rieu, Cat. Persian MSS , ii, 626; Pertsch, Kat ., 843 ff.). …


(264 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahır
, Saʿd al-Dīn Nüzhet , modern Turkish Sadetti̇n Nüzhet Ergun , Turkish scholar and literary historian (1901-46). Born in Bursa, he was educated at the Faculty of Letters of Istanbul ¶ University and taught Turkish literature in various secondary schools in Anatolia and later in Istanbul, where he also worked as a librarian. He started his career as a scholar while he was a teacher in the Konya lycée, with a book on the folk-lore of Konya. A hard-working and prolific scholar, his works are based on first-hand research into wh…

Kemal Tahi̇r

(2,055 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
( demi̇r ), modern Turkish novelist (1910-1973). Born on 13 March 1910 ¶ in Istanbul, his father’s family came originally from Alişar village of Şebinkarahisari (in north-eastern Anatolia), where most of their relatives still live. They were known as Demircioğulları, hence the family name Demir, which however Kemal Tahir never used in his writings. His father Ṭāhir Efendi (d. 1957), a naval officer risen from the ranks, was an aide-decamp to the Sultan ( k̲h̲ünkār yāveri ), and also worked in the carpentry shop of the Yıldız Palace (a privileged po…


(456 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahır
, aḥmed (originally aḥmed ag̲h̲ayef , later ag̲h̲aog̲h̲lu aḥmed and after 1934 Ahmet Ağaoğlu), Turkish writer and journalist (1869-1939). Born in S̲h̲us̲h̲a, a town in the Ḳarabāg̲h̲ [ q.v.] region of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. he was educated in his home town and Tiflis (Tbilisi) and later studied political science in Paris. In 1894 he returned home, where he collaborated with progressive and nationalist intellectuals like Ḥusayn-Zāde ʿAlī, Ismāʿīl Gaspi̊rali̊ (Gasprinski) [ q.v.] and ʿAlī Merdān Topči̊bas̲h̲i̊ and contributed to various papers. After the restoration ¶ of the Constit…


(299 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahır
, tahir , Turkish author and literary critic (1916-73). The son of a naval officer, he was born in Istanbul and graduated from the Department of Turkish Studies of Istanbul University (1943). He taught Turkish literature in various high schools until 1956, when he was appointed to Galatasaray Lycée in Istanbul where he taught until his death on 19 June 1973. During the last few years of his life he was also a part-time lecturer at Boğaziçi University in Istanbul. Two leading themes of his many books and large number of articles are firstly, Turkish folk-lore, and secondly, …


(630 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
(Modern Turkish orthography, halkevi̇ , pl. halkevleri̇ ), “People’s House”, the educational and social centres founded by Muṣṭafā Kemāl (Atatürk) to replace the “Turkish Hearths” (see Türk Od̲j̲ag̲h̲i̊ ) which were active, with some intervals, between 1912 and 1932. The Od̲j̲aḳs represented originally the Pan-Turkist ideology of the Committee of Union and Progress ( Ittiḥād ve Teraḳḳī Ḏj̲emʿiyyeti [ q.v.]). Although the government continued to support them after the foundation of the Republic in 1923, they were gradually looked upon as an obsolete inst…


(282 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, ismāʿīl of Bursa, Turkish poet and biographer. Little is known of his life. Like his father and grandfather he was an imām in a small Bursa mosque. He also served as a minor government official in various departments in that town, except for a short appointment in a Toḳat court. He died in 1142/1729 in Bursa where he is buried. According to Ṣafāʾīs Ted̲h̲kire , Belīg̲h̲ composed a dīwān which has so far not come down to us. His known poetical works consist of a number of poems quoted in various contemporary med̲j̲mūʿas and ted̲h̲kires and two mat̲h̲nawīs , i.e., Serguzes̲h̲t-nāme
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