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(722 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Muṣʿab b. T̲h̲ābit b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām al-zubayrī , Abū ʿAbd Allāh, genealogist who owes his fame to two works, the Kitāb al-Nasab al-kabīr , considered to be lost, and the Kitāb Nasab Ḳurays̲h̲ , edited by E. Lévi-Provençal, Cairo 1953. This Ḳurays̲h̲ite was born in Medina, probably in 156/773, a descendant of the Companion al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām [ q.v.]. He followed the teaching of various masters, including Mālik b. Anas [ q.v.], before settling at Bag̲h̲dād where he died, at the age of 80, on 2 S̲h̲awwāl 236/8 April 851 (the Fihrist

Ḥārit̲h̲a b. Badr al-G̲h̲udānī

(399 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H. | Pellat, Ch.
poet and notable of the Tamīmī clan of the Banū G̲h̲udāna, at Baṣra. Born probably shortly before the Hid̲j̲ra, he appears while still young to have been a follower of the prophetess Sad̲j̲āḥi [ q.v.] and then, having settled in Baṣra, he fought at the battle of the Camel [see al-d̲j̲amal ] against ʿAlī, but afterwards joined his cause; however, as soon as Ziyād arrived in ʿIrāḳ in 45/666 he became a fervent supporter of the new governor, who finally entered him on the tribal pay-roll of the Ḳurays̲h̲ to increase his emolum…

Ibn Wahbūn

(456 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-D̲j̲alīl b. Wahbūn , Arab poet of Spain, whose career was passed at the court of the master of Seville, al-Muʿtamid Ibn ʿAbbād [ q.v.]. Born at Murcia, probably about 430-40/1039-49, into a family of humble origin, he went to seek his fortune at Seville, where he was the pupil of the philologist al-Aʿlam al-S̲h̲antamarī [ q.v.] and formed a friendship with the vizier and poet Ibn ʿAmmār [ q.v.] before being admitted to the court, in circumstances which are variously reported. He then became one of the official panegyrists of al-Muʿtamid and mad…

Ḥammād ʿAd̲j̲rad

(1,001 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(in status constructus), Arab satirical poet whose genealogy has not been exactly established; his kunya , Abū ʿUmar, would justify the following: Ḥammād b. ʿUmar b. Yūnus (rather than b. Yaḥyā or Yūnus b. ʿUmar) b. Kulayb al-Kūfī. Born at the latest at the beginning of the 2nd/8th century, this mawlā of a clan of the ʿĀmīr b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa probably owes his by-name ( ʿad̲j̲rad = completely naked) to the saying of a Bedouin. His biographers agree in declaring that he achieved fame only under the ʿAbbāsids, but they do not fail to point out th…

ʿAdī b. al-Riḳāʿ

(167 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Duʾād ʿAdī b. Zayd b. Mālik b. ʿAdī b. al-Riḳāʿ al-ʿĀmilī , Arab poet of Syria, who was, in Damascus, the panegyrist of the Umayyads, especially of al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik (86-96/705-15), in the presence of whom he fought a poetical contest with Ḏj̲arīr; he was also the butt of attacks by al-Rāʿī. ʿAdī was celebrated for the grace of his nasīb (see especially al-Mubarrad, al-Kāmil , 85, concerning Umm al-Ḳāsim) and for the care with which he composed his poems. His poems were known in Spain at an early date ( BAH, ix, 397). He lived at least into the caliphate of Sulaymān b. ʿAbd…

ʿArīb b. Saʿd al-Kātib al-Ḳurṭubī

(396 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, an Andalusian mawlā who held various official posts (he was in particular ʿāmil of the district of Osuna in 331/943), lived in the entourage of al-Muṣḥafī [ q.v.] and Ibn Abī ʿĀmir [see al-manṣūr] and was the secretary of the Umayyad caliph al-Ḥakam II (350-66/961-76); the date of his death is not known, but is put by Pons Boigues at about 370/980. A man of wide learning, ʿArīb distinguished himself as physician and poet, but is primarily known for his work as a historian. He was in fact the author of a résumé of the Annals of al-Ṭabarī, which he continue…


(755 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, a Berber word denoting (a) the members (pl. ihaggarən ) of one of the noble tribes constituting the former group of the Northern Tuaregs [ q.v.], and (b) one of these tribes (Kəl Ahaggar or Ihaggarən), inhabiting a region to which it has given the name of Ahaggar (Hoggar). In its widest sense, the Ahaggar is the group of territories under the dominion of the Kəl Ahaggar. It covers an area of about 200,000 sq. miles between lat. 21°-25° N and long. 3°-6° E. Bounded by mountain massifs (the Ahanəf to the E., the Tassili of the Ajjər to the N.-E., the Immidir to the N., the Adrar of the Ifog̲h̲as [ q.v.] an…


(544 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, (a.), a term of Classical Arabic which means in particular “rising generation”, but one which today has acquired the pejorative sense of “bad lot, rogue” which the plural nawābit and the expression nābitat s̲h̲arr previously possessed. These meanings were noted by the mediaeval lexicographers, but one finds in Ibn al-Nadīm a section ( Fihrist , ed. Cairo, 255-7, ed. Tad̲j̲addud, 229-31) devoted to the mutakallimū ’l-mud̲j̲bira [see d̲j̲abriyya ] and to the nābitat al-ḥas̲h̲wiyya , amongst whom the main exponent was allegedly Ibn Kullāb [ q.v. in Suppl.], whilst al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲a…


(1,176 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. ʿUmar, jurist of Ifrīḳiya who was surnamed "al-Imām" on account of his learning and his renown. His nisba refers to the Sicilian town of Mazzara ( Māzar in Arabic), the native place of his family, but it is not known whether the latter had emigrated to Ifrīḳiya before his birth, which may be dated at 453/1061 since he died in Rabīʿ I 536/October 1141, at al-Mahdiyya [ q.v.], at the age of 83 lunar years. It was in this last-named town that he settled after completing his traditional studies at Sfax as a pupil of al-Lak̲h̲mī (d. 478/…

Ibn K̲h̲ayr al-Is̲h̲bīlī

(310 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. K̲h̲ayr b. ʿUmar b. K̲h̲alīfa al-Lamtūnī al-Amawī , philologian and traditionist of Seville, where he was born in 502/1108. He became imām of the mosque at Cordova, and died in that city in 575/1179. Ibn K̲h̲ayr, who studied under many teachers in different regions of al-Andalus, owes his fame to the catalogue ( fahrasa [ q.v.]) of the works which he had read and of the teachers who had given him their id̲j̲āza at Seville, Cordova, Almería, Malaga, Granada, etc. This work, called Fahrasat mā rawāhu ʿan s̲h̲uyūk̲h̲i-hi min al-dawāwīn al-muṣannafa fī durūb al-ʿ…


(231 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C. | Pellat, Ch.
, Abuʾ l-Muẓaffar Muḥammad b. Aḥmad , Arab poet and genealogist, a descendant of ʿAnbasa b. Abī Sufyān (of the Umayyad lineage of the younger Muʿāwiya). He was born in Abīward (Ḵh̲urāsān), or more exactly in the village of Kawfan (not Kūḳan) near Abīward (he is therefore sometimes called al-Kawfanī), and died from poison in Iṣfahān in 507/1113 (not 557/1161-2). His philological and historico-genealogical works, notably a history of Abīward and a book on the different and identical names of the Arab tribes, are lost; but al-Kaysarānī extensively used the latter work. Of his dīwān


(332 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, ismāʿīl b. isḥāḳ b. ismāʿīl b. ḥammād b. zayd , abū isḥāḳ al-ḳāḍī (199-282/814-95), Mālikī faḳīh , originally from Baṣra, who in 246/860 succeeded Sawwār b. ʿAbd Allāh as ḳāḍī of Bag̲h̲dād East. After having been removed from office in 255-6/869-70, he was restored to office, transferred to Bag̲h̲dād West in 258/871-2 and then given charge of both halves of the city from 262/876 till his death; he was then supreme ḳāḍī without having the official title, although currently described as ḳāḍīl-ḳuḍāt . He was also sent as an envoy to the Ṣaffārid who had i…


(311 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the current spelling of the Berber amənūkal , meaning "any political leader not subordinate to anyone else"; it is applied to foreign rulers, to highranking European leaders, and to the male members of certain noble families; in some regions of the Sahara, the title of amənūkal is given to the chiefs of small tribal groups, but in the Ahaggar [ q.v.], it is only conferred on the overlord of a confederation of noble or subject tribes. The amənūkal must be selected from among the Ihaggarən nobles, and his nomination is submitted for approval to an assembly of the nobles a…

ʿAmr b. Maʿdīkarib

(293 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿabd allāh al-zubaydī , abū thawr , famous Arab warrior and muk̲h̲aḍram poet. Born of a noble Yamanite family, he is depicted as a fighter of uncommon strength who, armed with his legendary sword al-Ṣamṣāma, took part in many battles during the d̲j̲āhiliyya . In 10/631, he went to Medina and was converted to Islam, without, however, making any radical change in his way of life; on the death of the Prophet, he apostatised and took part in the rebellion of al-Aswad al-ʿAnsī [ q.v.]; taken prisoner in the course of the suppression of the ridda by Abū Bakr, he was free…

al-Naḍr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲

(530 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿAlḳama b. Kalada b. ʿAbd Manāf b. ʿAbd al-Dār b. Ḳuṣayy, a rich Kurays̲h̲ite who, in the pre-Islamic period, carried on trade with al-Ḥīra and Persia, from where he is said to have brought back books (?) and to have brought back also one or more singing slave girls ( ḳayna [ q.v.]). He represented ʿAbd al-Dār in the group of the muṭʿimūn , i.e. the Meccans who were charged with supplying food for pilgrims, and he occupied a fairly eminent position in the town. He was a strenuous opponent of the Prophet, scoffing at him and not faili…


(21,303 words)

Author(s): Miquel, A. | Brice, W.C. | Sourdel, D. | Aubin, J. | Holt, P.M. | Et al.
, a sovereign State, of the Muslim religion, for the most part Arabic-speaking, situated at the eastern end of the Fertile Crescent. i.—Geography The structure of ʿIrāḳ paradoxically derives its originality from the fact that it forms part of a large geographical block of territory. From the Arabo-Syrian desert tableland which it faces along its south-western flank, it takes its general aspect and its climate. All along its frontiers on the North-East, on the other hand, it shares the orientation and ¶ relief of the folded mountain-chains of western Asia, which give it its t…

Muways b. ʿImrān

(793 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. Ḏj̲umayʿ b. Ziyād al-Baṣrī , Abu ʿImrān, eminent mawlā of Baṣrā who lived in the second half of the 2nd/8th century. His name is considerably distorted in the sources and in studies, such that the variants encountered include Mūsā (by confusion with Mūsā b. ʿImrān = Moses), Muʾnis, Mawīs, etc.; furthermore, his name would not feature in history at all were it not that al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ [ q.v.] mentions him quite frequently and that he participated in the movement of politico-religious ideas which developed at Baṣra in the 2nd and 3rd/8th-9th centuries. It is under…


(2,372 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.) “metamorphosis”, that is, according to LA, s.v., “transformation of an exterior form ( ṣūra ) into a more ugly form”; the product of the metamorphosis is itself called mask̲h̲ / misk̲h̲ or masīk̲h̲ / mamsūk̲h̲ . Belief in the fact that, as a result of supernatural intervention—divine punishment in the majority of cases—humans have been transformed into animals, statutes or even into stars was as widespread, before Islam, among the Arabs as among the peoples of Antiquity whose mythologies are known to us. The growth of the conc…


(335 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, name of a singing slave-girl ( ḳayna [ q.v.]) of Medina who had learnt music and singing from the great singers of the 1st/7th century: Ibn Surayd̲j̲, Mālik, Ibn Muḥriz, Maʿbad, D̲j̲amīla, ʿAzza [ qq.v.]. Her talent, beauty and charm conquered Yazīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik, who finally became her owner in circumstances which the sources describe very variously, but at a date after his accession (S̲h̲aʿbān 101/February 720); she was originally called al-ʿĀliya and it is he who is said to have given her the name by which she has remained famous. Ḥabāba is often associated with another ḳayna of Medin…

Abū Ḥuzāba

(299 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, al-walīd b. ḥunayfa (b. Nahīk in Ṭabarī, ii, 393) al-tamīmī , a minor poet of the 1st/7th century. He was a Bedouin who settled at Baṣra and was a panegyrist, at the time of Ziyād b. Abīhi (45-53/665-72) or shordy after, of ʿAbd Allāh b. K̲h̲ālid b. Asīd, governor of Fārs. His family urged him strongly to join the circle of Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya, before the latter’s assumption of the caliphate (60/680); he finally decided to try his luck, but was not received by the prince, and he retur…
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