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Ḥāfiẓ

(2,543 words)

Author(s): Wickens, G.M.
, ( K̲h̲wād̲j̲a ) S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad S̲h̲īrāzī , Persian lyric poet and panegyrist, commonly considered the pre-eminent master of the g̲h̲azal form. He was born in S̲h̲īrāz, probably in 726/1325-6, though Ḳāsim G̲h̲anī argues for 717/1317 and others favour 720/1320. With a few marked absences, he seems to have spent the greater part of his life in S̲h̲īrāz, for long moving in or near the court-circle of the Muẓaffarid dynasty. He is believed to have died in S̲h̲īrāz. in 792/1390 (or 791/1389), and his tomb is perhaps that city’s best known monument. Though credited with learned works ¶ …

Mat̲h̲al

(14,502 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R. | Wickens, G.M. | Boratav, P.N. | Haywood, J.A. | Knappert, J.
(a., pl. amt̲h̲āl ) proverb, popular saying, derives—similarly to Aram, mat̲h̲lā , Hebr. mās̲h̲āl and Ethiop. mesl , mesālē —from the common Semitic root for “sameness, equality, likeness, equivalent” (cf. Akkad. mas̲h̲ālum “equality”, mis̲h̲lum “half”). In Arabic, to create a proverb is fa-arsala( t) , or d̲j̲aʿala ( t) hu mat̲h̲al an, fa-ḍaraba ( t) bihi ’l-mat̲h̲al a; to become proverbial is ḍuriba bihi ’l-mat̲h̲alu , mat̲h̲al un yuḍrabu fa-d̲h̲ahaba ( t), or d̲j̲arā / d̲j̲arat mat̲h̲al an, or, simply, fa-ṣāra mat̲h̲al an. 1. In Arabic i. Definition ii. Arabic proverbs (1) Earlie…

Madīḥ, Madḥ

(10,231 words)

Author(s): Wickens, G.M. | Clinton, J.W. | Stewart Robinson, J. | Haywood, J.A. | Knappert, J.
(a.), the normal technical terms in Arabic and other Islamic literatures for the genre of panegyric poetry, the individual poem being usually referred to as umdūḥa (pl. amādīḥ ) or madīḥa (pl. madāʾiḥ ). The author himself is called mādiḥ or, as considered professionally, maddāḥ . The root itself is sometimes used without technical connotations, as also are commonly the various other roots signifying "praise": ḥ-m-d, m-d̲j̲-d, ḳ-r-ẓ, t̲h̲-n-y, ṭ-r-w/y, etc. 1. In Arabic literature. As both an independent unit and a component of the ḳaṣīda [ q.v.], the genre has been so widespread …