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Eucrates

(122 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Εὐκράτης; Eukrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos 432/1 BC Athenian strategos in 432/1 BC (IG I3 365.5), participated in a campaign to Macedonia. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] Choregos and strategos in Athens about 415 BC Choregos and strategos in Athens. The brother of  Nicias. In 415 BC accused of the mutilation of the Herms but released (And. 1,47; 66). In 412/1 in Thrace as strategos. In 405/4 again strategos, he resisted together with other generals the peace terms negotiated by Theramenes during the blockade of Athens and, therefore,…

Charicles

(186 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Χαρικλῆς; Chariklês). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, late 5th cent. BC Athenian from the phyle of Oeneis; son of Apollodorus. As a democrat in 415 BC he investigated the Mutilation of the Herms with Peisander (Andoc. 1,36), and in 414/13 was strategos in the Peloponnesian campaign (Thuc. 7,20;26; Diod. Sic. 13,9,2). However, in 411 he followed Peisander over to the ‘Four hundred’ (Lys. 13,73f.). In 404 played a significant role in the oligarchy of the ‘Thirty’ (Xen. Hell. 2,3,2; Mem. 1,2,31; Andoc. 1,101; Aristot. Pol. 1305…

Pasion

(382 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Πασίων/ Pasíōn). [German version] [1] Greek mercenary commander (late 5th cent. BC) P. of Megara led a mercenary unit to Cyrus [3] in Sardis (Xen. An. 1,2,3), but later, in Myriandrus and under unexplained circumstances, he broke away from the army of Cyrus, together with the mercenary leader Xenias  (ibid. 1,4,6-9). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Freedman from Athens, 4th cent. BC The example of P. provides a good insight in the business of an Athenian trapezítēs . Originally, P. was the slave of Antisthenes and Archestratus; after his …

Xanthippus

(704 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ξάνθιππος/ Xánthippos). [German version] [1] Athenian from the Cholargos deme, father of Pericles, around 500 BC Athenian from the Cholargos deme, father of Ariphron, Pericles [1] and a daughter, born c. 520 BC, married to Agariste [2], a niece of the Alcmeonid Cleisthenes [2]. In 489 BC X. argued as plaintiff for Miltiades' [2] conviction. In Aristoteles [6] X. therefore appears not only as a leading demagogue but also as an adversary of Miltiades ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 28,2). In the spring of 484 X. was banished by ostrakismos from Athens, perhaps as an o…

Thrasybulus

(1,055 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Θρασύβουλος/ Thrasýboulos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Miletus [2], ca. 600 BC Prýtanis or aisymnḗtēs, then tyrant (Aristot. Pol. 1305a 16-18) of Miletus [2], at the time of its greatest prosperity around the turn of the 7th to the 6th cent. BC; a contemporary of Thales (Diog. Laert. 1,27). According to Herodotus, T. was able to end a twelve-year war against the Lydian kings Sadyattes [2] and Alyattes (Hdt. 1,17-23; Polyaenus, Strat. 6,47) by a trick (Hdt. 1,22: pretended wealth), and to persuade Alyatte…

Pheidon

(487 words)

Author(s): Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Φείδων; Pheídōn). [German version] [1] Ph. the Corinthian From Corinth, legislator, early 7th cent. BC According to Aristot. Pol. 1265b 12-16, he was one of the 'oldest legislators' who is said to have been the originator of a law in which the number of houses had to equal the number of citizens; it appears therefore to have served to protect the owners of plots of land and to maintain the balance of land ownership ratios ( klḗros ). Like the similar law of Philolaus [1], the law is probably authentic; it was possibly still in use in the time of the Bacchiadae regime (early 7th cent. BC). Hölkeskamp…

Conon

(985 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Κόνων; Kónōn). [German version] [1] Athenian, after 411/10 BC repeatedly stratēgós Athenian, in 413 BC commander in Naupactus, after 411/10 repeatedly stratēgós. C. was bottled up in 406 by the Peloponnesian fleet in the port of Mytilene and lost 30 ships (Xen. Hell. 1,6,14-23; Diod. Sic. 13,77-79). After Athens' victory at the  Arginusae he was freed. Since he did not participate in the battle, he was not deposed and sentenced to death like the other generals (Xen. Hell. 1,6,38-7,1). He escaped the destruction of …

Leptines

(618 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Λεπτίνης; Leptínēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian politician, suggested an alliance with Sparta in 369 BC. In 356, L. carried through a law according to which all exemptions from liturgies which had been granted were to be lifted, and no more were to be granted in the future (Dem. Or. 20 hypoth. 2,2; 20,18). Bathippus brought an action against it on the grounds of illegality, but died shortly thereafter (Dem. Or. 20,144f.). In 355, a new action was brought against the …

Thrasyllus

(670 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Harmon, Roger (Basle)
(Θράσυλλος; Thrásyllos). [German version] [1] Athenian commander in the Peloponnesian War (also Θράσυλος; Thrásylos). From Athens, served as a hoplite in the armed forces on Samos in 411 BC and was significantly involved there in the overthrow of an oligarchic revolution (Thuc. 8,73). Together with Thrasybulus [3], he organized the resistance against the oligarchs in Athens ( tetrakósioi [2]) and, through an oath, obliged the Athenian forces and the Samians to defend their democracy and continue the war (Thuc. 8,75,2). After being elected stratēgoí (Thuc…

Meidias

(508 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μειδίας/ Meidías). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue, 420-400 BC Athenian demagogue. Nothing certain is known about his role in politics (Pl. Alc. 1,120a-b). Between 420 and 400 BC he was mocked by comedians for embezzlement of public funds, as a sycophant and braggart, and for his breeding of quails and cockerels (Aristoph. Av. 1297f.; Metagenes fr. 12; Phryn. fr. 4; 43; Pl. fr. 85; 116 PCG). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9714 Traill, PAA 637170. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, c. 400-330 BC Athenian rhetor, son of Cephisodorus of Anagyrus, born c…

Theogenes

(485 words)

Author(s): Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Θεογένης/ Theogénēs). [German version] [1] Athlete from Thasos, 5th cent. BC Famous fighter from the island of Thasos, Olympic champion in 480 BC (against Euthymus of Locri [1. nos. 191; 214; 222]) in fist-fighting [1. no. 201] and in 476 BC in pankration [1. no. 215]. This constellation of victories was first documented for T. on an inscription in Delphi [2. no. 37] dating from the 2nd cent. BC, which attests that the athlete was adored by his home polis for as long as four generations after his death. Pausanias tells of three victories in Delphi, ten in the Isthmia a…

Cleander

(290 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Κλέανδρος; Kléandros). [German version] [1] C. of Gela Founded tyrannis in Gela in 505 BC Son of Pantares. C. founded c. 505 BC the tyrannis in  Gela and was assassinated after governing for seven years. C. created the preconditions for the rise of Gela under his brother and successor Hippocrates [4] (Hdt. 7,154; Aristot. Pol. 1316a 37f.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography D. Asheri, in: CAH 42, 1988, 758 H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 137. [German version] [2] Spartan commander in Byzantium c. 400 BC Spartan commander ( harmostḗs) in Byzantium. After the Greek…

Iatrocles

(282 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
(Ἰατροκλῆς; Iatroklês). [German version] [1] Athenian, oligarch, 4th cent. BC Athenian, fled in 411 BC after the pro-democratic uprising of the Athenian fleet off Samos with the trierarch  Eratosthenes [1] and others, when the fleet was operating in the Hellespont, to Athens, where he supported the oligarchy (Lys. 12,42). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Traill, PAA 531050. [German version] [2] Son of Pasiphon, approx. 350 BC Son of Pasiphon, in 348 BC captured by  Philippus II during the conquest of  Olynthus but then released (Aeschin. Leg. 15-16…

Perses

(346 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πέρσης; Pérsēs). [German version] [1] Son of the Titan Crius and Eurybea (or Persaeus [1]: H. Hom. 2,24). Son of the Titan Crius [1] and Eurybea, brother of Astraeus and Pallas (Hes. Theog. 375ff.; Apollod. 1,8), husband of Asteria [2], father of Hecate (Hes. Theog. 409ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Helios Son of Helios, brother of Aeetes (Hyg. Fab. 27). He seized power in Colchis from Aeetes, for which he was killed either by Medea (Apollod. 1,83) or her son Medus (Hyg. loc.cit.; Diod. Sic. 4,56,1). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [3] Son of Per…

Banken

(1,853 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Andreau, Jean (Paris)
[English version] I. Alter Orient Banken als Institutionen, deren spezifische Aufgabe darin besteht, den Zahlungsverkehr zu vermitteln, Einlagen anzunehmen und Kredite zu gewähren, hat es im Alten Orient nicht gegeben. Zwar sind Deposit- und Kreditgeschäfte in den altoriental. Gesellschaften in unterschiedlicher Quantität und Intensität sowohl im Bereich der Palast- und Tempelwirtschaft als auch im individuellen privaten Rechts- und Wirtschaftsverkehr bezeugt, doch waren sie stets den jeweils dominie…

Meidias

(469 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom)
(Μειδίας). [English version] [1] Athenischer Demagoge, 420/400 v.Chr. Athenischer Demagoge, über dessen Rolle in der Politik nichts Sicheres bekannt ist (Plat. Alk. 1,120a-b). Zw. 420 und 400 v.Chr. wurde er wegen Unterschlagung öffentlicher Gelder, als Sykophant und Prahler und wegen seiner Wachtel- und Hahnenzucht von Komikern verspottet (Aristoph. Av. 1297f.; Metagenes fr. 12; Phryn. fr. 4; 43; Plat. fr. 85; 116 PCG). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9714  Traill, PAA 637170. [English version] [2] athen. Rhetor, ca. 400-330 v. Chr. Athenischer Rhetor, Sohn d…

Lykomedes

(349 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Λυκομήδης). [English version] [1] König der Dolopes auf Skyros König der Dolopes auf Skyros, Vater der Deïdameia [1]. Weil Achilleus der Tod in Troia vorbestimmt ist, versteckt ihn seine Mutter Thetis als Mädchen verkleidet am Hof des L., wo Achilleus mit Deïdameia den Sohn Neoptolemos zeugt (Apollod. 3,174; schol. Hom. Il. 9,668). Später überreden Odysseus und Phoinix im Auftrag der Griechen L., Neoptolemos nach Troia ziehen zu lassen (Soph. Phil. 343ff.; nur Odysseus bei Hom. Od. 11,506ff. und in der …

Polystratos

(367 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πολύστρατος). [English version] [1] Begüterter Athener, Ratsherr 411 v. Chr. Begüterter Athener, bekleidete mehrfach Ämter, war 411 v. Chr. Ratsherr und nach dem oligarchischen Umsturz an der Auswahl der 5000 Bürger beteiligt, die künftig als einzige polit. Rechte besitzen sollten. In den Seegefechten bei Eretria gegen die Spartaner wurde er verwundet. Nach dem Sturz der 400 ( tetrakósioi ) wurde P. zu einer hohen Geldbuße verurteilt und um 410/409 im Alter von 70 J. erneut wohl wegen seiner polit. Tätigkeit angeklagt; von seiner…

Leptines

(540 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Λεπτίνης). [English version] [1] Athenischer Politiker, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Athenischer Politiker, schlug 369 v.Chr. ein Bündnis mit Sparta vor. 356 hatte L. ein Gesetz durchgebracht, wonach alle gewährten Befreiungen von Liturgien aufgehoben seien und künftig auch keine mehr gewährt werden dürften (Demosth. or. 20 hypoth. 2,2; 20,18). Bathippos erhob dagegen eine Klage wegen Gesetzwidrigkeit, starb aber kurz darauf (Demosth. or. 20,144f.). 355 wurde erneut Klage gegen das Gesetz erhoben, wofür Demosthenes [2…

Hermon

(445 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[English version] [1] Bergmassiv Bergmassiv (maximale Höhe 2814 m) im Süden des Antilibanon; hebr. Ḥærmôn (von ḥrm “Bann, Tabu”), griech. Ἀερμών, lat. Hermon, modern Ǧabal aš-Šaiḫ, “Berg des Weißhaarigen” / Ǧabal aṯ-Ṯalǧ, “Schneeberg”. Dt 3,9 setzt H. mit dem phöniz. Śiriōn und amoritisch Śenīr gleich, von daher wäre H. als Šryn im Ugarit., Šarijana im Hethit. und Saniru im Assyr. zu finden. Der biblischen Überlieferung gilt der H. als die nördl. Grenze des von Moses und Josua eroberten Landes östl. des Jordan (Jos 11,17; Dt 3,8). Aus den biblischen…
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