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(356 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E.
, modern Turkish term for “police-station”, “[military] patrol”, a popular etymology (“black [i.e., ominous] arm [of the authorities]” or “patrol”); for Ottoman ḳarāg̲h̲ul , ḳarāvul , a loanword from Mongol (attested from the 8th/14th century), see Tarama sözlüğü , Ankara 1969, iv, 2283 ff. The Mongol word also passed into Persian as ḳarāvul/ ḳarāʾul . For full references and details of the diffusion of the word (as far as Swahili), see Doerfer, i, no. 276. In the Ottoman Empire the maintenance of security and order in different quarters of Istanbul was entrusted mainl…

Ibrāhīm Edhem Pas̲h̲a

(728 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E.
, Ottoman Grand Vizier under the sultan ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II; born probably in Chios in 1818 (?) of Greek parents, he was bought as a slave by K̲h̲usrev Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] and sent to France in 1827 to receive technical training. After graduating in Paris as a mining engineer in 1839, he returned to Istanbul and was nominated to the S̲h̲ūrā-yi ʿAskerī (High Military Council) with the rank of Colonel. After serving a few years in Anatolia as chief engineer of mines, he was called to Istanbul in 1263/1847 to be appointed to the Palace army staff. Promoted Mīrliwā (Brigadier-general) in 1264/1848 and Ferīḳ…

Karakol Ḏj̲emʿīyyetī

(265 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E.
, a secret society founded in Istanbul towards the end of 1918 by a group of former members of the Union and Progress Committee [see ittiḥād we teraḳḳī d̲j̲emʿiyyeti ]. Its aim was to organize guerilla resistance bands against the Allied forces which had occupied strategic points in Turkey following the armistice of Mudros on 30 October 1918. After the organization of the Nationalist Movement in Anatolia under the leadership of Muṣṭafā Kemāl Pas̲h̲a, the Karakol society supplied the movement with intel…

Siliḥdār Ḥamza Pas̲h̲a

(440 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H. | Kuran, E.
, Ottoman Grand Vizier, was born at Develi Ḳara Ḥisār ca 1140/1728-9, the son of a landed ag̲h̲a named Meḥmed; he began his career in 1156/1743-4 in the ḥalwa-k̲h̲āne (honey-bakery) of the Kilār-i humāyūn (Imperial Privy Commissariat), but his gifts soon won him a position among the pages of the Enderūn [ q.v.], ¶ where he won the favour of Muṣṭafa III. When the latter came to the throne on 16 Ṣafar 1171/30 October 1757, he at once appointed Ḥamza his siliḥdār [ q.v.], afterwards granted him the rank of vizier (S̲h̲awwāl 1171/June 1758) and betrothed him to the infant princess…

Ḥusayn ʿAwnī Pas̲h̲a

(857 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E.
, Ottoman general and Grand Vizier under Sultan ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, was born at Gelendost, a village of the sand̲j̲aḳ of Isparta ( wilāyet of Konya) in 1236/1820-1; his father was a poor peasant named Aḥmed Ag̲h̲a. He came to Istanbul at the age of sixteen and entered the Mekteb-i Ḥarbiye (Military Academy), from where he was promoted to staff captain in 1264/1848. After a few years of teaching at the same institution, on the outbreak of the Crimean War (1853) he joined the army with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. He distingu…


(777 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E.
, Palace School and later modern lycée at Pera (Beyoğlu) across the Golden Horn from Istanbul. It was founded during the first years of the Ottoman Sultan Bāyezīd II (886-918/1481-1512), as one of the palace schools in Istanbul and Edirne for the education of the ʿad̲j̲amī og̲h̲lāns [ q.v.]. It covered a large area on which numerous buildings, dormitories, a hospital, a kitchen, baths, mosques and a ḳaṣr (small palace) for the sultan, were built. The administration of the school was entrusted to an ag̲h̲a (or bas̲h̲ag̲h̲a ) who had under him the teaching staf…

ḳh̲od̲j̲a Isḥāḳ Efendi

(490 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E.
, Ottoman mathematician and engineer in Maḥmūd II’s reign. He was born at Arta in the province of Janina (Yanya) in 1774 (?), the son of a Jew converted to Islam (Faik Resit Unat’s thesis in Başhoca Isḥāk Efendi ( Bell , xxviii (1964), 89-115) that Ḵh̲od̲j̲a Isḥāḳ Efendi and Sulṭān-zāde Isḥāḳ Bey, the favourite of Selīm III, were the same person is far from convincing). After the death of his father he came to Istanbul, where he studied mathematics privately and learned various Oriental and Western languages. Appointed instructor ( Ḵh̲od̲j̲a ) of mathematics at th…

Ḥamza Ḥāmid Pas̲h̲a

(365 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H. | Kuran, E.
, Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Muṣṭafā III, was the son of a merchant of Develi Ḳara Ḥiṣār, named Aḥmed Ag̲h̲a; born in Istanbul ca. 1110/1698-9 he entered upon his official career in the offices of the Sublime Porte. Owing to the protection of the celebrated Rāg̲h̲ib Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], whose pupil he was in the elaborate prose of the official style, he was nominated mektūbd̲j̲u (Secretary to the Grand Vizier) on 19 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 1153/5 February 1741, a position he held for many years. On 19 Muḥarram 1169/25 October 1755 he was appointed reʾīs al-kuttāb (Minister…

D̲j̲ezāʾirli G̲h̲āzī Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a

(1,081 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H. | Kuran, E.
, one of the most famous ḳapudan pas̲h̲as (Grand Admirals) of the Turkish navy. He was born in Tekfurdag̲h̲i̊ (Rodosto) on the Sea of Marmora, where he is said to have been a slave in the service of a Muslim merchant; on being set free, he took part as a janissary in the campaign against Austria in 1737-39. At the end of the war he went to Algiers where he was received by the Deys and in the end was appointed beg of Tlemcen. Some time afterwards, to escape from the persecution of …

K̲h̲ayr Allāh Efendi

(626 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E.
, Ottoman physician, historian and administrator; born in Istanbul ca. 1235/1819-1820 of a family which had provided chief physicians for the Empire. He followed in the profession of his father ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ Mollā (d. 1270/1853-1854) and after completing the medrese education he became the mollā of Izmir in 1256/1840-1841, to be promoted in the following year to the rank of ḳāḍī of Mecca. Meanwhile, he studied medicine at the Mekteb-i Ṭibbiyye and graduated in 1260/1844. Appointed ders nāẓi̊ri̊ (director of studies) at the Ṭibbiyye School, he transferred from the ʿilmiyye


(223 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E.
(Bābā-yi ʿatīḳ) or Babaeskisi, a small town in eastern Thrace, situated 50 km. S.E. of Edirne, on the railway Une which links Ki̊rklareli to the Edirne, Istanbul main line. At the time of the Byzantine empire it was called Bulgarophygon; its present name is derived from the Turkish dervishes ( baba ) who settled there, as at other places, during the Ottoman expansion in the Balkans. Babaeski was a ḳaḍaʾ of the sand̲j̲aḳ of Viza in the 17th century, and was later attached to the sand̲j̲aḳ of Ki̊rkkilise (Ki̊rklareli). Taday it is one of the ḳaḍās of the wilāyet of Ki̊rklareli; its population …

Ḥālet Efendi

(819 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E.
, Meḥmed Saʿīd, Ottoman statesman, was born in Istanbul ca. 1175/1761, the son of a ḳāḍī , Ḥüseyn Efendi, from the Crimea. He was educated in the house of the S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām S̲h̲erīf Efendi. He served under various provincial governors in Rumeli and as Ketk̲h̲udā [ q.v.] of the nāʾib of Yeñis̲h̲ehir Fener (Larissa). On returning to Istanbul, he became closely attached to G̲h̲ālib Dede [ q.v.], the s̲h̲eyk̲h̲ of the Mewlewī convent at G̲h̲alaṭa, a connexion which enabled him to complete his literary education. He was at this time servin…

Kaḥyā (Ketk̲h̲udā)or Ḏj̲enāze Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a

(471 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E.
, Ottoman grand vizier under Sultan Selīm III. A slave of Circassian origin, he served different Ottoman dignitaries until he became kaḥyā ( ketk̲h̲udā [ q.v.]) of Melek Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], thus being known later as Ketk̲h̲udā Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a. His military skill first became evident during the Greek rebellion in Morea, when as mütesellim of Tripolitza he defeated the rebels besieging the town on 23 D̲h̲u’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1183/19 April 1770. He was appointed commander of the fortress Vidīn with the title of vizier in Muḥarram 1202/November 1787 while Melek Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a became serʿasker…

Meḥmed Saʿīd G̲h̲ālib Pas̲h̲a

(713 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E.
, Ottoman statesman. Born in Istanbul in 1177/1763-4, he was the son of Seyyid Aḥmed Efendi, bas̲h̲-khalīfe in the mektūbī office of the Grand Vizier. After the death of his father (1188/1774-5), he entered the same office where he became bas̲h̲-k̲h̲alīfe in 1210/1795. He was appointed āmed̲j̲i [ q.v.] on 15 Ramaḍān 1213/3 February 1798 and was sent to France (April 1802) to negotiate peace, which had been broken by the French expedition to Egypt (July 1798). He succeeded in signing the Treaty of Paris on 25 June 1802 (for the text of this treaty, see G. Noradounghian, Recueil d’actes intern…

S̲h̲erīf Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a

(400 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H. | Kuran, E.
, Ottoman Grand Vizier in the reign of Selīm III, was the son of Čelebi Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Süleymān Ag̲h̲a, one of the aʿyān [ q.v.] of Rusčuḳ, who is mentioned in the year 1183/1770 as leader of the troops of Rusčuḳ, Silistre and Yergögü (Giurgewo) in the war against Russia (1769-1774). He himself took part with distinction in the raid led by the Crimean K̲h̲ān into the Ukraine in the winter of 1769, a campaign celebrated through Baron de Tott’s description ( Mémoires , ii, 202-67), as serdengečdi ag̲h̲asi̊ (chief of the volunteers). In the course of the campaign h…

Fehīm Pas̲h̲a

(230 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E.
, chief of the secret police under the Ottoman sultan ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II. He was born in Istanbul in 1873 (?). Being the eldest son of the et̲h̲wābd̲j̲i̊bas̲h̲i̊ ʿIṣmet Bey, foster-brother of the sultan, he was educated in the special class of the Mekteb-i Ḥarbiyye from where he was gazetted captain in 1894. Two years later he became yāver-i s̲h̲ehriyārī and received the title of pas̲h̲a in 1898. Fehīm Pas̲h̲a was appointed director of the secret police of the sultan, a post he held for many years. ¶ He maintained the trust of ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II by enlarging the network of k̲h̲afiye

Muṣṭafā Fāḍil Pas̲h̲a

(530 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E.
, Miṣirli , Ottoman statesman, was born 2 February 1830 in Cairo, the youngest son of Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a and grandson of Muḥammad ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a, wālī of Egypt. After his education in Cairo, he went in 1262/1846 to Istanbul, where he was attached to the office of the Grand Vizier. He advanced in government service and was nominated vizier in S̲h̲aʿbān 1274/March-April 1858. On 19 November 1862 he became Minister of Education and was transferred on 12 January 1863 to the ministry of Finance, a post he held until March 1864, when he resigned. On 5 November 1865 he was appointed president of the Med̲j̲lī…


(714 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E. | P. M. Holt
In the Ottoman Empire the title of Ḳāʾim-maḳām was borne by a number of different officials, the most important of whom was the ṣadāret ḳāʾim-maḳāmi̊ or ḳāʾim-maḳām pas̲h̲a who stayed in the capital as deputy when the grand vizier had to leave for a military campaign. The appointment of a ḳāʾim-maḳām seems to have begun in the 10th/16th or even in the 9th/15th century and it lasted until the end of the Empire. The ḳāʾim-maḳām enjoyed almost all the authority of the grand vizier, issuing firmans and nominating functionaries, but he was not allowed to intervene in the a…

Eldem, K̲h̲alīl Edhem

(384 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E.
, Turkish archeologist and historian, was born on 24 (?) June 1861 in Istanbul. He was the youngest son of the grand vizier Ibrāhīm Edhem Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. After completing his primary school course in Istanbul, he continued, from 1876, his secondary education in Berlin, and later studied chemistry and natural sciences in the University of Zurich and at the Polytechnic School of Vienna. In 1885 he received the Ph. D. degree from the University of Berne. Back in Istanbul he was appointed to an office in the Ministry of War …

Kabakči̊-Og̲h̲lu Muṣṭafā

(400 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E.
, chief of the rebellion which overthrew the Ottoman sultan Selīm III. Originally from Kastamuni, a town in north western Anatolia, he was chosen as their leader by the yamaks (supernumerary janissaries) of the Rumelikavak fortresses on the Bosphorus, who rioted on 17 Rabīʿ I 1222/25 May 1807 upon the instigation of the ḳāʾim-maḳam of the grand vizier, Köse Mūsā Pas̲h̲a, and the S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām ʿAṭāʾ Allāh Efendi. He conducted the rebellion in an orderly manner, put to death the principal organizers of the Niẓām-i d̲j̲edīd [ q.v.] and served the aims of the instigators of the …
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