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Olcades

(86 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian people in the region of modern Alcoy, north of Alicante in southeastern Spain, with a centre in Althaea or Cartana (Pol. 3,13f.; 33,9; Liv. 21,5; site unknown); subjugated by Hannibal [4] straight after he was appointed strategos in 221 BC. In 219 the O. sent troops to Africa to secure the Libyan coast. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography P. Barceló, Hannibal, 1998, 35  G.V. Sumner, Roman Policy in Spain before the Hannibalic War, in: HSPh 72, 1967, 205-246, esp. 215f.  Tovar 2, 94f.

Segisamo

(64 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Station on the road from Tarraco to Asturica at modern Sasamón (Str. 3,4,13; Plin. HN 3,26; Ptol. 2,6,50; CIL II Suppl. p. 932 f.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography P. Barceló, Das kantabrische Gebirge im Altertum, in: E. Olshausen, H. Sonnabend (eds.), Gebirgsland als Lebensraum (Geographica Historica 8), 1996, 53-61, plate XIX  F. J. Lomas Salmonte, Asturia prerromana y altoimperial, 1989, 87  TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 207 f.

Ilorci

(78 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian town in the area of the upper  Baetis, with the tomb of one of the two Scipios who fell in 211 BC, probably Cn. Scipio (Plin. HN 3,25). The equation of I. with the modern Lorca (province of Murcia) is disputed. CIL II p. 476. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 91 J. B. Keune, s.v. I., RE Suppl. 3, 1229 G. Alföldy, Röm. Städtewesen auf der neukastilischen Hochebene, 1981, 38.

Cantabri

(147 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Alongside the  Astures, the C. were the most important tribe of the Spanish Atlantic coastal region. The main income of this tribe, which was split up into various groups, was derived from breeding cattle in the mountainous regions of the modern districts of Asturia and Santander; arable farming was very much of secondary importance only. Food shortages in the mountains may have been the motivation for the C.'s raids on the  Vaccaei, who settled in the fertile Duero valley. The C.…

Suessetani

(76 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe (Liv. 25,34,6; 28,24,4; 34,20,1 on events in the years 210 to 184 BC; Plin. HN 3,24: 'Suessetania') between the Iberus [1] (Ebro) and the Pyrenees [2], between Vascones in the west, Sedetani in the south and Lacetani in the east; Corbio [2] (location unknown) was one of its settlement centres (Liv. 39,42,1). The S. may have been identical with the Cessetani. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 215.

Italica

(247 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Hispania, Iberia City near Santiponce in the vicinity of Seville. Founded in 206 BC by P. Cornelius Scipio and settled with veterans (App. Hisp. 38) as a vicus civium Romanorum (CIL II 1119). From the time of Caesar, I. appears as a municipium (Bell. Alex. 52,4; coins), from the time of Hadrian (AD 117-138) as a colonia (Gell. NA 16,13,4; CIL II 1135; XI 2699; XII 1856). I. was the home of the emperors Trajan and Hadrian, but probably not that of the poet Silius Italicus. The legio VII (CIL II 1125f.) and the cohors III Gallica

Gerunda

(149 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Pyrenean peninsula (modern Gerona). The place name is probably Iberian (an almost complete collection of toponymical evidence in [1. 2015]). It is debatable whether the Iberian coins with Krsa (?) on it refer to G. [2. 81]. The place is frequently mentioned in inscriptions (CIL II p. 614; Suppl. p. 1145). According to Plin. HN 3,23, G. was an oppidum civium Latinorum. In the Christian period G. played a role as the city of the martyr Felix (died during the reign of Diocletian; Prudent. 4,2…

Il(l)urco

(74 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pyrenean peninsula Iberian town in the province of  Hispania Baetica, modern Pinos Puente near Illora la Vieja west of Granada (Plin. HN 3,10). Its location is certain from inscriptions (CIL II p. 284; Suppl. p. 1147). Coins [1. 107f.; 2. 1234]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Vives, La moneda hispánica 3, 1924 2 J. B. Keune, s.v. I., RE Suppl. 3, 1233-1235. Tovar 1, 136; 3, 163ff.

Berones

(41 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtic tribe on the middle Iberus in La Rioja. Their most important towns were Tricio, Oliba and  Vareia (Liv. fr. 91: validissima urbs). Sertorius occupied the tribe's territory in 76 BC. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 77-78.

Tagonius

(50 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] River in the territory of the Carpetani (Plut. Sertorius 17,2), modern Tajuña. It rises in the extreme east of the Sierra de Guadalajara at Maranchón, flows past Caracca and into the Tagus (Tajo) on its right side. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 216.

Lauro

(211 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] City between Saguntum and Valentia Iberian [1] city between Saguntum and Valentia on the hill of La Pedrera [2; 3]; the settlement from the Roman period lies somewhat to its west on the site of modern Puig. L. was destroyed in the battles between Pompey and Sertorius (Plut. Sertorius 18, Plut. Pompey 18; App. B Civ. 1,109; Frontin. Str. 2,5,31; Oros. 5,23,6f.). Mentioned by Plin. HN 14,71 because of its excellent wine. Coins [4], inscription CIL II 3875, XV 4577f. Viticulture Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 2, 163 2 C. Konrad, Plutarch's Sertorius. A H…

Munigua

(173 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town in southern Spain (Sierra Morena) near modern Villanueva de las Minas in the province of Seville (the form of the name has been deduced from municipium [ Flavium] Muniguense, CIL II 1049-1051 [2]), modern Castillo de Mulva. Probably an Iberian [1] place name. Under Vespasian (AD 69-79) municipium; M. had a special official to apply municipal rights, known as the promotor (?) iuris Latini (CIL II 1052). In the 2nd cent., M. became a prosperous mining town with a large terraced sanctuary (emperor cult?) [3; 4]. Around AD 300, M. was abandon…

Arbucale

(106 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Described in Pol. 3,14,1 (cf. Liv. 21,5,6) as a city of the  Vaccaei (in the provinces of Segovia and Salamanca) [1. 98]. Further references in [2]. Its location is unknown: Toro and Alba de Tormes are considered as possibilities [1. 323]. In 220 BC, after putting up a strong resistance, the city had to surrender to  Hannibal. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Tovar 3, 1989 2 E. Hübner, s. v. A., RE 2,1, 420-421. R. Martin Valls, G. Delibes de Castro, Toro ciudad celtibérica, in: Boletín del Seminario de Estudios de Arte y Arqueologia 43, 1977, 306 ff. F. Wattemb…

Segobriga

(102 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Ibero-Roman city Ibero-Roman city (Str. 3,4,13: Σεγοβρίγα/ Segobríga; Ptol. 2,6,56: Σεγουβία/ Segoubía; Plin. HN 3,25), Ruins - including an amphitheatre - on the Cabeza del Griego hill, 2 Roman miles to the south of Saelices (province of Cuenca). S. was a member of the  conventus of Carthago Nova (CIL II 4252). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Bishopric at Castellón Bishopric at Castellón, suffragan to Tarragona, later to Cartagena, modern Segorbe [1]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 M. Almagro, Historía de Albarracín y su sierra…

Egelasta

(85 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This Iberian [1. 58] settlement was located near the salines of Men Baca between  Castulo and Linares and Vilches (CIL II 5091, p. 710) and belonged to the conventus of  Carthago Nova (Plin. HN 3,25). The identification with Iniesta in [2. 175] is mistaken. Pliny praised the salt of Egelasta because of its unique medicinal effect (HN 31,80). Otherwise only rarely mentioned (Str. 3,4,9; Ptol. 2,6,56, Egelésta). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten, Numantia 1, 1914 2 Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada 19. Tovar, 3, 1989, 155f., 234.

Noega

(152 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Νοῖγα/ Noîga). [German version] [1] Coastal city in northern Spain Coastal city in northern Spain in the territory of the Astures (Asturia), east of the Melsus (= Nelo in Plin. HN 4,111; modern Nalón), possibly near Gijón (Str. 3,4,20; Ptol. 2,6,6: Νοῖγα Οὐκεσία/ Noîga Oukesía). Mela 3,113-15 has the most detailed information on its location; but despite intense discussion the location remains unclear. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography C.Fernández Ochoa, Noega-Gigia: reflexiones sobre dos enclaves astur-romanos, in: Leyenda y arqueología de las ciudades pre…

Ilipula

(183 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
There were several towns with this name in the province of  Hispania Baetica [3. 1225]. Often they are difficult to distinguish from Ilipa, Ilipla, Elepla, Elipla [1]. Only the most important are briefly listed here. [German version] [1] I. Magna (Ptol. 2,4,9) or I. Laus ( Iulia?, Plin. HN 3,10). Location unknown. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] I. Minor (Plin. HN 3,12; CIL II 1469f.), modern Repla, south of Osuna. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [3] I., Ilipla ([2]; Ptol. 2,410). Between  Baetis and Anas, modern Niebla. The ruins of the old town a…

Hispania Tarraconensis, Hispania Citerior

(251 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The province Hispania Tarraconensis (HT) was established by the administrative reorganization of the Iberian peninsula by Augustus in 27 BC (Cass. Dio 80,2). Initially it encompassed the northeastern half of Hispania and was the largest of the three Hispanic provinces. In the north it extended to the Atlantic and the Pyrenees, in the east the Mediterranean formed a natural border, including the Balearics, in the south it was bounded by Baetica, and in the west by Lusitania. As the…

Anas

(60 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Ἄνας; Ánas) Modern Guadiana, next to the Guadalquivir (Baetis), the most important river of southern Spain. It rises in Ruidera (Ciudad Real province); in antiquity, it branched into two arms (Avien. Or. m. 208; Str. 3,1,9) at its mouth into the Atlantic near Ayamonte, close to the Spanish-Portuguese border. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 1989, 179.

Cinginnia

(46 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Lusitanian settlement of unknown location. Val. Max. 6,4,1 reports an incident when, during his campaign of 136 BC, D. Iunius Brutus offered a large amount of gold to the besieged inhabitants of C., if they capitulated. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 270.

Emporiae

(567 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | | Etrusci, Etruria | Hispania, Iberia | Colonization | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula (Emporion). Sea-trading port, now Ampurias, on the eastern edge of the Pyrenees, in the province Gerona, on the Costa Brava. Sources: [1; 2]. Archaeological activity that was unparalleled in Spain took place here from the start of the 20th cent. and has been extensively covered in several publications [3. 334ff.; 4. 66ff.; 5. 94; 6; 7; 8. 273ff.]. The inscriptions have pr…

Munda

(195 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
Iberian [1] name of two cities. [German version] [1] City in southern Spain This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Hispania, Iberia City in southern Spain, modern-day Montilla near Córdoba (Bell. Hisp. 30ff. [2]; Plin. HN 3,12). Scene of two ancient battles: It was there that Cn. Cornelius [I 77] Scipio defeated the Carthaginians (Liv. 24,42,1-4) in 214 BC; in 45 BC Caesar defeated the Pompeians there. The latter occasion probably marked the final destruction of M. (Bell. Hisp. 41). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] City in Celtiberia City in Celtiberia, con…

Olisippo

(189 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni City on the right bank at the mouth of the Tagus (Tejo) in Lusitania, modern Lisboa (Lisbon) in Portugal. Attested variant names: Olisipo, It. Ant. 416,4; 418,7; 419,7; 420,8; Olisipona, Tab. Peut. 1,1; Ὀλυσιπών/ Olysipṓn, Str. 3,3,1; Olisippo: Plin. HN 4,116f.; Ulisippo, Mela 3,1,8; Ὀλιοσείπων/ Olioseípōn, Ptol. 2,5,3. There was a palaeolithic settlement on the hill of Castelo São Jorge on the Tejo. Important trade centre. In 138 BC, O. was the basis for consul…

Grac(c)urris

(125 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town in the upper Ebro valley; precise location unknown. In 179 BC founded as a Gracchuris by Tib. Sempronius Gracchus in place of the Iberian town of Ilurcis (Liv. Epitome 41; Festus p. 86,5). G. is mentioned later in the war against Sertorius in 76 BC (Liv. Epitome 41). Pliny (HN 3,24) names G. among the oppida Latii veteris of the conventus of Caesaraugusta. There are no inscriptions, but G. appears on several coins from the time of Tiberius as a municipium [1. 113f.]. Later G. is no longer mentioned. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Vives, La moneda hispánic…

Cempsi

(70 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Only mentioned by Avien. 182ff. and by Dionys. Per. 338. They were probably a Celtic tribe (different in [1. 978]), who originally lived on the island of Cartare (probably in the  Baetis delta), later south of the Tagus and in the Anas valley. Possibly identical with the Celtici (cf. Str. 3,1,6). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1. A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 1, 21955, 104ff. Tovar 2, 195f.

Callaici

(149 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtic tribe in north-western Hispania, giving its name to the modern region of Galicia. First mentioned in connection with the Celtiberian Wars (181-133 BC) (App. Ib. 300). The Roman governor Iunius Brutus, who crushed them between 138 and 136 BC, was given the cognomen Callaicus. Caesar, too, had dealings with them during his propraetorship in 60 BC. For a time, the C. appeared alongside the  Astures and  Cantabri, when Augustus was at war with these and subjugated them finally …

Cauca

(85 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian town, modern Coca (province of Segovia). First mentioned in the context of the brutal war conducted by  Lucullus in 151 BC (App. Ib. 51f.). Scipio, too, laid the town to ruins in the course of his battle against Numantia (App. Ib. 89). In the imperial age, the town belonged to the conventus of  Clunia (Plin. HN 3,26), and gained fame as the birthplace of emperor  Theodosius I (Zos. 4,24,4). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 334 F. Wattemberg, La región vaccea, 1959.

Bilbilis

(131 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Celtiberian settlement on the Cerro de Bámbola near Calatayd (province of Zaragoza); its name is possibly derived from the river Birbilis (Just. Epit. 44,38), an alternative name for the Salo, or the name of one of its tributaries. In Roman times, the road from Augusta [2] Emerita to Caesaraugusta passed through B. It is a matter of debate whether B. was a   colonia or a   municipium . It is the birthplace of Martial, who extolled the wealth of his homeland. The town fell into ruin in…

Baecula

(73 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Punic Wars Settlement in the mining area on the upper  Baetis (modern Bailen). In 208 BC, it was the location of one of the decisive battles of the Second Punic War, in which Hasdrubal was defeated by P.C. Scipio Africanus. Hasdrubal subsequently departed from Spain (Pol. 10,38,7; 11,20,5; Liv. 27,18,1; 28,13,5; App. Ib. 24). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 153-154.

Pyrene

(485 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] City in the easternmost Pyrenees near Rhode (Πυρήνη; Pyrḗnē). City of Iberian or Phocaean origin in the region between the Sordi and the Ceretes peoples (Avien. 559), therefore in the easternmost Pyrenees (P. [2]) near Rhode. Here, according to Hdt. 2,33, was the source of the Istrus [2] (Danube); P. was a rich city, seven days' journey from Pylae [1] Gadeirides (Avien. 562-565) and often visited by merchants from Massalia. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 460. [German version] [2] Mountains, modern Pyrenees (Πυρήνη/ Pyrḗnē, Πυρηναῖα/ Pyrēnaîa, Πυρ…

Cerretani

(69 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe of the southern Pyrenees, province of Cerona (Str. 3,4,11). Earliest mention in Avien. Or. mar. 550 ( Ceretes). Steph. Byz. knows of a city called Brachyle in the land of the C. They were famous for the quality of their ham (Mart. 13,54). In the imperial age, the tribe divided into Iuliani and Augustani (Plin. HN 3,23). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 44f., 447.

Maesesses

(63 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Tribe of the Bastetani (Liv. 28,3,3) in eastern Andalusia in a fertile region with silver mines. In 207 BC their region was conquered by P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio [1]. Orongis (probably identical with Aurgi, modern Jaén [2]) was situated here. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 131 2 Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 84.

Calagurris

(168 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Fibularia This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity A settlement of the  Vascones, probably the modern Loarre in the Spanish province of Huesca in Spain. Bishop Ianuarius, one of the participants in the Council of Iliberis, may have come from C. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 381-382. [German version] [2] Nasica This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Iberian town on the Iberus in the Spanish province of Zaragoza, modern Calahorra. It played a part in the Celtiberian Wars (181-133 BC) and i…

Sicoris

(49 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Left-hand tributary of the Iberus [2] (Ebro) in Hispania Tarraconensis (Caes. Civ. 1,40,1; 48,3; 61,1; 63,1; Plin.  HN 3,24), modern Segre. It rises in the territory of the Cerretani and in its course passes through Ilerda (Lérida). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K/J 31 Tarraco 146 f.

Ilurcavones

(54 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Ilercavones). An Iberian tribe around Dertosa, on the lower Ebro. They submitted to the Romans in 218 BC (Liv. 21,60,3; for later times cf. also Liv. 22,21,6; Caes. B Civ. 1,60,2; Ptol. 2,6,16; Plin. HN 3,21). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 4-8, 1925ff. (Index) Tovar 3, 34f.

Mellaria

(153 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Μελλαρία; Mellaría). The name of two cities. According to [3], it is uncertain whether it is Iberian, Celtic or Latin; according to [1; 2. vol. 8, 352] it is Latin for ‘City of Honey’). [German version] [1] City in the western part of the Strait of Gibraltar In the western part of the Strait of Gibraltar, between Traducta (near modern Tarifa) and Baelo, known from Sertorius' landing near M. in 80 BC (Plut. Sertorius 12; [2. vol. 4, 169]; cf. Strab. 3,1,8; Mela 2,96; Plin. HN 3,7; Ptol. 2,4,6; It. Ant. 407,2). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] City near modern Fuente Ovejuna M. (Baetu…

Mirobriga

(169 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Merobriga). Name of three towns in Spain (celtic ‘fort of Miro’ [1. 599]). [German version] [1] Town near modern Capilla This item can be found on the following maps: Town near modern Capilla east of Mérida near Almadén (cf. CIL II 2365f.), located by Plin. HN 3,14 in Baeturia Turdolorum and mentioned among the oppida non ignobilia (cf. Ptol. 2,4,10; 6,58; Itin. Anton. 444,6) [2; 3] Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Town in the area of Salmantica Town in the area of Salmantica (modern Salamanca) and Bletisa (modern Ledesma): CIL II 858f. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) …

Astigi(s)

(127 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae The modern Ecija on the Genil river (province of Seville), capital of one of the four conventus of the Baetica (Plin. HN 3,12); after 27 BC, it became an Augustan colony with the epithet Firma (CIL II 1471; 1630), part of the tribus Papiria. A. was probably the most important exporter of oil in Hispania, as demonstrated by the numerous broken amphorae found on Monte Testaccio in Rome. In late antiquity, A. was an important diocese, whose bishops attended most of the Hispanic councils. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliograph…

Baetulo

(37 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] River (modern Besos) and municipium (modern Badalona) of the  Lacetani on the eastern coast of Spain (Mela 2,90; Plin. HN 3,22; Ptol. 2,6,19; CIL II 4606-4608; 4611). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Schulten 1, 1974, 305.

Salpensa

(72 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Salpesa). Iberian city, in the Roman era municipium Flavium Salpensanum, modern Cortijo de la Coria (Utrera, province of Sevilla). An inscription with the municipal charter of S. (AD 82/84) was found near Malaca (ILS 6089; [1. 259 ff.]). Lex Salpensana Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 J. L. López Castro, Hispania Poena, 1995. Tovar 1, 145 f.  A. Caballos, W. Eck, F. Fernández, Das Senatus consultum de Cn. Pisone patre, 1996, 245.

Carteia

(127 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Located close to the mouth of the Guadarranque near Algeciras in Spain (near Cieza, province of Murcia), C. played an important role because of its Phoenician acculturation. During the Second Punic War, the Romans defeated the fleet of the Carthaginian  Adherbal [3] near C. in 206 BC. From the base of C., the Roman general  Laelius began the negotiations which were to lead to the surrender of  Gades (Liv. 28,30,3). In 171 BC, C. became a colonia Latina libertorum, the first outside Italy. The town remained loyal to Rome throughout, e.g. in the war against V…

Contrebia

(204 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Celtic for ‘communal dwelling’ [1. 1109]). Fortress retreat of the Celtiberian  Lusones [1. 136]. Its location cannot be accurately established; probably not identical with today's Daroca, C. was nevertheless nearby, in the Hiloca valley south-west of Zaragoza ([1. 136; 2. 212]; see also the conjectures in [4. 247]). Epigraphical evidence is almost entirely lacking (only CIL II 4935?), but, on the other hand, coins have been found with Iberian legends [5. 93]. C. is mentioned fairly often in the context of the Celtiberian wars (181 BC: Liv. 40,33; App. Ib. 42 [ Co…

Baetis

(113 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Modern river Guadalquivir. Its ancient course was the same as today, but originally, its delta had four branches (Avien. 288ff.), and two in the Augustan period (Str. 3,1,9; 2,11); nowadays, it discharges into the Atlantic from a single course; the silted branches of the delta can still be detected. Its high water levels seem to have remained unchanged: large seagoing vessels sailed upriver to Hispalis, small ones to Ilipa, and river barges to Corduba (Str. 3,2,3). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Casal, El Guadalquivir, 1975 A. Ruiz Rodriguez, M. Molinos…

Osca

(214 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town of the Ilergetes (Itin. Anton. 391,5; 451,5; Ptol. 2,6,68: in the lands of the Ilergetes, Plin. HN 3,24: of the Suessetani; [1]) on the southern slopes of the Pyrenees, today's Huesca. First mentioned in the ovatio celebrated by Helvius [I 2] in 195 BC after the victory over the Celtiberi near Illiturgis on the Baetis; on that occasion, he brought 119439 coins made of argentum Oscense ('silver from O.') to Aerarium (Liv. 34,10,4). In 180 BC, Fulvius [I 12], too, triumphed over the Celtiberi and brought home 173200 coins from O. in his triu…

Cessetani

(97 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe [2. 1032]. Within its territory was the town of Cissa, which is mentioned for 218 BC (Pol. 3,76,5; Liv. 21,60,7 [1. 57, 60]; appearing as Ces(s)e on many Iberian coins [3. 83f. cf. 65-78]). Its most likely site was north of the Iberus near Tarraco. Undoubtedly, the C. gave their name to the regio Cessetania (Plin. HN 3,21; for comment on the variation of Kossetanio: Ptol. 2,6,17); [4. 1995]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935 2 Holder 1 3 A. Vives, La Moneda Hispánica 2, 1924 4 E. Hübner, s.v. C., R…

Contestani(a)

(74 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Area and tribe between Cartagena and Júcar in the province of Murcia and Valencia; the name appears to be Celtic [1. 1107]. C. is mentioned in the context of the Sertorius war (Liv. fr. bk. 91), also in Plin. HN 3,19f.; Ptol. 2,6,14,61; see also [2. 131; 3. 222]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1 2 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 1, 21955 3 Id.., Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 6, 1952. L. Conesa, Contestania ibérica, 1972 Tovar 3, 31.

Palantia

(125 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Principal town of the Vaccaei (ILS 6096; Plin. HN 3,26; Mela 2,88; It. Ant. 449; Παλλαντία/ Pallantía: Str. 3,4,13; App. Ill. 231 ( et al.); Ptol. 2,6,50; Orus. 7,40,8), modern Palencia on the Carrión river in Castilla la Vieja. P. was repeatedly besieged in vain by the Romans in the Celtiberian Wars (153-134 BC). After being subjugated, P. was one of the peregrine communities of the conventus Cluniensis (Plin. l.c.). In AD 409 the Vandals, Suebi and West Goths (Goti) advanced across of the territory of P., plundering as they went (Orus. l.c.): The city was destroyed by …

Celtiberi

(325 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] It used to be the accepted view that C. were ‘Iberian Celts’, i.e. Celts who had migrated into Iberian lands (first in Str. 3,4,5). A. Schulten, by contrast, postulated that they were ‘Celtic Iberians’, i.e. Iberians who had advanced from the east coast into Celtic areas. The C. inhabited a large part of the central Spanish plateau (Meseta). They never formed a political unit; of significance in this context is the fact that they had no collective name for referring to themselves.…

Termes

(146 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Τέρμες/ Térmes). City in the territory of the Celtiberic Arevaci (Plin. HN 3,27; Flor. Epit. 2,19,9; Ptol. 2,6,56), at modern Tiermes (Montejo de Liceras). With Numantia a focus of the Celtiberic Wars in 154-133 BC. T. also asserted itself after the fall of Numantia in 133 BC and was not occupied until 98 BC by T. Didius [I 4] (App. Ib. 431). The latter caused the inhabitants of T. to resettle in the Sobre valley. Remains of a Celtiberic settlement on sandstone rocks survive: rock habitations, rock walls, necropolis in Carratiermes (6th cent. BC to 1st cent. AD…

Pyrenaei Portus

(65 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Port on the northeast coast of Spain, to the north of Rhode (modern Ciutadella de Roses), where Cato [1] broke his voyage to his province of Hispania Citerior in 195 BC (Liv. 34,8,5). PP probably corresponds to Portus Veneris (modern Port-Vendres on Cape Béar). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography J. Jannoray, s. v. Portus Veneris (1), RE 22, 411-418, bes. 415 f.
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