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al-Haddād

(557 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, al-Ṭāhir, écrivain tunisien nainaliste et réformiste, qui est considéré comme le ¶ pionnier du mouvement de libération de la femme dans son pays. Né à Tunis vers 1899, dans une modeste famille originaire de la Ḥāma de Gabès, il fit ses études à la Zaytūna [ q.v.] de 1911 à 1920 et obtint le taṭwīʿ (correspondant au diplôme de fin d’études secondaires). Il participa ensuite à l’activité syndicale et fut chargé de la propagande dans une organisation fondée en 1924, la Ḏj̲āmiʿat ʿumūm al-ʿamala al-tūnisiyya, dont les principaux promoteurs furent poursuivis et bannis en 1925. Ses …

Tubu

(2,868 words)

Author(s): , G. Yver-[Ed.] | Zaborski, A.
, écrit en lettres arabes Tūbū, peuple du Sahara oriental. Il se trouve dispersé sur un immense territoire, entre, à l’est le désert Libyen, sur les franges de l’Égypte et de la Libye; à l’ouest, le massif du Hoggar/Ahaggar [ q.v.], en Algérie mériodionale; au nord, le Fezzan [voir Fazzān], région de Libye méridionale; et au sud, la moitié septentrionale du Tchad [voir Čad, dans Suppl.] et les franges du Soudan. Au Fezzan, ils forment la majeure part de la population dans le district de Gatrūn, et un petit nombre d’entre eux se trouvent dans l’oasis de Kufra [ q.v.]. Le plateau de Djado [voir Ḏj̲ād…

Takfīr

(809 words)

Author(s): Ed, | Hunwick, J.O.
(a.), nom verbal de la deuxième forme du verbe kaffara «déclarer quelqu’un kāfir ou incroyant». Depuis les débuts de l’époque islamique, ce fut une accusation lancée violemment aux opposants par des sectaires et des zélotes, tels les Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites [ q.v.]. Pourtant, un théologien comme al-G̲h̲azālī [ q.v.] affirmait que, puisque l’adoption du kufr était équivalente à l’apostasie, encourant la peine de mort [voir Murtad], on ne pouvait porter cette accusation à la légère ( Fayṣal al-tafriḳa bayn al-Islām wa l-zandaḳa, cité dans B. Lewis, The political language of Islam, Chicago-Lon…

Abū l-Ḥasan al-Mag̲h̲ribī

(215 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad, poète et lettré du IVe/Xe siècle dont l’origine est inconnue. Il semble s’être beaucoup déplacé puisqu’on le trouve au service de Sayf al-dawla, d’al-Ṣāḥib Ibn ʿAbbād et du maître du Ḵh̲urāsān, qu’il rencontra Abū l-Farad̲j̲ al-Iṣfahānī et séjourna aussi en Égypte, au Ḏj̲abal, en Transoxiane, au S̲h̲ās̲h̲. Les poèmes que l’on possède de ce grand voyageur sont des pièces de circonstance ¶ sans grande originalité, mais il serait l’auteur de plusieurs épîtres et livres, notamment d’une Tuḥfat al-kuttāb fī l-rasāʾil et d’une Tad̲h̲kirat/Mud̲h̲ākarat al-…

Philistines

(1,866 words)

Author(s): Niemann, Hermann Michael | Noort, Ed
[German Version] I. Old Testament Philistines (Heb. פְּלִשְׁתִים/ pelištîm; LXX ϕυλιστιείμ/ phylistieím [12 occurrences] and ἀλλόϕυλος/ allóphylos [269 occurrences]; Egyp. pl/rst) are represented in the Bible as living in the “Land of the Philistines” (Gen 21:32; Exod 13:17; 1 Sam 30:16 etc.); for Jewish narrators most specifically the area extending from Ashdod through Gath and Ekron to the boundary of Judea itself (1 Sam 5:1–12; 6:1). Their leaders are a group of five cooperating “princes” (Josh 13:3; Judg 3:3; …

Vriezen, Theodore Christiaan

(316 words)

Author(s): Noort, Ed
[German Version] (Jul 29, 1899, Dinxperlo – Jan 29, 1981, Amersfoort), professor of Old Testament and Semitic languages at Groningen from 1941 to 1956 and at Utrecht for 1956 to 1969 (1965–1966 in Beirut). For decades Vriezen was the preeminent Old Testament scholar of the Netherlands; he received an honorary doctorate from Bern in 1964. As a pastor, along with O. Eißfeldt, Aage Betzen, W. Eichrodt, and others he took part in the 1924 training course of the Deutsches Evangelisches Institut für Alt…

Dor

(328 words)

Author(s): Noort, Ed
[German Version] The ancient port of Dor ( Dw/'r; Dū'ru; Δῶρος/ Dṓros; Δῶρα/ Dṓra) is identical with Ḥel-Burğ (1425/2247). Dor is attested from Ramses II on and is mentioned as the dwelling place of the Tkr, a group of sea-peoples, in the travel report of Wenamun (1075). From Solomon on, it was claimed to be within Israelite territory (1 Kgs 4:11). The book of Joshua has another opinion (Josh 11:2, etc.). A seal (8th cent.) mentions a …

Sarāparda

(88 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(p., lit. “palace-curtain”), the term applied in the sources for the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳs and the Rūm Sald̲j̲ūḳs to the great tent carried round by the sultans, regarded, with the čatr or miẓalla [ q.v.], as one of the emblems of sovereignty. It is described in such sources as Rāwandī, Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn and Ibn Bībī as being red, the royal colour, and as having internal curtained compartments forming rooms. (Ed.) Bibliography İ.H. Uzunçarşılı, Osmanlı devleti teşkilâtina medhal, Istanbul 1941, 31, 37, 121 Sukumar Ray, Bairam Khan, Karachi 1992, 232.

Ḳubbe Wezīri

(130 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.) “vizier of the dome” was the name given, under the Ottomans, to the members of the imperial Dīwān ( dīwān-i hümāyūn [ q.v.]) who came together on several mornings each week around the Grand Vizier in the chamber of the Topkapi Palace called Ḳubbe alti̊ because it was crowned by a dome. The ḳubbe wezīrleri were the ḳāḍī-ʿaskers [ q.v.] of Rumelia and Anatolia, the ḳāḍī of Istanbul, the defterdār [see daftardār ], the nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲l [ q.v.], the ag̲h̲as of the Janissaries, the commander of the cavalry and, when he happened to be in the capital, the ḳapudan pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. This institution wa…

D̲j̲āndār

(266 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or D̲j̲andār, the name given to certain guards regiments serving the great Sald̲j̲ūḳs and subsequent dynasties. Attached to the royal household, they provided the sovereign’s bodyguard, and carried out his orders of execution. Their commander, ¶ the amīr d̲j̲āndār , was a high-ranking officer; some of them are reported as becoming atābaks [ q.v.]. Under the Sald̲j̲ūḳs of Rūm, they formed an élite cavalry guard, and wore their swords on a gold-embroidered baldric. At the accession of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Kayḳobād I in 616/1219 he is said to have had a bodyguard of 120 d̲j̲āndārs (Ibn Bībī, El-Evāmi…

al-Ḳaʿḳāʿ

(469 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Arabic term for a man whose foot-joints can be heard cracking when he walks, but often found as a proper name in the first days of Islam and particularly among the Tamīmīs; the last to bear this name seems to have been al-Ḳaʿḳāʿ b. Ḍirār al-Tamīmī, chief of police for ʿĪsā b. Mūsā [ q.v.], governor of Kūfa from 132/750 to 147/764 (Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, ii, 465; al-Ṭabarī, iii, 131, 347). Among those who bore this name, apart from al-Ḳaʿḳāʿ b. ʿAmr [see the following article] and the poets cited by al-Marzubānī ( Muʿd̲j̲am , 329-30), especially noteworthy was the Co…

Idrīs b. al-Ḥusayn

(185 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. Abī Numayy , Abū ʿAwn , S̲h̲arīf of Mecca in the early 11th/17th century. He was born in 974/1566, and became S̲h̲arīf and governor of the Ḥid̲j̲āz in 1011/1602-3 after his brother Abū Ṭālib and in conjunction with his nephew Muḥsin. This division of power ended, however, in a fierce internal family dispute, apparently over Idrīs’s retinue and followers ( Ḵh̲uddām ), and in 1034/1624-5 the family deposed Idrīs from the governship of the Ḥid̲j̲āz in favour of Muhsin. The conflict was resolved by a truce, during the time of which Idr…

al-ʿAbbās b. Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn

(452 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, eldest son of Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn [ q.v.]. When the latter set off for the conquest of Syria, he entrusted the government of Egypt to al-ʿAbbās, his designated heir, but al-ʿAbbās was very soon persuaded to take advantage of his father’s absence to supplant him. Warned by the vizier al-Wāsiṭī, Ibn Ṭūlūn got ready to return to Egypt, and his son, after having emptied the treasury and got together considerable sums of money, went off with his partisans to Alexandria, and then to Barḳa. As soon as he got back…

Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-Umarāʾ

(211 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of a celebrated Persian collection of biographies of Muslim Indian commanders from the reign of the Mug̲h̲al Emperor Akbar (963-1014/1556-1605) till the time of its author, Ṣamṣām al-Dawla Mīr ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ S̲h̲āh-Nawāz K̲h̲ān Awrangābādī (1111-71/1700-58). Born at Lahore, he soon settled in the Deccan in the service of the first Niẓām of Ḥaydarābād [ q.v.], Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf-Ḏj̲āh. and filled offices in Berār [ q.v.] and then as Dīwān or chief minister of the Deccan. His policy in the latter post aimed at checking the growing influences in that state …

Rayda

(311 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Rīda, Rēda) is the name of a number of places in ʿAsīr, in the Yemen and in Ḥaḍramawt. The word rayd (pl. aryād/ruyūd ) means a ledge of a mountain, resembling a wall, or a resting upon ledges of mountains (Lane, Lexicon , s.v.). At least in Ḥaḍramawt, it is the term for the centre of the territory of a Bedouin tribe, which is generally a depression in the rocky plateau (D. van der Meulen and H. von Wissmann, Hadramaut , some of its mysteries unveiled, Leiden 1932, 22, n. 1). There are several places of this name ( Rēda) in Hadramawt: Raydat al-Ṣayʿar, Raydat Arḍayn, Raydat al-ʿIbād, Raydat …

Ḥarīm

(623 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(also ḥaramgāh , zanāna , etc.), a term applied to those parts of a house to which access is forbidden, and hence more particularly to the women’s quarters. In ancient Arabia women seem to have enjoyed some measure of personal freedom, though the use of the veil was not unknown, especially in towns. It became commoner after the advent of Islam, with the adoption, on the one hand of a stricter code of sexual morality, on the other of a more urban way of life. The provisions of t…

al-T̲h̲ag̲h̲rī

(77 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Abū Saʿīd Yūsuf b. Muḥammad al-Ṭāʾī, ʿAbbāsid commander of the middle decades of the 3rd/9th century, who presumably derived his professional nisba from service along the Byzantine frontiers ( t̲h̲ug̲h̲ūr [ q.v.], sing, t̲h̲ag̲h̲r ; al-Samʿānī, Ansāb , ed. Ḥaydarābād, iii, 136-7, gives two scholars with this same nisba, connected respectively with Tarsus and Adana). Nothing is known of him beyond the fact that he was the patron of his fellow-Ṭāʾī, the poet al-Buḥturī [ q.v.]. (Ed.)

Sīdī Ballā

(261 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh Ibn ʿAzzūz al-ḳuras̲h̲ī al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī al-Marrākus̲h̲ī , a cobbler of Marrakesh to whom thaumaturgic gifts were attributed and who died in an odour of sanctity in 1204/1789. His tomb, situated in his own residence at Bāb Aylān, has been continuously visited because of its reputation of curing the sick. Although he had not received a very advanced education, Ibn ʿAzzūz nevertheless succeeded in leaving behind an abundant body of works, dealing mainly with my…

al-Musabbiḥāt

(70 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) “those which give praise”, the name given to the group of Ḳurʾānic sūras from the middle Medinan peirod, LVII, LIX, LXI, LXII, LXIV, so-called because they begin with the phrase sabbaḥa or yusabbiḥu li ’llāh . The designation seems to be old; cf. Muslim, Zakāt , trad. 119. See further, Nöldeke-Schwally, G des Q, i, 186, 245, ii, 45; and ḳurʾān , 7, towards the end. (Ed.)

K̲h̲afḍ

(1,305 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or k̲h̲ifāḍ (a.), female excision, corresponding to the circumcision of boys ( k̲h̲atn or k̲h̲itān [ q.v.], terms which may be applied equally to both sexes). There is no mention of it in the Ḳurʾān, but more or less authentic ḥadīt̲h̲ s attest to the practice in pre-Islamic Arabia and in a certain measure justify it. Tradition attributes to the Prophet the expression muḳaṭṭiʿat al-buẓūr “cutter of clitorises”, and the following words addressed to Umm ʿAṭiyya, id̲h̲ā k̲h̲afaḍti ( k̲h̲afatti ) fa-ʾas̲h̲immī wa-lā tanhakī (i.e., do not excise everything), fa- ʾinnahu adwaʾ li’l-wad̲j̲…
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