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(290 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(not al-Ḥuṣayn) b. al-Mund̲h̲ir b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Waʿla al-Raḳās̲h̲ī al-Bakrī , Abū sāsān , a notable and poet of Baṣra ranking among the leading Tābiʿūn (d. ca. 100/718-9). His family was well-known even before Islam; some at least of its members had a reputation for avarice, which al-Ḥuḍayn seems to have justified, if we may judge by the words attributed to him by al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, which leave no doubt as to his love of riches. While still quite young, he took part in the battle of Ṣiffīn [ q.v.] and fought bravely; he carried the standard of the Rabīʿa in the army of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭāl…

His̲h̲ām b. ʿAmr al-Fuwaṭī

(494 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(or al-Fawṭī ), a Muʿtazilī of Baṣra, where he was the pupil of Abu ’l-Hud̲h̲ayl [ q.v.]. After having probably been a wandering propagator of Iʿtizāl (Ibn al-Nadīm, Fihrist , ed. Fück, in Prof. Muḥ. S̲h̲afīʿ presentation volume, Lahore 1955, 68-9), he went to Bag̲h̲dād during the caliphate of al-Maʾmūn and died there at a date not known exactly, but probably before 218/833. His personal doctrine, which had a certain influence on al-As̲h̲ʿarī [ q.v.], differs appreciably, accoiding to Ibn al-Nadīm ( op. cit.), from the teachings of the other Muʿtazila, but the data given by th…

Abu ’l-Dunyā

(322 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
Abu ’l-Hasan ʿAli b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb (or ʿUt̲h̲mān b. al-Ḵh̲.), one of those to whom preternatural longevity has been ascribed ( muʿammarun , q.v.); he is also called al-Muʿammar al-Mag̲h̲ribī or al-As̲h̲ad̲j̲d̲j̲ al-Muʿammar. He is said to have been born about 600 A.D. and to have died in 316/928, 327/938-9 or even 476/1083-4. Of the tribe of Hamdān, he drank in his youth from the source of life in the presence of al-Ḵh̲aḍir [ q.v.], then joined ʿAli b. Abī Ṭālib, with whom he fought at Ṣiffīn and from whom he received the name of Abu ’l-Dunyā, after his hors…

Ibn S̲h̲uhayd

(1,998 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū ʿĀmir Aḥmad b. Abī Marwān ʿAbd al-Malik b. Abī ʿUmar Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Malik b. ʿUmar b. Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā b. S̲h̲uhayd al-As̲h̲d̲j̲aʿī , Andalusian poet, man of letters and vizier, born at Cordova, in 382/992, of an Arab family whose ancestor S̲h̲uhayd had settled in Spain before 162/778 and whose members included important officials in the Umayyad government. ʿĪsā b. S̲h̲uhayd had been a minister during the reign of Muḥammad I (238-73/852-86); Abū ʿĀmir’s great-grandfather had been appointed …

Ibn al-Zubayr

(399 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū D̲j̲aʿfar Aḥmad b. Ibrāhīm b. al-Zubayr b. Muḥammad al-T̲h̲aḳafī al-ʿĀṣimī , Andalusian traditionist, reader of the Ḳurʾān, man of letters and historian, born at Jaén (Ḏj̲ayyān) in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 627/September-October 1230, d. Granada on 8 Rabīʿ I 708/26 August 1308. He seems to have been particularly interested in Ḳurʾānic ‘readings’, but his biographers speak very highly of his knowledge of the Arabic language and describe him as “the muḥaddit̲h̲ of al-Andalus and of the Mag̲h̲rib”. His propensity for redressing wrongs got him into tro…


(317 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Ṭālib ʿAzīz al-Dīn Ismāʿīl b. al-Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad ... b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, a Ḥusaynī who seems to have devoted himself to the study of genealogies, although he is also credited with knowledge of astronomy and, like so many others, he was a composer of verse. His ancestors had left Medina and settled first in Bag̲h̲dād, then in Ḳum(m) and finally in Marw, where he was born on 22 D̲j̲umādā 572/26 December 1176. He embarked on traditional studies in his nat…

Ibn al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲

(907 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S. | Pellat, Ch.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-ʿḤusayn b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. D̲j̲aʿfar b. Muḥammad , a S̲h̲īʿī Arab poet in the time of the Būyids [ q.v.]. Born in Bag̲h̲dād in about 330/941-2, of a family of government officials and secretaries, he completed the traditional studies and was partly trained by Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm al-Ṣābiʾ (313-84/925-94 [see al-ṣābiʾ ]) who made him take up an administrative career, but he very quickly perceived that his poetic talents could prove more profitable and resigned his post. At first he was connected with the vizier al-Muhallabī [ q.v.] for whom he wrote a panegyric and …


(2,754 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
is the Arabic word in use at the present time to denote “sex”, the adjective d̲j̲insī corresponding to “sexual” and the abstract d̲j̲insiyya to “sexuality” as well as “nationality”. The juridical aspect of sexual relations has already been examined in the article bāh , and is to be the subject of further articles, nikāḥ and zinā ; the present review will be limited to general considerations on the sexual life of the Muslims and the place that it occupies in literature. Pre-Islamic poetry, in so far as it is authentic, indicates that a certain laxity of behaviour was prevalen…

Aḥmad b. Abī Duʾād

(548 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Pellat, Ch.
al-īyādī , abū ʿabd allāh , Muʿtazilite ḳāḍī born at Baṣra about 160/776. Through his own merit and also, it is said, through the good offices of Yaḥyā b. Akt̲h̲am [ q.v.], who introduced him to the Court at Bag̲h̲dād, he reached a position of great honour under the Caliph al-Maʾmūn, soon becoming one of the Caliph’s closest friends. Shortly before his death, the Caliph recommended his brother and successor al-Muʿtaṣim to admit Aḥmad, a fervent follower of the Muʿtazilite doctrine, to the circle of his advisers, and as a resu…


(441 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-Miknāsī al-Fāsī , a learned Moroccan scholar and teacher, from a family originally from Meknès, born in Fās 926/1520 and died there 16 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda/18 October 1587. Endowed with vast learning and a great power of verbal expressiveness, he spent his life teaching, with the methods in use at the time, various Islamic topics, in particular, theology and law, and was considered one of the greatest masters of his age at the Karawiyyīn [ q.v.]. Between 987 and 993/1579-85, he stayed frequently for periods in Marrakesh, where his most eminent disc…


(1,676 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, abū ʿubāda al-walīd b. ʿubayd ( allāh ), Arab poet and anthologist of 3rd/9th century (206-284/821-897), born at Manbid̲j̲ (some state his birthplace to be the neighbouring village of Ḥurdufna), into a family belonging to the Buḥtur, a branch of the Ṭayyiʾ; not only did he never completely sever connexions with his native town, where the fortune amassed during his long career as court poet allowed him to acquire property, but he took advantage of his tribal origin to make useful connexions for himself. After having dedicated his first poetic efforts (223-6/837-40) to the prais…

Muḥammad b. Abī ʿUyayna

(447 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
( = Abu ’l-Minhāl) ¶ b. al-Muhallab b. Abī Ṣufra , Abū Ḥarb al-Muhallabī, ʿAbbāsid official who was governor of Rayy under the caliphate of al-Manṣūr (136-58/754-75); it is also known that the latter imprisoned him and imposed a fine on him ( Ag̲h̲ānī , ed. Beirut, xx, 23). This obscure individual merits attention only on account of the confusion created in the minds of authors and editors or commentators, on the one hand by the name (or surname, but not kunya ) of Abū ʿUyayna born by two descendants of al-Muhallab [ q.v.], sc. his son, who was the father of this Muḥammad, and his great…

Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Aḥmar

(375 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the usual name of a philologist of Baṣra called ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan/al-Mubārak, who was taught by al-Kisāʾī [ q.v.], whose eager pupil he was; after his master, he became tutor to the future caliphs al-Amīn and al-Maʾmūn. The biographical sources record that al-Aḥmar was originally a member of al-Ras̲h̲īd’s guard, so that, being very attracted to the study of philology, he was unable to attend al-Kisāʾī’s teaching sessions except when he was not on duty in the palace. When the master came to give lessons to the you…


(387 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abu ’l-Ḥusayn al-Ḥasan b. Ahmad , Arab geographer, about whom it is only known that he died in 380/990 after having dedicated to the Fāṭimid caliph al-ʿAzīz bi’llāh (365-86/975-96) [ q.v.] a work which came within the category of those called al-Masālik wa ’l-mamālik [ q.v.] and which actually bore this title but which is generally cited under that of al-ʿAzīzī . Although this work has not yet been rediscovered, it was already possible to get an idea of its contents thanks to several later authors who utilised it and took from it items of information, usu…

Ismāʿīl b. Yasār

(398 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Nisāʾī , Medinan poet, who died at a very advanced age some years before the end of the Umayyad dynasty (132/750). The descendant of an Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ānī prisoner, he was a mawlā of the Taym b. Murra of Ḳurays̲h̲ and it is said that he owed his nisba to the fact that his father prepared meals—or sold carpets—for weddings, but this interpretation should be treated with caution. At Medina, where he lived, he had become a supporter of the Zubayrids, but his friendly relations with ʿUrwa b. al-Zubayr [ q.v.] (in whose company he went to the court of ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān after the…

al-Namir (Namr) b. Tawlab al-ʿUklī

(621 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Rabīʿa, a muk̲h̲aḍram [ q.v.] Arabie poet, who probably died before 23/644 at an extremely advanced age (al-Sid̲j̲istānī, Muʿammarīn , 70, makes him live 200 years, and cites six verses in which he speaks of his great age; other authors refer equally to his senility). The generosity of which he seems to have given proof on various occasions makes one think that he was rich and powerful within his tribe, which he represented in heading a delegation to the Prophet at Medina. The oldest sources (Ibn Sallām, Ṭabaḳāt , 137, in the first place) reproduce a lette…

Laḥn al-ʿĀmma

(5,487 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, “errors of language made by the common people”, is an expression which characterises a branch of lexicography designed to correct deviations by reference to the contemporary linguistic norm, as determined by the purists. The treatises which could be classed under this heading, correspond, broadly speaking, to our “do not say... but say...”, the incorrect form generally being introduced by “you say” or “they say = one says” ( taḳūl , yaḳūlūn ) and the correct form by wa ’l-ṣawāb ... “whereas the norm is...”; they are most often intitled Kitāb Laḥn al-ʿāmma or Kitāb mā talḥan/yalḥan fīhi…


(1,860 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.), a complex and delicate notion which includes a certain number of qualities of character or moral attitudes, ranging from serene justice and moderation to forbearance and leniency, with self-mastery and dignity of bearing standing between these extremes. The term, which is sometimes linked with ʿilm , more however from stylistic considerations and a taste for paronomasia than from any conceptual association, is basically contrasted with d̲j̲ahl [see d̲j̲āhiliyya ] and safah or safāha ; a derivative from the latter root appears in the expression saffahal-aḥlām

Ibn al-Ad̲j̲dābī

(528 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm b. Ismāʿīl al-Ṭarābulusī , Arab philologist from a family originally stemming from Ad̲j̲dābiya (Libya); he himself lived at Tripoli, where he died at an uncertain date, probably in the first half of the 7th/13th century. Hardly anything further is known about his life, and the biographers limit themselves to emphasising the breadth of his knowledge and his contribution to the technical literature of scholars of his time. They attribute to him some eight works, whose titles show that he was interested in lexicography, metrics, the anwāʾ [ q.v.] and genealogies (he i…

Ḥamza b. Bīḍ

(453 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Ḥanafī al-Kūfī (the spelling Bīḍ is attested by a verse where this name rhymes with tanbīḍ al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, Bayān , ed. Hārūn, iv, 47), is one of those Arab poets, full of wit and verve, ¶ whom the great men of the day did not take seriously but loaded with riches to gain their eulogies and escape their sarcasms, for they were quick to get the laugh on their side and, free of all scruples, did not hesitate to use blackmail. Ḥamza b. Bīḍ, who is treated by his biographers with indulgence and sympathy, is said to have succeeded in extracting from the great men whose company he frequented a million dirhams
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