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Dīn-i Ilāhī

(802 words)

Author(s): Ahmad, Aziz
(Divine Faith), the heresy pro…

K̲h̲iḍr K̲h̲ān

(642 words)

Author(s): Ahmad, Aziz
, founder of the “Sayyid” dynasty which ruled at Dihlī from 817/1414 to 855/1451. His designation as a sayyid is traced in the near-contemporary Tāʾrīk̲h̲-i Mubārak S̲h̲āhī firstly to a remark hagiologically attributed to the Ṣūfī D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Buk̲h̲ārī, and secondly to his own excellent character, and has been accepted by later historians like Niẓām al-Dīn Aḥmad, Badāʾūnī and Firis̲h̲ta; but this has been regarded as dubious by modern British and South Asian historians. The other nearcontemporary source, Bihāmad K̲h̲ānī’s

G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Tug̲h̲luḳ S̲h̲āh II

(202 words)

Author(s): Ahmad, Aziz
ibn Fatḥ Ḵh̲ān ibn Sulṭān Fīrūz S̲h̲āh Tug̲h̲luḳ [ q.v.] (790/1388-791/1389) succeded to his grandfather’s throne according to his will, superseding a number of relatives. This led to the internecine dynastic wars which led to the decline, and finally the overthrow of the Tug̲h̲luḳ dynasty. The Sultan’s inexperience, his love of pleasure and his tactlessness in imprisoning his own brother Sālār Ḵh̲ān led to the revolt of his nephew Abū Bakr son of Ẓafar Ḵh̲ān. who defeated and killed him with the aid of the wazīr Rukn al-Din Čanda. The…

Ḥasan Dihlawī

(317 words)

Author(s): Ahmad, Aziz
, Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn Ḥasan b. ʿAlā al-Sid̲j̲zī al-Dihlawī (b. 655/1275, d. 737/1336), eminent poet and hagiographer of Islamic India, is principally known for his Dīwān and for the Fawāʾid al-fuʾād , a compilation, made between 707/1307 and 721/1321, of the dicta of his preceptor Niẓām al-Dīn al-Awliyā [ q.v.]. The authoritativeness of the later work is acknowledged by his contemporaries, including the historian Ḍiyā al-Dīn Baranī [ q.v.], as well as in all subsequent hagiographies compiled in India. He was a close friend of Amīr K̲h̲usraw and, like him, attached at Multān to the court of Prince Muḥammad (S̲h̲ahīd), son of Sultan G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Balban (665/1266-686/1287). They were both attached to the court of ʿAlā al-Dīn K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī (696/1296-716/1316). Later he migrated to Dawlatābād in Dakhan and died there. His fame as a poet was eclipsed by that of Amīr K̲h̲usraw, but in his own right he is the master of a direct, app…


(433 words)

Author(s): Ahmad, Aziz
, Ḥāmid b. Faḍl Allāh of Dihlī (d. 942/1536), poet and Ṣūfī hagiographer. He travelled extensively throughout the Dār al-Islām from Central Asia to the Mag̲h̲rib, and from Anatolia to Yemen, meeting a number of prominent Ṣūfīs including D̲j̲āmī [ q.v.], with whom he had interesting discussions in Harāt. His travels constitute a link ¶ between the Indian Ṣūfī disciplines and those of the rest of the Muslim world; while it is possible that the style of the Persian poetry of the court of Harāt travelled to India in his wake, creating the sabk-i Hindī of the 10th/16th c…

G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Tug̲h̲luḳ I

(1,124 words)

Author(s): Ahmad, Aziz
( G̲h̲āzī Malik ), founder of the Tug̲h̲luḳ dynasty and ruler of India from 720/1320 to 725/1325, was by origin a Ḳarawna Turk and an immigrant from Ḵh̲urāsān, who took service under the Ḵh̲ald̲j̲īs. In 705/1305 he was appointed governor of Dīpālpūr in the Pand̲j̲āb, and as warden of the marches he held the Mongols at bay for fifteen years, conducting annual raids against them in the Kābul and G̲h̲azna areas. The prestige thus gained was his main asset when he rose against Ḵh̲usraw Ḵh̲ān, a Ḵh̲āld̲j̲ī general of low-caste Hindu Parwārī origin,…


(766 words)

Author(s): Ahmad, Aziz
, K̲h̲wād̲j̲a Alṭāf Ḥusayn , Urdū poet. His ancestor K̲h̲wādia Malik ʿAlī came to India in the reign of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ and was appointed ḳāḍī of Pānīpat. Ḥālī was born at Pānīpat in 1837. His father died when he was nine years old; but in spite of the drawback in his early education he studied Arabic and Persian grammar and elementary logic in Dihlī, and in 1856 occupied a petty clerical post at Ḥiṣār. After the Mutiny in 1857 he remained unemployed for four years and during this period stud…


(35,357 words)

Author(s): Merad, A. | Algar, Hamid | Berkes, N. | Ahmad, Aziz
(a.), reform, reformism. i.—The Arab world In modern Arabic, the term iṣlāḥ is used for “reform” (cf.: RALA, xxi (1386/1966), 351, no. 15) in the general sense: in contemporary Islamic litera-Jure it denotes more specifically orthodox reformism of the type that emerges in the doctrinal teachings of Muḥammad ʿAbduh, in the writings of Ras̲h̲īd Riḍā, and in the numerous Muslim authors who are influenced by these two masters and, like them, consider themselves disciples of the Salafiyya (see below). Iṣlāḥ will be examined under the foliowing general head…


(7,646 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch. | Bausani, A. | İz, Fahīr | Ahmad, Aziz
, Arabic term often translated by “satire”, but more precisely denoting a curse, an invective diatribe or insult in verse, an insulting poem, then an epigram, and finally a satire in prose or verse. The etymological sense of the Arabic root h.d̲j̲.w may perhaps be deduced from the Hebrew root the basic sense of which is “to utter a sound in a low voice, to murmur” and hence “to meditate” (so too in Syriac), but also “to pronounce incantations in a low voice” (see L. Koehler, Lexicon in Vet . Test . libros , 1949, 224; König, Hebräisches Wörterbuch , 75; Genesius, Lexicon, Leipzig 1833, 266; Jast…


(12,086 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch. | Bausani, A. | Boratav, P.N. | Ahmad, Aziz | Winstedt, R.O.
(a.), verbal noun of ḥakā , originally meaning “to imitate”, but which, in consequence of a readily explained semantic evolution, came to acquire the meaning of “to tell, to narrate”; similarly the noun ḥikāya , starting from the meaning of “imitation”, has come to mean more specifically “mimicry”, and finally “tale, narrative, story, legend”. In classical Arabic the intensive form ḥākiya meant a “mimic” and modern Arabic has adopted the active participle ḥāk in to translate “gramophone”. The radical . k. y./ w. is not represented in the Ḳuʾrān but it is found in ḥadīt̲h̲ with the primary meaning of “to resemble” or “to imitate” (see LA, s.v.), a meaning expressed and retained up to the present in the 3rd form, ḥākā ; this is the only meaning given to it in the classical dictionaries; the Lisān , which makes no mention of the meaning of “to relate” for the verb and “story” for the noun, states that both the first and the thir…


(10,511 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch. | Massé, H. | Mélikoff, I. | Hatto, A.T. | Ahmad, Aziz
(A.), “bravery”, “valour” (used nowadays together with ḥamās , to translate “enthusiasm”), is the title of a certain number of poetic anthologies which generally include brief extracts chosen for their literary value in the eyes of the anthologists and classified according to the genre to which they belong or the idea which they express; these works are related to a more general category, that of “poetic themes”, maʿānī ’l-s̲h̲iʿr [ q.v.], but differ from it in the apparent effacement of the author who abstains from any comparison or judgement and imposes his tast…


(9,663 words)

Author(s): Hourani, A.H. | Rustow, D.A. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Demeerseman, A. | Ahmad, Aziz
This term, commonly used in modern Arabic to mean a “society” or “association”, is derived from the root D̲J̲ - M - ʿ, meaning “to collect, join together, etc.”. In its modern sense it appears to have come into use quite recently, and was perhaps first used to refer to the organized monastic communities or congregations which appeared in the eastern Uniate Churches in Syria and Lebanon at the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth centuries ( e.g., D̲j̲amʿiyyat al-Muk̲h̲alliṣ , the Sal…


(56,925 words)

Author(s): Ed. | S. Maqbul Ahmad | Mayer, A.C. | Burton-Page, J. | Nizami, K.A. | Et al.
, the name currently employed in Arabic for the Indian sub-continent. The current names in Persian were Hindūstān, Hindistān, “land of the Hindūs” [ q.v.], whence Ottoman Turkish Hindistān. The present article comprises the following sections: For Anglo-Muhammedan law, see s̲h̲arīʿa ; for political parties, see ḥizb ; for the development of the apparatus of modern government, see ḥukūma ; for the…