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Iuppiter

(3,022 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
[German version] I. Cult and myth J. (rarely Iupiter, archaic Diovis, Umbrian Iupater) is the supreme god of the Roman and Latin pantheon; while in iconography and myth he is identified completely with the Greek  Zeus, he exists in his own right in the cult. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] A. Etymology and origin The derivation from * Dieu-pater, i.e. Indo-European * dieu-/ diu- and the invoking pater, is undisputed; it connects him with Greek Zeus (* dieus, vocative Ζεῦ πάτερ) and Old Indo-Aryan Dyaus, and actually denotes the deity of the bright day sky (cf. Latin dies), indica…

Atys

(152 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Ἄτυς; Átys). [German version] [1] Lydian proto-king Lydian proto-king, son of Manes and brother of Cotys. His sons are Lydus and Tyrsenus, the eponyms of the Lydians and Etruscans (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,27, cf. Hdt. 1,7; 94). A. is related to the god  Attis of Asia Minor, just as Cotys is with the Thracian goddess Cotys (Kotytto). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Son of the Lydian king Croesus Son of the Lydian king  Croesus. His violent death in the boar hunt on Mysian Olympus is stylized according to the manner of the Attis myth. Hdt. 1,34-45, ho…

Apollo

(3,447 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
(Ἀπόλλων [ Apóllōn]; Latin: Apollo). A., the eternally youthful Greek god of healing, divination, music and ephebes, worshipped as A. in Rome since the early 5th cent. BC and referred to as Aplu in Etruscan written records. From the earliest literary sources, he was always referred to as the son of Zeus and Leto, the younger twin brother of Artemis. The very widespread use of theophoric proper names in every era demonstrates his great popularity and the extent to which he was known. [1]. [German version] A. Etymology The etymology of the name -- the search for the origins and prima…

Gi­ants

(1,148 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
(Γίγαντες; Gígantes). [German version] I. Mythology Giants are usually huge, clumsy beings from primeval times; according to the commonest myth, the  Gigantomachy, they attempted unsuccessfully to deprive Zeus and the Olympians of power. In Homer the Giants are a lawless and arrogant marginal people destroyed because of their king  Eurymedon (Hom. Od. 7,59-61); they settled close to the  Cyclopes and  Phaeaces (Hom. Od. 7,205f.). According to Hesiod, during the castration of  Uranus, drops of blood fa…

Gordius

(439 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Γόρδιος; Górdios). [German version] [1] Mythical founder of the Phrygian state Mythical founder of the Phrygian state and eponymous hero of its capital  Gordium. When birds flew around him as he was ploughing, he wanted to find out the significance of the sign from the seers in the city. A beautiful girl from a family of seers whom he asked for information at the city gate interpreted the sign as a promise of royal honour and offered to marry him. In order to end a civil war, the  Phrygians followed Zeus'…

Alcyonides

(282 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] [1] Kingfisher (Ἀλκυονίδες [ Alkyonídes] = ἀλκυόνες [ alkyónes], also ἁλκ-, therefore ‘halcyon days’), kingfisher, alcedines, colourful fish-eating coraciiformes (cf. Aristot. Hist. an. 8(9),14,616 a 14-18; Plin. HN 10,89). In Greece they were only winter guests and their brooding (at that time actually unknown) was said to take place during the calm of 14 days (ἀλκυονί(τι)δες, ἀλκυόνειοι ἡμέραι [ alkyoní(ti)des, alkyóneioi hēmérai], alcyonii dies, Alcedonia, Plur.) [1; 2] that can occur on many seas during winter solstice (as an exception! cf…

Hieros Gamos

(862 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin)
(ἱερὸς γάμος; hieròs gámos: sacred marriage). [German version] I. Term A term which has attained great significance in modern research as the name for a ritual sexual union, since the emergence of the fertility paradigm in the 19th cent. (Mannhardt, Frazer). Based on the sexual intercourse between  Demeter and her mortal lover  Iasion ‘in a thrice-ploughed field’ recounted in the Homeric epic (Hom. Od. 5, 125-128; Hes. Theog. 969-971), which has been understood by analogy with north-European customs as th…

Demeter

(3,322 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
(Ionian-Attic Δημήτηρ; Dēmḗtēr, Doric-Boeotian Δαμάτηρ; Damátēr, Aeolian Δωμάτηρ; Dōmátēr, Attic short form Δηώ; Dēṓ). Goddess of agriculture, especially grain cultivation, womanhood and the Mysteries. [German version] A. Name The name is only partly comprehensible. In the second part of the word ‘mother’ is recognizable, for the first part ancient writers offer two interpretations, a connection with ‘earth’ ( / ) or a word for grain (Cretan dēaí, ‘barley’). The first has been in currency since the classical period (Derveni Papyrus, col. 18), the second is…

Artemis

(3,216 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
(Ἄρτεμις; Ártemis) I. Religion [German version] A. Etymology and Early History Greek goddess; daughter of Zeus and Leto, twin sister of Apollo. Goddess of transitions -- birth and coming-of-age in both sexes -- of female death, hunting and game, as well as, in the Greek East, city goddess. Identified especially with Cybele and Anahita in Asia Minor and the Near East, and with Diana in Rome. Etruscan representations, where she is called artume(s), preserve her character as a figure borrowed from the Greeks. It is a matter of dispute, whether her name, which defies all etymology…

Asclepius

(2,733 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
(Άσκλήπιος; Asklépios) I. Religion [German version] A. Mythology The most important Greek healing hero, son of Apollo and of a mortal woman, in cultic reality he soon became a god, in Rome venerated as Aesculapius. It is hard to interpret the Greek name from an etymological perspective. The usual form of the myth -- and it is not certain that it derives from the Hesiodic ‘Catalogues’ [1; 2] -- makes A. the son of Apollo and of Coronis, the daughter of the Thessalian Phlegyas; in contrast to this, Hesiod calls his mother  Arsinoe, daughter of…

Antinous

(326 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(Ἀντίνοος; Antínoos). [German version] [1] Most unrestrained of the suitor From Ithaca, son of Eupeithes, the most unrestrained of the suitors. He perpetrated numerous futile attacks on Telemachus (Hom. Od. 4,660-73; 16,364-92), threw the stool at Odysseus transformed into a beggar (17,462-5) and brought about the competition with Irus (18,434-39). Odysseus' first arrow hit him (22,8) [1]. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography 1 O. Touchefeu-Meynier, LIMC 6.1, 632, no. 3. [German version] [2] Favourite of Hadrian Born in Bithynion-Claudioupolis in the province of Bi…

Iuno

(2,357 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
(Etruscan  Uni). [German version] I. Cult and Myth J. is an important Latin goddess and besides  Minerva the most significant goddess of the Roman pantheon; while myth makes her the wife of  Jupiter, according to the Greek model, in the cult - in spite of her association with Jupiter (and Minerva) in the Capitoline triad - she is a significant figure in her own right, embodying the same tensions as with  Hera. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] A. Name The name of J. is not related to that of Jupiter: the initial sound is always / i-/, never / di-/, and the / ū/ is monophthongal ( Iunone Louc…

Alea

(231 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] [1] see Dice (game) see  Dice (game) Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Epiclesis of Athena in Arcadia (Ἀλέα; Aléa). Epiclesis of Athena in Arcadia, where Pausanias gives evidence of it for Alea (8,23,1), Mantinea (8,9,6), and above all Tegea (8,45,4-47,3), also a xóanon in Amyclae (3,19,7). The Tegeate sanctuary enjoyed the highest respect and held the right to grant asylum (Paus. 3,5,6); a boy administered the service. Scopas constructed the classical temple, which was the largest and most beautiful one on th…

Interpretatio

(2,474 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
I. Law [German version] A. Concept Interpretatio is interpretation, not only of texts but also of oral declarations and other matters of legal import. The topos of simple truth requiring no mediator (Petron. Sat. 107,15) does not apply to the specialist knowledge of astrologers (cf.  Divination), philologists (on both: Cic. Div. 1,34; 2,92) and jurists (Cic. Leg. 2,59). At the end of the Republic, the words interpres (‘interpreter’) and interpretari (‘to interpret’) become conflated into the abstract interpretatio [3. 80ff., 91ff.]; this is already true of legal interpre…

Agron

(193 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἄγρων; Ágrōn). [German version] [1] Mythical figure: inhabitant of Cos Lived with his father Eumelus and his two sisters Meropis and Byssa on the island of Cos. They worshipped only Gaia, rejected the cult of the other gods and scorned Hermes as a thief, Athena as owl-eyed and Artemis as a moth, even when the deities appeared to them in human form. As punishment, they were transformed into birds, A. into a plover (Ant. Lib. 15 according to Boeus, ‘Ornithogony’). Hyginus (Astron. 2,16) adds the mother Echedemeia. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Legendary Lydian king Legendar…

Kyrios

(1,013 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Theobald, Michael (Tübingen) | Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
(Κύριος; Kýrios, ‘lord’). I. Religion [German version] A. Pagan Addressing a deity felt to be powerful with ‘lord’ is widespread in Greek religious language. Since Homer, gods (especially Apollo and Zeus) can be addressed by the Mycenaean royal title anax (Ἄναξ), ‘king, lord’ [1]. A number of powerful goddesses (Cybele, Aphrodite, Artemis, Demeter and Persephone, Hecate, Isis) are since archaic times invoked as déspoina (Δέσποινα), ‘mistress’, and, somewhat more rarely, male gods as despótes (Δεσπότης) [2; 3]. Even though the archaic word anax is used only in epic and prayer …

Allegorism

(4,035 words)

Author(s): Suntrup, Rudolf (Münster RWG) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
Suntrup, Rudolf (Münster RWG) I. Linguistics and Literary Studies (CT) [German version] A. Introduction : The Concept (CT) In recent linguistic and literary-historical studies, as in theology, allegorism designates the methodically reflective development of a multiple meaning that goes beyond the literal meaning of religious, poetical, and other normative texts. As a hermeneutic-interpretative procedure, allegorism is to be distinguished from the grammatical, rhetorical, and productive-poetic forms (cf. below, ad finem) of allegory. Like the latter, it proceeds a…

Amphidamas

(250 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
(Ἀμφιδάμας; Amphidámas). [German version] [1] Hero from Tegea in Arcadia Hero from Tegea in Arcadia, son of Aleus, brother of Lycurgus son of Cepheus and Auge (Paus. 8,4,8), one of the Argonauts (Apoll. Rhod. 1,161; 2,1046). In Apollod. 3,105 he is not the brother, but the son of Lycurgus, and his children are Melanion ( Atalante) and Antimache, wife of Eurystheus. Deviating genealogies in the Homeric scholia  Aphidas. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Opuntic Locrian Opuntic Locrian. Patroclus killed his son during an astragalos game and sought protection from Pe…

Argos

(1,811 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Doric Migration | Dark Ages | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Achaeans, Achaea | Apollo | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Oracles | Peloponnesian War | Athletes | Delian League | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Ἄργος; Árgos). I. Mythical characters [German version] [I 1] Son of Zeus and Niobe The son of Zeus and Niobe, brother of Pelasgus (Acusilaus FGrH 2 F 25), husband of Evadne, father of Epidaurus i.a. (Hes. fr. 247), or Pei…

Ichthys

(568 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] [1] Fish Fish (Greek ἰχθῦς/ ichthŷs; Latin piscis) was a common food in Greece and Rome, certain fishes in Rome were even considered a luxury food. This explains the Greek curiosity about neighbouring cultures such as Egypt or Syria, where conspicuous food prohibitions were observed and generalized (priests in Egypt: Hdt. 2,37; Plut. De Is. et Os. 7, 353b; Plut. Symp. 8,8,2; Syria: Ov. Fast. 2,473f.; Porph. De abstinentia 2,61 etc.) that probably relate to the worship of fish in these cu…
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