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(907 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
(or āb-i ruknī , the water of Rukn al-Dawla), a subterranean canal ( ḳanāt ) which runs from a mountain (called Ḳulayʿa: P. Schwarz, Iran im Mittelalter , ii, 48, no. 7) about six miles from S̲h̲īrāz. Enlarged by a secondary canal, it follows for a part of the way the road from Iṣfahān to S̲h̲īrāz. Its waters reach as far as the vicinity of the town towards the cemetery in which the poet Ḥāfiẓ [ q.v.] is buried, when they are not entirely absorbed for irrigation purposes. According to Ḥasan Fasāʾī ( Fārs-nāma-yi Nāṣirī , part ii, 20), “all the waters of the plain of …


(1,113 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.


(201 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
Aḥmad , sayyid of the line of Ḥusayn; his family, natives of Urdubād (Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān), in the time of the Ṣafawids settled in Iṣfahān, where he was born. He was the most notable poet under the dynasties of the Afs̲h̲arīs and the Zand. He divided his time between his native town, Ḳumm and Kās̲h̲ān. He was a man of erudition and a physician, and had a knowledge of Arabic, in which language he wrote some poems; in Persian he was the author of an important collection consisting of


(348 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Saʿīd Iṣfāhānī, an Iranian philologist, author of the Miʿyār-i D̲j̲amālī va-miftāḥ-i Bū Isḥāḳī (“The bird-trap offered to D̲j̲amāl and the key entrusted to Abu Isḥāḳ”), written in Iṣfahān, after residing in S̲h̲īrāz, and dedicated in 745/1344 to D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn Abū Isḥāḳ Muḥammad, the last prince of the Ind̲j̲ū dynasty [ q.v.]. The work consists of four sections: prosody ( ʿarūḍ ), knowledge of rhyme ( ḳawāfī ), rhetorical devices ( badāʾiʿ al-sanāʾiʿ ), a lexicon intermingled with verses in praise of the pr…

Ibn al-Faḳīh

(1,186 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, Iranian author of a geography written in Arabic, who lived in the 3rd/9th century. Nothing is known of his life and only one of his works survives, in an abridged form. De Goeje introduced his edition of this work with an authoritative preface in which he reproduced the information, of varying reliability, which Ibn al-Nadīm and the geographer al-Muḳaddasī provide on Ibn al-Faḳīh. According to the Fihri…

Riḍā Ḳulī K̲h̲ān

(1,032 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
b. muḥammad hādī…


(227 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, Ḥamīd al-Dīn Abū Bakr ʿUmar b. Maḥmūd , born in Balk̲h̲, died in 559/1164, a ḳāḍī who in 551/1156 began to compile his collection of twenty-three Ḥamīdian sessions (or scenes) ( maḳāmāt-i Ḥamīdī ) to serve as a pendant in the Persian language to the celebrated Arabic Maḳāmāt of al-Hama…


(1,376 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
(Pahlawī: čūbikān ; other forms: čūygān (attested in Ibn Yamīn); čūlgān (cf. čūl


(882 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
(Pahlavi, Frēdun; ancient Iranian, Thraētaona), the son of Abtiyān or Abtīn, one of the early kings of Īrān. The most complete text on the subject is the account of his reign by Firdawsī, in verse; some of the sources for it will be found in pre-Islamic texts. §§ 130-8 of the Yasht s of the Avesta reveal the names of the first kings of Īrān in their original order (the first being Yima [see d̲j̲ams̲h̲īd ]), whose conqueror and murderer, Azhī…


(538 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, mythical king of Iran who appears in several of the Yas̲h̲t of the Avesta; the first lawful king and the protégé of the gods, he reigned over the seven climes of the world, over the demons and the sorcerers; according to these texts, he resided in the countries situated to the south of the Caspian Sea. His place in the series of the mythical kings (Pīs̲h̲dādiyān) is vague: sometimes he is the contemporary of Ṭahmūrat̲h̲ [ q.v.], sometimes his successor; sometimes Gayumard comes before both of them. The Pahlavi texts add little to the Avestan texts. The Arabic texts, wh…


(1,297 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Ibrāhīm ʿIrāḳī Hamadānī , eminent Iranian poet and mystic. In spite of its lack of precision, the best source of information on this author, who gives very few autobiographical details in his own works, is an anonymous muḳaddima (introduction), composed in the manner and style of ʿIrāḳī’s own period (the end of the 7th/13th century) or the beginning of the following period. D̲j̲āmī ( Nafaḥāt al-uns ) and Mir K̲h̲wānd ( Ḥabīb al-siyar ) have obtained their information on ʿIrāḳī from this introduction. According to Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī Kazwini, who wrote his Tārīk̲h̲-i guzīd…

Abu ’l-Futūḥ al-Rāzī

(241 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
; Persian commentator of the Ḳurʾān. He lived between 480/1087 and 525/1131, fixed by conjecture. Among his disciples are the famous S̲h̲iʾte theologians Ibn S̲h̲ahrāsūb and Ibn Bābūya [ q.v.], who describes him as a scholar, preacher, commentator of the Ḳurʾān and a pious man. According to al-S̲h̲us̲h̲tarī ( Mad̲j̲ālis al-Muʾminīn ) he was a contemporary of al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī, whom he quoted as his master—which would explain the Muʿtazilism of his commentary. Muḥ. Ḳazwīnī has proved that his commentary could not date from …

Abū Ṭāhir Ṭarsūsī

(146 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
( Ṭarṭūsī , Ṭūsī ) Muḥammad b. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Mūsā , a person otherwise unknown, said to be the author of several novels in prose, prolix in style and of great length, a confused mixture of Arab and Persian legendary traditions, written in Persian and afterwards translated into Turkish. These include Ḳahramān-nāma (about Ḳahramān, a hero from the epoch of Hūs̲h̲ang, semi-mythical king of Īrān), Ḳirān-i Ḥabas̲h̲ī (the story of a hero from the time of the Kayānid king Kay Ḳubād), Dārāb-nāma (history of Darius and Alexander). (H. Massé) Bibliography Firdawsī, Livre des des rois, ed. and tra…

Abu ’l-Maʿālī

(231 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
Muḥammad b. ʿUbayd Allāh , Persian writer. His sixth ancestor was Ḥusayn al-Aṣg̲h̲ar, traditionist and son of the Imām Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn. His family lived for a long time in Balk̲h̲. He was a contemporary of Nāṣir-i Ḵh̲usraw, whom he may have known and about whom he gives us the earliest information available. ¶ From two passages of his only work Ch. Schefer assumed that he was at the court of the G̲h̲aznawid Sultan Masʿūd III when he composed his Bayān al-Adyān , dated 485/1092, the earliest known work on religions in the Persian language. The first two …


(388 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
This poetical name ( tak̲h̲alluṣ ) is probably that of two poets born at Ṭūs (Ḵh̲urāsān): abū naṣr aḥmad b. manṣūr al-ṭūsī and his son ʿali b. aḥmad . According to the extremely doubtful statement of Dawlats̲h̲āh, the father was the pupil of Firdūsī (born ca. 320-2/932-4), while the epic composed by ʿAlī b. Aḥmad is precisely dated 458/1066; H. Ethé concludes from this that it is impossible to attribute to the same author the works placed under the name of Asadī. Thus Abū Naṣr, about whom it is only known that he died during the rule of Masʿūd al-G̲h̲aznawī. becomes the author of the Munāẓarāt


(292 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, a village in Afg̲h̲ānistān (orchards, particularly of apricots) in the region of G̲h̲ūr [ q.v.] on the Tagao Gunbaz, tributary on the left bank of the Harī Rūd, above Čis̲h̲t; an hour’s march away, by the confluence of the tributary and the main stream, stands a cylindrical minaret of harmonious proportions, with an octagonal base which carries three superposed stages of truncated conical form, with an interior staircase (over 180 steps); the height of This minaret (about 60 m.) puts it between the Ḳuṭb mīnār of Dihlī [ q.v.] and the minaret of Buk̲h̲ārā [ q.v.]. One of the inscriptions …


(183 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, zayn al-dīn abū bakr b. ismāʿīl al-warrāḳ , Persian poet who, according to Ethé, died in 527/1132-33 or in 524/1130; but Mīrzā Muḥammad Ḳazwīnī has shown ( Čahār Maḳāla , 175 ff.) that he died certainly before 465/1072-3. He wrote a Dīwān which, among other poems, contains panegyrics on Ṭug̲h̲āns̲h̲āh b. Alp Arslan, the governor of Harāt (not, as is often stated, of Nīs̲h̲āpūr), and on Amīrāns̲h̲āh, the son of Ḳāwurd [ q.v.], the first Sald̲j̲ūḳid sultan of Kirmān. His verses comprise outstanding ḳaṣīdas and ḳiṭʿas ; he excels in descriptive poetry but is s…


(106 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, Arabic form of the surname of Chosroës I (al-Ṭabarī, I, 862) [see kisrā], in Pahlawi anos̲h̲ag̲h̲-ruvān , in Pazand anos̲h̲-ruān “possessed of an immortal soul”, then in Persian Nūs̲h̲īravān (Nūs̲h̲īrvān), which is popularly explained as nūs̲h̲īn-ravān “possessed of sweet soul” ( Burhān-i Ḳāṭiʿ ). Several persons in Islam bore this name (Zambaur mentions four), particularly a son of Manūčihr and of a daughter of Maḥmūd al-G̲h̲aznawī, who was amīr of Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān from 420/1029 to 434/1042 (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, IX, 262), and Anūs̲h̲arwān b. Ḵh̲āli…


(843 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, Iranian personal name (arabicised form Buzurd̲j̲mihr) which according to a tradition transmitted by Iranian and Arab writers, was given to a man endowed with every ability and virtue who was the minister of Ḵh̲usraw I Anūs̲h̲arawān ¶ (6th century A.D.). The earliest authorities who were acquainted with the Pahlawī Ḵh̲vad̲h̲āynāmāg̲h̲ (“Book of Sovereigns”), written towards the end of the Sāsānid period (7th century), the source of the oldest accounts of pre-Islamic Iranian history penned by Arab writers (al-Ṭabarī, Ibn Ḳ…


(478 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, the tak̲h̲alluṣ of several Indian poets. The Riyāḍ al-wifāḳ of D̲h̲u ’l-Fiḳār ʿAlī, biographies of Indian poets who wrote in Persian, and the Tad̲h̲kira of Yūsuf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān (analysed by Sprenger, A catalogue of the Arabic, Persian and Hindustan mssof the King of Oudh , i, 168, 280) mention five of them. The first, a native of Kas̲h̲mīr, lived in Dihlī in the reign of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh (1719-48): his g̲h̲azal s were sung by the dancing-girls.—The most celebrated, however, was Saʿādat Yār K̲h̲ān of Dihlī. His father, Ṭahmāsp Beg K̲h̲ān Tūrānī,…
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