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Taras

(1,524 words)

Author(s): Goldhahn, Tobias | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
(Τάρας/ Táras). [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and a South-Italian nymph Son of Poseidon and a South-Italian nymph (Paus. 10,10,8), or son of Heracles [1] (Serv. Aen. 3,551); hero and eponym of the town of Taranto ( cf. T. [2]) and of its river. He is considered to be the founder (Paus. l.c.), or at least the patron (Serv. l.c.) of Taranto. On a coin from Taranto, he is represented as a boy reaching out for Poseidon; the image of a dolphin rider appearing on other coins from Taranto, represents rather Phalantus [1], in spite o…

Velia

(851 words)

Author(s): Salomone Gaggero, Eleonora (Genoa) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] [1] Ligurian city in the valley of the upper Chero (Βελεία, Βελία/ Bel(e)ía; Οὐελεία/ Oueleía). Ligurian city (but in Regio VIII) in the valley of the upper Chero (tributary of the Po), c. 30 km to the south of Placentia; modern Velleia. Possibly an Augustean colonia, tribus Galeria (Plin. HN 3,47; ILS 1079, l. 8: res publica Velleiat[ium]; ILS 5560: municipes); according to the archaeological finds evidently destroyed in the 4th/5th cent. AD and abandoned. Parts of the forum survive (drainage system; paving, cf. CIL XI 1184; basilica; po…

Metapontion

(581 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Etrusci, Etruria | Italien, Sprachen | Kolonisation | Regio, regiones | Theater (Μεταπόντιον, lat. Metapontum). Unteritalische Stadt in Lucania am Golf von Taras/Tarent, erstmals angeblich von den Pylioi des Nestor bei der Rückkehr aus Troia gegr. (Strab. 6,1,15). Die Kontinuität des achaiischen Substrats zw. myk. Epoche und Großer Kolonisation scheint im Kultbereich (Artemision della Venella und Artemision von Lusoi) weitergegangen zu sein. Ein zweite…

Regium

(701 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Italy, languages | Colonization | Natural catastrophes | Punic Wars | Regio, regiones | Rome | Rome (Ῥήγιον/ Rhḗgion, Lat. Regium), modern Reggio di Calabria. City on the Bruttian coast of the Fretum Siculum (Straits of Messina). Its strategic position and the lack of agriculturally useful territory committed the city to the lucrative control of the strait. Founded in the 2nd half of the 8th cent. BC shor…

Siris

(256 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization (Σῖρις; Sîris). City to the north of the mouth of the river of the same name (modern Sinni) at modern Policoro on the Ionios Kolpos (Gulf of Taranto), surrounded by fertile land (Archil. fr. 18 D.; Timaios FGrH 566 F 51 f.; Aristot. fr. 584 R.). Mythical founding by Trojans, historical founding c. 670 BC on top of a previous epichoric settlement by Colophon (under the name Polieion: Str. 6,1,14). S. was destroyed in about the middle of the 6th century BC by a coalition of Achaean co…

Scylletium

(161 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] (Σκυλλήτιον/ Skyllḗtion, Σκυλλάκιον/ Skyllákion, Latin Scolacium). City on the east coast of Bruttia on the gulf named after it ( kólpos Skyllētikós; [1. 63]; today still Golfo di Squillace); ground plan of the Roman city and building foundations from  the 1st/2nd cent. AD near modern Roccelletta di Borgia. In ancient tradition S. was seen as the northernmost place in Italía (Antiochos FGrH 555 F 5; Aristot. Pol. 1329b 13 f.; Str. 6,1,4). S. (founded in the second half of the 6th cent. BC) was at first dependent on Croton, then on Locri …

Caulonia

(229 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization (Καυλωνία; Kaulōnía, Lat. Caulonia, Caulonea). Achaean colony on the eastern coast of Bruttium, founded by Typhon of Aegium (Paus. 6,3,12) at the end of the 8th cent. BC, near the modern Monasterace Marina [1]. C. came under the rule of  Croton, and was eventually considered a Crotoniate foundation (Ps.-Scymn. GGM 1, 318f.). Its initial autonomy is verified by the minting of coins from the 6th cent. BC onwards. Its economic mainstay was…

Laus

(174 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] [1] Colony (Λᾶος; Lâos). The colony, localized on the hill of San Bartolo di Marcellina, along the river Lao in the bay of Scalea, was founded by survivors from Sybaris after the destruction of the city in 510 BC. Nearby was the heroon of Dracon, a companion of Odysseus (Str. 6,1,1). At the end of the 5th cent. BC L. was conquered by the Lucani. Here the bloody battle between the Italiot League and the Lucani took place in 389 BC. A city with remains of buildings and graves surrounded by a wall is from the 4th cent. BC. No traces of the archaic period. Muggia, Anna (Pavia) Bibliography P…

Cyme

(1,256 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Κύμη; Kýmē). [German version] [1] Settlement on Euboea This item can be found on the following maps: Aegean Koine C. on  Euboea. The exact location of the ancient settlement is unknown; it should be looked for near what is today the town of C., commonly Kumi, on the east coast of Euboea, possibly about 5 km north at the monastery of Sotiros (17th cent.) where there is also a Venetian fortress. Recently the remains of an Early Helladic settlement were found near Murteri south of C. whose inhabitants already traded…

Croton

(490 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization | Punic Wars (Κρότων, Krótōn, Lat. Croto[n]). City founded in around 733 BC by Achaean colonists under  Myscellus from Rhypae, in response to a Delphic oracle, on the eastern coast of  Bruttium in southern Italy (Antiochus, FGrH 555 F 10). In the 6th cent. BC, C. expanded at the expense of its neighbouring colonies: important milestones were the capture and destruction of…

Promunturium, Promontorium

(612 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
('promontory', 'cape'). [German version] [1] Promontorium Cantium Headland in the far south-east of Britannia, opposite the mouth of the Rhine (τὸ Κάντιον). Headland in the far south-east of Britannia, opposite the mouth of the Rhine; a landmark for seamen and geographers, modern South Foreland/Kent ( cf. Caes. B Gall. 5,13,1; 14,1; 22,1; Diod. Sic. 5,21,3; Str. 1,4,3; 4,3,3; 5,1). Cantium probably means 'corner' in Celtic [1]. The exposed location in the far south-east of the island gave its name to the Cantiaci, and the name was also applied to the ki…
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