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Ordinariate

(161 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] Resulting from the separation of functions required by the ecclesiastical lawgiver (e.g. CIC/1983 c.135; CCEO c. 985; Jurisdiction, Ecclesiastical), and alongside the diocesan court (Consistory), the ordinariate is the authority in the diocesan curia (cf. CIC/1983 cc. 469–494; CCEO cc. 243–263) which serves the administration of the diocese (also denoted general vicariate; Bishopric) under the direction of the vicar general (cf. CIC/1983 c. 475). Requirements include a chancellor, additional notaries as needed, a property adminstrator, and …

Bination

(106 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] is the designation in Catholic church law for the practice, generally not allowed, of celebration of the Eucharist twice in the same day by the same priest. The local ordinary can permit bination or trination (c. 905 CIC). In relation to the rule of sobriety (c. 919 § 2 CIC) and mass stipends (c. 951 § 1 CIC), special regulations hold. Bination is permitted at Easter and Maundy Thursday, trination at Christmas and All Souls' Day. Wilhelm Rees Bibliography É. Jombarth, DDC 2, 1937, 889–898 C. Holböck, Die Bination, 1941 K. Lüdicke, MKCIC, 1985, 905 A. Heinz, LTK 3 II, 1994, 462.

Anathema

(153 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] The word “anathema” originally meant an offering consecrated to a deity, or a curse (Blessing). Anathema as banishment or exclusion from the community was a common practice before Christianity, which adopted it as a disciplinary measure after the analogy of the OT ban and the practice of exclusion at Qumran. In the penal code of the church, “anathema” referred to excommunication, especially when solemnly imposed as provided in the Pontifcale Romanum ( CIC 1917, c. 2257, §2). This form of excommunication was not included in CIC 1983. Neither does the formula anathema sit

Expectative

(159 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In Catholic canon law (II), an expectative was the legally binding assurance that an office (benefice) that was not yet vacant would be granted to the beneficiary when that office was vacated. Expectatives came into being after the 12th century, with Alexander III ( Liber Extra 3.8.2) and Boniface VIII ( Liber Sextus 3.7.2) taking action against abuses. All such rights were abrogated by the Council of Trent (session XXIV c. 19 de ref.). While not actually forbidden by current canon law, expectatives lack legal force ( CIC c.153 §3; CCEO c. 943 §3; similarly CIC c. 150 §2 19…

Indult

(78 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] Indult, from Lat. indulgere, “be lenient, grant.” In Catholic church law indult is the granting of a usually temporary exemption from a legal requirement (Dispensation, Privilege) by a bearer of sovereign leadership authority (cf. e.g. CIC [1983] cc. 306; 320 §2; 684 §2; 692; 727f.; 743; 995; 1015 §2; 1019 §2; 1021). Wilhelm Rees Bibliography KanR I, 1991, 256f.; 505, n. 8 I. Riedel-Spangenberger, Grundbegriffe des Kirchenrechts, 1992, 133 A. McCormack, The Term “Privilege”, 1997.

Aequitas canonica

(112 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] This principle of Catholic canon law is rooted in the aequitas (“equity”) of Roman law, in biblical thinking, and in Aristotle's theory of epikeia (Epiky). The aim of the aequitas canonica (unlike that of epikeia) is to achieve a harmony between already codified law and the legal judgment required in a specific situation. The effect is a moderation of existing law; on occasion, however, the law may also be tightened ( oikonomia). Wilhelm Rees Bibliography E. Wohlhaupter, Aequitas canonica, 1931 G. Wingren, art. “Billigkeit” TRE VI, 1980, 642–645 A. Hollerbach, art. “…

Ecclesiastical Province/Region

(186 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In contrast to the ecclesiastical region ( regio ecclesiastica; CD art. 39ff.), since the 4th century the ecclesiastical province ( provincia ecclesiastica) has belonged to the constitutional structure of the Catholic Church. It is the assembly of neighboring particular churches to promote pastoral work and relationships among the diocesan bishops in the union of particular churches so created ( CIC/1983 c. 431 §1). The provincial council and the metropolitan have leadership authority ( CIC/1983 c. 432 §1). Neighboring ecclesias…

Ordinary

(167 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] in Catholic church law designates the bearer of regular power of governance (Jurisdiction). In addition to the pope, these include (cf. CIC/1983 c. 134 §1; CCEO c. 984) the diocesan bishops (III, 1), the regional prelates (I) and abbots, the vicars apostolic, prefects, and administrators, the military bishops, the head of a personal prelacy ( CIC/1983 c. 295 §1), as well as the vicars general and bishops’ vicars (not court vicars and officials); in addition, the interim leaders (e.g. diocesan administrator), the higher heads of clerical order institutes iuris pontifi…

Nuncio

(283 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] (inter-nuncio). Nuncios are papal envoys who are permanent representatives of the Holy See both to local churches and to national governments or public authorities, and have diplomatic status according to the norms of international law (cf. CIC 1983, c.363 §1; Legates). Nuncios belong to the first diplomatic rank and are always doyen of the diplomatic corps (cf. Vienna, Congress of). Without this precedence, papal envoys have the title of pro-nuntio or inter-nuntio (legates of the second rank). In addition to tasks within the church (cf. CIC 1983, c.364), the nunc…

Constitutions, Apostolic

(130 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In the Catholic Church, the term constitutions (from Lat. constituere, “set up, appoint”) refers to the decrees of a pope or council (cf. CIC/1983, c. 754) as well as the statutes of religious orders. Today, it is used primarily for statutes decreed ¶ by the pope as Constitutiones apostolicae in the style of an ordinary bull (Bullae) and administrative actions by the heads of curial offices. In the law governing religious orders, the statutes of institutes of consecrated life, secular institutes, and societies of the apostolic life are called constitutions. Wilhelm Ree…

Celebret

(94 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In the Catholic Church, this is a letter of recommendation by a priest's own ordinary (Incardination) or superior for admission by the church rector of a different church to celebrate the Eucharist there. A celebret may not be more than a year old (cf. c. 903 CIC/1983; c. 703 CCEO) and is intended to prevent unsanctioned celebrations (cf. c. 1378 § 2, 1° CIC/1983; c. 1443 CCEO). Wilhelm Rees Bibliography K. Lüdicke, MKCIC, canon 903 (as of Nov 1989) E. Miragoli, “Il celebret,” Quaderni di diritto ecclesiale 7, 1994, 435–442.

Reservation

(324 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] is the restriction or deprivation of powers of a subordinate officeholder in accordance with an objection (devolution, prevention) pronounced by a higher authority (pope, bishop, episcopal conference). Decisions regarding ecclesiastical offices and church governance are reserved to the pope or Holy See (public associations: CIC/1983 c. 312 §1; particular churches: c. 373; ecclesiastical provinces: c. 431 §3; episcopal conferences: c. 449 §1; ecumenical councils: c. 338; the episcopal synod: c. 344; cardinals: c. 351; nuncio…

Suffragan, Suffragan Diocese

(97 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] (from Lat. suffragium, “support, right to vote”). In Roman Catholic usage, a suffragan is a diocesan bishop subordinate to a metropolitan ( CIC/1983 cc. 435–437; cf. CCEO cc. 133–139) within an ecclesiastical province ( CIC/1983 cc. 431–446; cf. LG 23, para. 4; CD 39f.). The diocese is called a suffragan bishopric. Wilhelm Rees Bibliography H. Paarhammer, “Kirchenprovinz – Metropolit – Provinzialkonzil,” in: idem, ed., Uni trinoque Domino. FS K. Berg, 1989, 469–496 O. Stoffel, MKCIC cc. 431–446 (as of August 1997) KanR 2, 131997, 309–312, 349 H. Maritz, “Die Kirche…

Legates

(197 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] (apostolic), from Lat. legare (“to dispatch/send someone”), are representatives of the Apostolic See in local churches, states, as well as at international organizations and conferences. Conciliar reform impulses ( CD art. 9f.) led to a reorganization through Pope Paul VI's motu proprio Sollicitudo Omnium Ecclesiarum (Jun 24, 1969; AAS 61, 1969, 473–484) and the CIC/1983 (cc. 362–367). The primary function of the legates is to enable communication between the pope and the local churches (c. 364); their secondary function is to act as…

General Absolution

(336 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] General absolution is a collective sacramental absolution of a group of penitents that ¶ does not require a personal confession of guilt, though it is only applicable in special situations (Repentance, Penitence). As a result of the Tridentine emphasis (Trent, Council of) on individual confession (Confession), general absolution only continued to be practiced in conjunction with grants of indulgence (Indulgence) or in cases such as war and other life-threatening situations (cf. CIC/1917 c. 468; AAS 31 [1939], 711f.; 32 [1940], 571; 36 [1944], 155f.).…

Tonsure

(183 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In Latin canon law, tonsure denotes the shaving of the hair of a (monastic) cleric as a sign that he belongs to God; it can also denote the resulting bald area. Unlike in the Uniate Eastern Churches (cf. Ius Orientale, De personis c. 38 §1, 1°: AAS 49, 1957, 448), as prima tonsura ( ordo ad faciendum clericum) it constituted admission to the clerical state (cf. CIC/1917, c. 108 §1; C. 12 q. 1 c.7 Liber Extra [X] 1.36.6; Incardination, Consecration/Ordination/Dedication). Even under CIC/1917 it was already being discontinued (cf. CIC/1917, c. 136 §1); postconciliar legi…

Incardination

(164 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In Catholic canon law, incardination denotes the obligatory incorporation of all clergy into a clerical collegiate body (particular church, personal prelature, etc.) at the time of their ordination to the diaconate (cf. CIC/1983 cc. 265–272; CCEO cc. 357–366). Through incardination the cleric comes under the authority of his ordinarius proprius and at the same time acquires a legal claim to ministerial employment, supervision, and economic support. In the case of religious institutes and clerical societies of the apostolic life,…

Mensa/Mensal Revenue

(287 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] Mensa/Mensal Revenue, Lat. mensa, English “table, meal,” is church property set aside for the personal support of the bishop ( Mensa episcopalis) or of the chapter ( Mensa capitularis). The mensa developed from the 9th century onward out of the originally undifferentiated property of the church in order to meet the personal needs of clerical communities and individual office holders. Being a separate estate, it was not accessible to third parties. As a consequence of the secularization of 1803 in Germany, th…

Affiliation

(90 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In Catholic canon law, similar to the secular realm, “affiliation” (Lat. affiliare: “adopt”) denotes a special relationship of association; more specifically it is used in terms of aggregation (laws of religious orders and associations), incorporation or incardination and, in the context of the law code governing higher education, the affiliation of a university with a faculty. On the basis of papal privilege, letters of affiliation granted participation in the good works of a religious association. Wilhelm Rees Bibliography E. Magnin, DCC I, 1935, 263f.

Church Rector

(176 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] ( rector ecclesiae). In Catholic canon law, the church rector is a priest who is entrusted with the care of a church that is neither a parish nor a chapter church (Chapter) and that is not associated with a branch of a religious order or with any of the Societies of the Apostolic Life (cf. cc. 556–563 CIC/1983; cc. 304–310 CCEO). As a rule, the diocesan bishop (Bishop: III, 1) freely appoints the church rector (c. 557 §1 CIC/1983). The local ordinary has the authority to recall him (c. 563 in connection with cc. 192–195 CIC/1983). The church rector has worship duties…
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