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(217 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B.
(a.), plur. fuḳahāʾ , in its non-technical meaning [denotes anyone possessing knowledge ( fiḳh ) of a thing (syn. ʿālim , plur. ʿulamāʾ [ q.v.]). Then, as fiḳh passed from denoting any branch of knowledge and became a technical term for the science of religious law ( sharīʿa [ q.v.]) and in particular for the science of its derivative details ( furūʿ ), faḳīh became the technical term for a specialist in religious law and in particular its furūʿ. This development is parallel to that of the term ( iuris ) prudens in Roman law. In older terminology, however, faḳīh as opposed to ʿālim denotes the sp…


(623 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B.
(a.) means literally “to cause to swallow or gulp down” ( Lisān , xvi, 29, especially last two lines). In the Ḳurʾān it appears only in XCI, 8—a celebrated but difficult passage— fa-alhamahā fud̲j̲ūrahā wa-taḳwāhā , “then He (Allāh) made her (a nafs ) swallow down her sins and her godly fear” (Arberry: “and inspired it to lewdness and god-fearing”; Blachère: “et lui a inspiré son libertinage et sa piété”; Paret: “und ihm (je nachdem) die ihm eigene Sündhaftigkeit oder Gottesfurcht eingegeben hat”). The oldest exegetical tradition (Ṭabarī, Tafsīr , xxx, 115 f.) …


(581 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B.
( Dōsa ), literally “trampling”, a ceremony formerly performed in Cairo by the S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of the Saʿdī ṭarīḳa on the mawlid s [ q.v.] of the Prophet, of al-S̲h̲āfiʿī of Sulṭān Ḥanafī (a celebrated Saint of Cairo who died in 847/1443; K̲h̲iṭaṭ d̲j̲adīda , iii, 93, iv, 100), of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Das̲h̲ṭūṭī (or Ṭas̲h̲ṭūs̲h̲ī), another saint; Lane, Modern Egyptians , chap, xxiv; K̲h̲iṭaṭ d̲j̲adīda, iii, 72, 133, iv, 111), and of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Yūnus (see below). These took place by day; a similar ceremony was performed by the S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Bakrī, the head of the ṭarīḳas in Egypt, on the mawlid of Das̲h̲ṭū…

ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ Kamāl al-Dīn b. Abu ’l-G̲h̲anāʾim al-Ḳās̲h̲ānī

(2,578 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B.
(or Kās̲h̲ānī or Ḳās̲h̲ī or Kāsānī ), celebrated Ṣūfī author, died according to Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa (ed. Flügel, iv, 427), in 730/1329. Hād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, however, confusing him with the historian of the same name, the author of the Maṭlaʿal-Saʿdain , says in another place (ii, 175) that he died in 887/1482 and, besides, gives his name as Kamāl al-Dīn Abu ’l-G̲h̲anāʾim ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ b. Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn al-Kās̲h̲ī al-Samarḳanḍī. Little is known of ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ’s life; according to Ḏj̲āmī ( Nafaḥāt al-Uns , quoted by St. Guyard), he was a pupil of N…


(689 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B.
, the Biblical Korah (Num. XVI), is mentioned three times in the Ḳurʾān (XXVIII, 76-82, XXIX, 39/38, and XL, 25/24). In the latter two verses, he appears with Hāmān as a minister of Firʿawn, and all three of them behave proudly towards Moses, stigmatising him as a magician and impostor. In the first passage (XXVIII, 76-82), Ḳārūn is one of Moses’ people, but treats them in an insolent fashion because of the immense riches which have been given to him, as he believes, because of the knowledge which is in him ( ʿalā ʿilmin ʿindī ). He makes a great public display of hi…


(616 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B.
(a.), pl. āliha , “deity”, appears in pre-Islamic poetry (see, e.g., F. Bustānī, al-Mad̲j̲ānī al-ḥadīt̲h̲a , i, index) as an impersonal divine name, although preceded by the article; for the Christians and (so far as the poetry ascribed to them is authentic) the monotheists, al-ilāh evidently means God; for the other poets it means merely “the one who is worshipped”, so that al-ilāh indicates: “the god already mentioned” (the article being used li ’l-ʿahd ) or “the god of whom the poet is thinking”, and This use has survived to the present day (ʿAbd al-Ilāh); but ilāh


(785 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B.
means the saying of the formula al-ḥamdu li’llāh (for the different vocalizations— du, di, da—see LA, iv, 133, 7 ff.) “Praise belongs to Allāh”; for from Him all praise-worthiness proceeds and to Him it returns. Ḥamd is the opposite of d̲h̲amm , being praise for something dependent on the will of him who is praised and it differs in this from madḥ , which is not so limited; it is thus different from, although it may be an expression of s̲h̲ukr , “gratitude”, the opposite of which is kufrān ; t̲h̲anāʾ , often rendered “praise”, more exactly “taking account of”, is…


(1,653 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B.
( Darwēs̲h̲ ) is commonly explained as derived from Persian and meaning “seeking doors”, i.e., a mendicant (Vullers, Lexicon , i, 839a, 845b; Gr. I. Ph., i/1, 260; ii, 43, 45); but the variant form daryōs̲h̲ is against this, and the real etymology appears to be unknown. Broadly through Islam it is used in the sense of a member of a religious fraternity, but in Persian and Turkish more narrowly for a mendicant religious called in Arabic a faḳīr . In Morocco and Algeria for dervishes, in the broadest sense, the word most used is Ik̲h̲wān , “brethren”, pronounced k̲h̲uān . These fraternities ( ṭuruḳ


(981 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B.
(a., pl. aḥzāb ) means primarily “a group, faction, a group of supporters of a man who share his ideas and are ready to defend him”, and this is why the term has been adopted in modern Arabic to mean a political party (see below); it means also “part, portion” and it is from this meaning that it has come to indicate a portion of the Ḳurʾān as well as a group of liturgical formulae. In this meaning the term is probably a borrowing from Ethiopie (see Th. Nöldeke, Neue Beiträge zur sem. Sprachw. , 59, n. 8) for, in Arabic, the verb ḥazaba means “to happen (speaking of a misfort…


(459 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B.
(a.) means “companion” in the largest sense (synonym of muṣāḥib in LA and the Ṣaḥāḥ , and of k̲h̲idn in al-Bayḍāwī on Ḳurʾān, XLI, 24/25). However, for people in pre-Islamic Arabia and for Muḥammad, the word also suggested a man’s spirit-companion or familiar, and this is the commonest usage in the Ḳurʾān, where ḳarīn is used eight times. If a human companion is meant in XXXVII, 49/51, S̲h̲ayṭān is a ḳarīn in IV, 42/38, and the use of the plural ḳuranāʾ in XLI, 24/25, together with the context, shows that tempting spirits are meant here. In this verse and in XLIII, 35/36, 37/38, a s̲h̲ayṭān


(3,954 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B. | Madelung, W.
(a.) angels (Persian “angel” = firis̲h̲ta ). 1. In the Ḳurʾān and in Sunnī Islam. The form malāʾika is the broken plural in Arabic of a word going back to early North-West Semitic (there is no cognate in Akkadian), Ugar. mlʾk “messenger”, Aram. malʾak and O.T. Hebr. malʾāk̲ “messenger, angel”, the root in Arabic being referred by the lexicographers and commentators to a root m-l-k, ʾ- l-k or even l-ʾ- k (see LA, xii, 272-4, 370-1; al-Ṭabarī, Tafsīr , i, 150; Lane, Lexicon , i, 81c), which they consider original to Arabic. A. Jeffery, The foreign vocabulary of the Qurʾān ,…


(1,144 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B. | Gardet, L.
(a.), the spoken word, utterance; can be extended to mean “discourse” and “poem”. The falāsifa prefer to limit their discussion to the problems of grammar and logic: thus in the preamble to the Nad̲j̲āt (Cairo 2.1357/1938, 11) Ibn Sīnā defines kalima as “a single word ( lafẓa ) which refers to an idea and the length of time that this idea is applied to any indeterminate subject whatsoever; for example, when we say ‘he walked’.” Cf. also Manṭiḳ al-mas̲h̲riḳiyyīn , Cairo 1328/1910, 57-8, and p. 66 where kalima is given as a synonym for “that which grammarians call fiʿl ”. But according to the Is̲h̲ā…


(877 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E. | MacDonald, D.B. | Plessner, M.
pl. d̲j̲adāwil , primarily “brook, watercourse”, means further “Ṭable, plan”. Graefe suggested that in this meaning it might derive from schedula ; but perhaps one should rather think of d̲j̲-d-l “to twist”, cf. S. Fraenkel, Die aramäischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen , 224, and the similar development of the meaning of zīd̲j̲ , as stated by E. Honigmann, Die sieben Klimata , 1929, 117 ff. In this second sense the word becomes a special term in sorcery, synonymous with k̲h̲ātim here it means quadrangular or other geometrical figures, into which names a…


(1,421 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B. | Fahd, T.
, in form like kibriyāʾ , belongs to old Arabic ¶ beside sīmā , sīmāʾ (Ḳurʾān, XLVIII, 29 etc.; al-Bayḍāwī, ed. Fleischer, i, 326, 14, 15), in the sense “mark, sign, badge” (Lane 1476a; Ṣaḥāḥ , s.v., ed. Būlāḳ, 1282, ii, 200; Ḥamāsa , ed. Freytag, 696; LʿA , xv, 205). But the word, as a name for certain genres of magic, had a quite different derivation; in that sense it is from σημει̂α, through the Syriac sīmya (pl), and means “signs, letters of the alphabet” (Dozy, Suppl., i, 708b, and references there; Payne Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus , ii, col. 2614). In Bocthor, Dictionnaire français-arabe


(765 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B. | Calverley, E.E.
The original meaning of the root ḥḳḳ has become obscured in Arabic but can be recovered by reference to the corresponding root in Hebrew with its meanings of (a) “to cut in, engrave” in wood, stone or metal, (b) “to inscribe, write, portray” (this also in a Canaanite inscription of the 8th cent. B.C.; S. A. Cooke, North-Semitic inscriptions, Oxford 1903, 171, 185), (c) “to prescribe, fix by decree”, therefore “prescribed, decree, law, ordinance, custom”, (d) “due to God or man, right, privilege” (cf. Brown-Driver-Briggs, Hebrew and English lexicon, Oxford 1952; L. Koehler and A. W.…


(1,110 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B. | Gardet, L.
(a.). The two connotations of the root are g̲h̲āba ʿan , to be absent, and g̲h̲āba fī , to be hidden. In current usage, g̲h̲ayb (and especially g̲h̲ayba ) may signify “absence” (and g̲h̲ayba, correlated with s̲h̲uhūd , “presence”, may be a technical term of Ṣūfism); but more frequently g̲h̲ayb may indicate what is hidden, inaccessible to the senses and to reason—thus, at the same time absent from human knowledge and hidden in divine wisdom. It is to this second meaning that al-g̲h̲ayb refers, as a technical term of the religious vocabulary. It may then b…


(1,202 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B. | Pellat, Ch.
(A., pl. g̲h̲īlān or ag̲h̲wāl ), fabulous being believed by the ancient Arabs to inhabit desert places and, assuming different forms, to lead travellers astray (sometimes, like the Bedouins, lighting fires on the hills the more easily to attract them), to fall upon them unawares and devour them; certain isolated sources (cf. al-Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ , iii, 315) affirm however that it fled as soon as it was challenged; according to al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ ( Ḥayawān , i, 309), it rode on hares, dogs and ostriches; men could kill it, but only by giving it one singl…


(1,723 words)

Author(s): Heller, B. | MacDonald, D.B.
, the name in Arabic for the Biblical prophet Moses. 1. In the Ḳurʾān. Here, Mūsā is considered as the precursor of, the model for, and the annunciator of Muḥammad (VII, 156). The two prophets share the same belief (XLIII, 11). Mūsā is also conceived in Muḥammad’s image. Charges are brought against him similar to those made against Muḥammad and he is said to want to pervert people from the faith of their fathers (X, 79); he practises magic (XXVIII, 18). Mūsā and Hārūn seem rather to be sent to the stubborn Pharaoh [see firʿawn ] than to the believing Israelites. Revelation is granted him: tawrāt , ki…

Dar al-Ṣulḥ

(910 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B. | Abel, A.
‘the House of Truce’, territories not conquered by Muslim troops but by buying peace by the giving of tribute, the payment of which guarantees a truce or armistice ( hudna , ṣulḥ ). The two historic examples of such a situation, which were evidently the starting-point for the whole theory, are Nad̲j̲rān and Nubia. Muḥammad himself concluded a treaty with the Christian population of Nad̲j̲rān, guaranteeing their security and imposing on them certain obligations which were later looked on as k̲h̲arād̲j̲ [ q.v.] by some, and as d̲j̲izya [ q.v.] by others (for the whole question see Bal…


(1,580 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J. | MacDonald, D.B.
(A.), literally “exerting oneself, is the technical term in Islamic law, first, for the use of individual reasoning in general and later, in a restricted meaning, for the use of the method of reasoning by analogy ( ḳiyās [ q.v.]). The lawyer who is qualified to use it is called mud̲j̲tahid . Individual reasoning, both in its arbitrary and its systematically disciplined form, was freely used by the ancient schools of law, and it is often simply called raʾy [ q.v.], “opinion, considered opinion”. An older, narrower technical meaning of the term id̲j̲tihād , which has…
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