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Vandals

(758 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] East Germanic tribe or ethnic group. Information about their early history and origin (possibly from southwestern Sweden and northern Denmark [1]) is hypothetical. Late references to wars with the Goti and Langobardi (Iord. Get. 26 f.; Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum 1,7 ff.) are also problematic. According to Plin. HN 4,99 f., V. designates a group of tribes (possibly identical with the Vandilii: Tac. Germ. 2,4). They probably belonged to the cult-based grouping of tribes called the Lugii [1] and were related to the…

Venostes

(112 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] Celtic people, mentioned in the inscription on the Tropaeum Alpium ( Tropaea Augusti ; CIL V 7817; Plin. HN 3,136) after the Trumpilini and Camunni and before the Vennonetes/Vennones and the Isarci; since tribes are listed there in the order of their subjugation to Rome, the V., like the Camunni, may have been subjugated in 16 BC by the Roman pro-consul P. Silius [II 7] (cf. Cass. Dio 54,20,1). Their main area of settlement was in the Vinschgau/Venosta valley, extended eastw…

Veldidena

(196 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Township at the foot of Mount Isel on a cone of debris and alluvial deposits above the River Sill on the route of the Brenner pass (It. Ant. 256; 258 f.; 275; 279 f., possibly identical with the Vetonia in Tab. Peut. 4,2), modern Wilten (a southern district of Innsbruck). Traces from the La Tène period (La Tène culture) where a settlement existed from the 1st to the 4th cent. AD, probably beneath the modern White Canon Abbey (buildings about 500 m2 in area; Mansio ?). To the north of V., three three-aisled horrea ('stor…

Rugi

(368 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] ( Rugii, Rogi; Ῥυγοί/ Rhygoí). East Germanic tribe mentioned by various ancient authors [1. 1213 f.] whose oldest places of residence were probably south-western Norway and the Vistula delta. Tac. Germ. 43,6 is the first to mention them and localizes them between the Oder and the Vistula. In the course of time, they moved south and, in the 1st half of the 5th cent. AD, they appeared on the central Danube and belong to the empire of the Hunni, albeit with their own king. Either startin…

Virunum

(225 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Limes | Pannonia | Rome | Rome Italic-Roman trade centre (Noric iron) on the Magdalensberg (1058 m) in Carinthia in Austria, on the eastern edge of the Zollfeld with a sanctuary on the peak of the mountain. The identity of V. with an indigenous Celtic centre, occasionally identified with Noreia, has yet to be proven. About the middle of the 1st cent. AD, the settlement centre was relocated to the nearby Zollfeld. From the time of Claudius [III 1] a municipium ('Claudium V.', Plin. HN 3,16), until the second hal…

Vistula

(141 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] (Οὐιστούλα/ Ouistoúla). The main river in modern Poland (Amm. Marc. 22,8,38: Bisula; Plin. HN 4,81; 97; 100: Vistla, Visculus; derived from Indo-European *vis = 'to flow': Germanic *Wistlo, Slavonic Visla), German Weichsel, Polish Wisła. The V.'s source rivers, the Black and White Vistula, rise in the Jablunka mountains in the western Beskids, accurately given in Ptol. 2,11,4; 3,5,5 as in the east of the Asciburgium mountains. Its wide-branching delta (modern Bay of Gdansk) formed a natural gateway…

Regina Castra

(446 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Commerce | Legio | Legio | Limes | Raeti, Raetia Legionary fortress on the Danube opposite the mouth of the river Regen, modern Regensburg (Tab. Peut. 4,4; It. Ant. 250,1: Regino; Not. Dign. Occ. 35,17; It. Ant. 259,3; 6: ad castra; milestones [1; 2]: a legione; CIL V 32909: D( omo) Regino; name for the appendant civilian settlement, only passed down in the Medieval period, but possibly going back to a Celtic root: Radaspona). Built in the 70s of the 2nd cent. AD as the garrison quarters of the legio III Italica (CIL III…

Thuringi

(178 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe, formed in the 3rd/4th cents. AD out of the Hermunduri; first mentioned in c. AD 400 (Vegetius Renatus, De mulomedicina 3,6,3). The core settlement of the T. was to the north of the Thuringian Forest as far as the middle reaches of the Albis (modern Elbe). In the 5th cent. the tribe appears to have consolidated itself in its core territory. Immediate neighbours of the T. were the  Saxones to the north and the Alamanni to the south. Originally, their dead were cremated and buried in…
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