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Dike

(690 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
(Δίκη; Díkē). [German version] [1] Personification of human law made concrete in legal pronouncements (Religion). Personification of human law made concrete in legal pronouncements (as opposed to  Themis, the divine order): the legal order breaks down if it is eroded by corrupt judges (Hes. Op. 220). She is a central figure of mythological and poetic reflection on the foundation of social existence in the archaic and classical period. The genealogies incorporate D. in a value system. She is the daughter of Ze…

Antea

(97 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(Ἄντεια; Ánteia). [German version] [1] Daughter of the king of Lydia Daughter of the king of Lycia (Iobates or Amphianax, Apollod. 2,25), wife of  Proetus, ruler of Tiryns, to whom Bellerophon slandered her because he did not want to requite her love (Hom. Il. 6,160 ff.). From the tragedians on, she is called  Stheneboea (Apollod. 2,25). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Wife of the younger Helvidius Priscus Wife of the younger Helvidius Priscus (Plin. Ep. 9,13,4 f.); possibly mother of the child of Helvidius mentioned in Plin. epist. 4,21 (Raepsaet-Charlier, no. 68). Eck…

Achates

(297 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] [1] Precious stone According to Theophr. De lapidibus 31 [1.68], a precious stone ( gemma) named after the river of the same name in Sicily (today's Carabi or Canitello), and which, along with 11 others, adorned the official escutcheon of the High Priest Aaron (Ex 39,10-13) [2.204 f.]. According to Plin. HN 37,5, King Pyrrhus of Epirus owned a specimen whose naturally occurring streaks ( maculae) depicted Apollo and the nine Muses. According to Plin. HN 37,139-142, the achates and its many variants, whilst having decreased in value owing to ma…

Carmanor

(169 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Καρμάνωρ; Karmánōr). [German version] [1] Cretan seer A Cretan seer and priest of purification, as such closely connected with  Apollo, the god of ritual purification, and with Delphi, his centre of cult worship. He purifies Apollo and Artemis after the killing of the snake  Python (in Tarrha, Phaestus or Dion on Crete, Paus. 2,30,3; Euseb. Praep. evang. 5,31); in his house Apollo loves the nymph Acacallis who becomes mother of the founding heroes of the Cretan city Elyrus (on the myth of abandonment …

Aeantis

(190 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] [1] 9th of the 10 Attic phylae (Αἰαντίς; Aiantís). The 9th of the 10 Attic phylae, dating from the phyle reforms of  Cleisthenes (Hdt. 5,66). Named after the hero  Ajax [1], son of Telamon, king of  Salamis. In the 4th cent. BC it included four paralia demes as well as one   asty- and one mesogeia deme ( Phalerum and  Aphidna), which, on account of their size, each represented one trittýs. In 307/6 BC, the A. gave none of its demes to the new Macedonian phyles, but later gave one each to the  Ptolemais,  Attalis and  Hadrianis. In the case of the mesogeiatrittýs of A., there is e…

Katabasis

(1,402 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Brändle, Rudolf (Basle)
[German version] I. Greek-Roman antiquity Katabasis (κατάβασις/ katábasis, ‘descent’, more precisely εἰς ᾍδου κ., ‘descent into the Underworld’; pl. katabáseis; since Isoc. Or. 10,20, cf. Hdt. 2,122,1). Katabasis is, as a specific form of the voyage into the other world, the (mythological) narration or (ritual) staging of a voyage into the Underworld, with the purpose of either finding a particular inhabitant (a dead person, a deity, or a monster), or gaining knowledge of the future (guarded by the subterraneans)…

Athena

(3,382 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
(Ἀθήνη/Ἀθηνᾶ; Athḗnē/ Athēnâ). [German version] A. Etymology and Origin Central Greek polis deity, daughter of Zeus and Metis, born from her father's head, virginal patron of war, crafts and female work (Hom. Hymn. Ven. 7); her common epithet, Pallas, is understood to mean ‘girl’ (Chantraine s.v. παλλακή). The Romans identified her with  Minerva (Etruscan, Menrva), the Greeks with numerous Eastern deities, for instance the Lycian Maliya [1], the Egyptian  Saïs (Hdt. 2,28), the Ugarite  Anat or the Palmyrene Allat. Like many Eastern goddesses, she …

Aeolis

(298 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Name of a goddess associated with agrarian wealth in the imperial period Name of a goddess associated with agrarian wealth ( karpophóros) in the imperial inscriptions of Lesbos and Aegae; identified with Agrippina I and II (as Θεὰ Αἰολὶς Σεβαστή; Theà Aiolìs Sebastḗ, IG XII suppl. 134). She corresponds to the Αἰοληία θεά ( Aiolēía theá) mentioned in Alc. fr. 129 LP, who was worshipped together with Zeus and Dionysus Omestes in the main Lesbian sanctuary at Messa. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography L. Robert, Recherches épigraphiques V. (Inscriptions de L…

Arete

(203 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] Wife and sister of the Phaeacian king  Alcinous (Ἀρήτη; Arḗtē). Wife and sister of the Phaeacian king  Alcinous (Hes. fr. 222). Her benevolence helped both Odysseus (Hom. Od. 7) and Jason and Medea: she mediated between the Argonauts and the Colchians (Apoll. Rhod. 4,1068-1120), married Jason to Medea (Apollod. 1,138 f.), and presented the couple with 12 female servants who jokingly teased the heroes during the wedding celebrations; an aition in the cult of Apollo Aigletes [1]. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography U. Hölscher, Das Schweigen der Arete, in…

Myth

(5,440 words)

Author(s): Erdbeer, Robert Matthias | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
Erdbeer, Robert Matthias I. Concept (CT) A. Concept and Process (CT) [German version] 1. Myth and Mythology (CT) Different from ‘myth’, the term 'mythology' - an 'account' ( logos) of the deeds of gods and heroes - can either refer to the total store of traditional narratives ('myths') of an ethnic group; or, alternatively, it can refer to the 'reasoned knowledge' ( logos) of these mythical narratives and take the form of a scientific, critical examination and presentation, i.e. a 'theory of myth'. In reception history, however, the term 'mythos' (or 'myt…

Hydra

(450 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Water monster (Ὕδρα; Hýdra, ‘water snake’). A monster, born of the monsters  Typhon and  Echidna (‘snake’) and raised by  Hera out of anger at Zeus. It lives at the spring of  Amymone in the swamps of Lerna, stealing cattle and humans until it is finally killed by  Heracles (Hes. Theog. 313-318; Diod. Sic. 4,11,5f.; Apollod. 2,77-80; Hyg. Fab. 30) despite the help of a crab sent to its aid by Hera. This killing constitutes Heracles' second deed in the canonical sequence. His lion'…

Hippolytus

(1,509 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
(Ἱππόλυτος; Hippólytos). [German version] [1] Son of Theseus and an Amazon Son of  Theseus and an Amazon ( Antiope [2] or  Hippolyte). His mythical-literary image was shaped essentially through the H. dramas by Sophocles ( Phaedra, lost) and esp. by Euripides, the lost earlier H. Kalyptómenos (‘The Veiled H.’) and the extant H. Stephanēphóros (‘The Garlanded H.’). The point of departure for both authors is his stepmother  Phaedra's love for H., which he rejects, whereupon Phaedra accuses him of sexually pursuing her. The enraged Theseus curses H.…

Aphareus

(338 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἀφαρεύς; Aphareús). [German version] [1] Son of Perieres and Gorgophone Son of  Perieres and Gorgophone, daughter of Perseus. As king of the Messenians he founded Arene at Pylos, which he named after his wife, the daughter of Oebalus and his half-sister. He took in Neleus and gave him Pylos, and was initiated into the cult of the ‘Great Gods’ of Andania by Lycus, son of Pandium (Paus. 4,2,4-6); Athenian propaganda is reflected here. He also took in Tyndareos (Paus. 3,1,4). His sons Idas and Lynceus (Paus…

Althaea

(294 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
(Ἀλθαία; Althaía). [German version] [1] Mythical figure: daughter of Thestius Daughter of  Thestius and Eurythemis, wife of  Oeneus of Calydon; among her children are  Ancaeus,  Deianira and  Meleager, who was also regarded as a son of Ares (Hyg. Fab. 14,16; Apollod. 1,63). Shortly after his birth, an oracle told her that Meleager would live as long as the log burned in the oven; she took it out and kept it for safe keeping, but burned it when Meleager killed her brothers in the dispute about the Calydoni…

Automedon

(202 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Αὐτομέδων; Automédōn). [German version] [1] Charioteer to Achilles and Patroclus Son of Diores of Scyrus (Hyg. Fab. 97). Charioteer to Achilles and Patroclus (Hom. Il. 9,209; frequent references in books 16 and 17 of the Il.). He is often depicted in this role in vase paintings. In Virgil (Aen. 2,476f.) he is Neoptolemus' charioteer. From the time of Varro (Men. 257), in Rome automedo is used to denote the reliable personal charioteer (e.g. Cic. Rosc. Am. 98; Juv. 1,61). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography A. Kossatz-Deissmann, s.v. A., LIMC 3.1, 56-63. [German version] [2] Greek …

Aeacides

(161 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Αἰακίδης; Aiakídēs). [German version] [1] Patronym for mythical descendents of Aeacus, the Molossian king Patronym for mythical and historical figures, who traced their lineage back to Aeacus: Peleus, Achilles, Neoptolemus, the Molossian kings [1]. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography 1 P. R. Franke, Die ant. Mz. von Epirus, 1961, 270.42 (literature). [German version] [2] Molossian king Son of the Molossian king  Arybbas and father of   Pyrrhus (Plut. Pyrrhus 1,5 ff.; Paus. 1,11,1; Diod. Sic. 16,72,1); after the death of Alexander [6] he succ…

Alcon

(290 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἄλκων; Álkōn). [German version] [1] Figure of Greek myth: son of Erechtheus Son of Erechtheus, who fled to Chalcis. Father of Chalciope (Proxenus FGrH 425 F 2), or son of the Euboean hero Abas (Ephorus F 33). He sends his son Phalerus, who in Phalerum is venerated as a hero, along on an Argonaut journey (Apoll. Rhod. 1,95; Hyg. Fab. 14); according to Orph. Arg. 144 Phaleros comes instead from Mysia and founds the Thessalian city of Gyrton. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Figure of Greek myth: son of Hippocoon of Amyklai Son of Hippocoon of Amyclae (Apollod. 3,124), kille…

Icarus

(654 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
(Ἴκαρος; Íkaros). [German version] [1] Son of Daedalus Son of  Daedalus [1]. Held captive on Crete by  Minos, Daedalus builds a pair of wings each for himself and I., which they use to escape Minos. However, I., despite the warnings of his father, comes too close to the sun; this melts the wax in his wings, he crashes near the island of  Icarus [2]/Icaria and drowns. Daedalus (or Hercules, Apollod. 2,132) buries him; the island and the sea around it are named after I. The well-known version of the story is formulated in Ov. Met. 8,183-235 (cf. Apollod. Epitome 1,12f.); a Pompei…

Hera

(2,062 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
(Ἥρα/ Hḗra, Ἥρη/ Hḗrē, Mycenaean e-ra). [German version] I. Cult and Myth H. is the daughter of  Kronos and  Rhea and wife of  Zeus. On the one hand, she is associated with the world of the early polis (esp. with young warlike men), on the other and primarily, she is the tutelary goddess of marriage, her marriage to Zeus representing the prototype. Her cultic (and probably also mythic) association with Zeus can already be seen in Linear B documents, where she is attested in Pylos (PY Tn 316, with Zeus and dirimijo = Drimios, son of Zeus [1. 94-96]) and Thebes (TH Of 28). In Homer and …

Amphinomus

(227 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Antoni, Silke (Kiel)
[German version] [1] Amphinomus and Anapias Pious pair of brothers from Catana (Ἀμφίνομος and Ἀναπίας, Ἄναπις; Amphínomos and Anapías/ Ánapis). Pious pair of brothers from Catana, who during a volcanic eruption of Etna carried their parents from the flames; the lava stream divided in a miraculous manner before them. They were still cultically venerated in the imperial period (Paus. 10,28,4); their statutes stood at the place of this rescue, the ‘Place of the Pious’, eusebōn chṓros. The event is first mentioned by Lycurg. Or. in Leocratem 95, which only mentions a youth…
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