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Egelasta

(85 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This Iberian [1. 58] settlement was located near the salines of Men Baca between  Castulo and Linares and Vilches (CIL II 5091, p. 710) and belonged to the conventus of  Carthago Nova (Plin. HN 3,25). The identification with Iniesta in [2. 175] is mistaken. Pliny praised the salt of Egelasta because of its unique medicinal effect (HN 31,80). Otherwise only rarely mentioned (Str. 3,4,9; Ptol. 2,6,56, Egelésta). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten, Numantia 1, 1914 2 Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada 19. Tovar, 3, 1989, 155f., 234.

Noega

(152 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Νοῖγα/ Noîga). [German version] [1] Coastal city in northern Spain Coastal city in northern Spain in the territory of the Astures (Asturia), east of the Melsus (= Nelo in Plin. HN 4,111; modern Nalón), possibly near Gijón (Str. 3,4,20; Ptol. 2,6,6: Νοῖγα Οὐκεσία/ Noîga Oukesía). Mela 3,113-15 has the most detailed information on its location; but despite intense discussion the location remains unclear. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography C.Fernández Ochoa, Noega-Gigia: reflexiones sobre dos enclaves astur-romanos, in: Leyenda y arqueología de las ciudades pre…

Bastetani, Bastuli

(103 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The name of this tribe from southern Spain is probably derived from the city of Basti (today's Baza), which must be its principal location (Ptol. 2,6,13; 60). After his conquest of Carthago Nova in AD 207, P.  Scipio sent his brother L. to the B., where the latter defeated the Carthaginian  Mago (Liv. 28,1f.; Zon. 9,8,8). On the role of the B. in the revolt of  Viriatus, cf. App. Ib. 66. There is evidence for Bastetania still for the time of the West Goths, when Leovigild fought the Byzantines there (Chron. min. 2,212,3). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3,26f.

Consabura

(75 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Remains of this probably Celtic town [1. 1105] near Consuegra south of Toledo (CIL II p. 431; [3. 177]). Frontin. Str. 4,5,19 mentions C. in the context of the war with Sertorius in 78 BC. Other attestations: Plin. HN 3,25; Ptol. 2,6,57; It. Ant. 446,6; Geogr. Rav. 313,15; CIL II 2,2166; 4211. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1  E. Hübner, s.v. C., RE IV I, 889 3 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 4, 1937. Tovar 3, 222-224.

Arevaci

(62 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberians, who settled in Old Castile (Soria province), first mentioned in conjunction with the Numantine War (cf. Pol. 35,2); under the leadership of  Viriatus and  Sertorius, they put up stubborn resistance to the Romans. In imperial times, they provided cavalry units for the Roman army (CIL XVI 26 ff.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography W. Schüle, Die Meseta-Kulturen der iberischen Halbinsel, 1969.

Aeso

(66 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town of the  Lacetani, modern Isona, part of the conventus Tarraconensis (Plin. HN 3,23) and enrolled in the tribus Quirina, minted coins with the Iberian legend E-S-O [1. II,63; MLI, 32]. An episcopus ecclesiae Aesonensis took part in the sixth Council of Toledo (Conc. 6; Fuentes Históricas Aragonenses 9,294). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Vives y Escudero, La moneda hispánica, 1926. Tovar 3, 1989, 451.

Salo

(94 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Right tributary of the Iberus [1] (modern Ebro) in Celtiberia (Celtiberi), modern Jalón. In its course, it passes Ocilis, Arcobriga, Aquae Bilbilitanorum, Bilbilis, Nertobriga [1] and Allobone. Its ice-cold water was especially suited for tempering iron (Mart. 1,49,12; 4,55,15; 12,21,1). In the Celtiberian Wars (2nd cent. BC), its valley was the base of operations for the Romans (App. Hisp. 188 ff.; [1]). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 W. V. Harris, Roman Expansion in the West III. Spain, in: CAH 8, 21989, 118-142. Schulten, Landeskunde 2, 314 f.  TIR K 3…

Lacobriga

(186 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
There were three towns of this Celtic [1] name. [German version] [1] Town in the north of Palantia In the territory of the Vaccaei, north of Palantia in northern Spain ([2]; Plin. HN 3,26; Ptol. 2,6,49; It. Ant. 395,1; 449,3; 454,1). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Lusitanian town near modern Lagos Lusitanian town (Plut. Sertorius 13,7; Ptol. 2,5,5; Mela 3,7). Many remains on the Monte de Figuerola near modern Lagos in the Algarve [3], possibly identical to the diocese Laniobrensis ecclesia, mentioned often in ecclesiastical documents [2. 134; 4; 5; 6]. Barceló, Pedro (Po…

Damania

(117 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (name on Iberian coins [1. no. 86]: dmaniu) was an oppidum stipendiarium of the conventus of Caesaraugusta (Plin. HN 3,24) and part of the tribe of the Sedetani or Edetani (Ptol. 2,6,62); Hübner [2] presumes here that there were two different tribes while Schulten sees both as one (cf. [3. 229]). In spite of inscriptions (CIL II 2960; 3990; 4249) its position cannot be ascertained more exactly. Spanish local researchers have identified it as modern Mediana (province of Zaragoza), others as Domeño (province of Valencia) [4. 859]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography…

Gigurri

(161 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Georres, Giorres). In Valdeorras on the upper Sil (Province of Orense) the inscription ILS I 2079 was found on which a Roman soldier with the Celtic epithet (according to [2. 1089]) Reburrus is called Gigurrus Calubrigensis. Calubriga is the (according to [1. 705]) Celtic name of an unknown town (assumptions in this regard in [3. 95]). The Asturian tribe of the G. is mentioned on several occasions (Plin. HN 3,28; Ptol. 2,6,37; Geogr. Rav. 4,45). As Valdeorras was called Val de Geurrez or Jurrez in the Middle Ages…

Corduba

(334 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Wine | | Coloniae | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia | Limes | Pyrenean peninsula | Rome | Rome The modern Córdoba on the bank of the Guadalquivir ( Baetis), which is navigable from C. to its mouth; the city lies at the centre of a region of highly fertile soils. C. also owes its significance to favourable transport links, the old via Herculea, and the surrounding mining industry. The region contained important centres of the Tartessian culture in pre-Roman times (Colina de los Quemados, Montoro). The …

Dertosa

(295 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Punic Wars In the 6th cent. BC the rich trading city of Tyrichae lay on the mouth of the Ebro (Avien. Ora maritima 498-503). A ‘very rich’ city is again mentioned there for 215 BC: Hibera (Liv. 23,28,10). It is doubtless identical with the later Hibera Iulia Ilercavonia (for the tribe Ilercavones see [4. 1092]) D. (according to [1. 1269], Iberian, according to [2. 63; 3. 4, 233f.], Ligurian). According to Livy, Hibera lay on the southern bank and this is consistent with the favour…

Salmantica

(106 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Hispania, Iberia City of the Vaccaei (Pol. 3,14,1; 3,14,3: Ἑλμαντική/ Helmantikḗ; Liv. 21,5,6: Hermandica; Polyaenus, Strat. 7,48: Σαλμαντίς/ Salmantís; Ptol. 2,5,9: Σαλμάντικα/ Salmántika; It. Ant. 434,4: Salmatice; CIL II 857; 859; 870: S.), modern Salamanca. Conquered by Hannibal [4] in 220 BC to secure a grain supply for his army. Roman municipium on the army road from Augusta [2] Emerita to Asturica Augusta. A Roman bridge over the Tormes still stands there today. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography P. Barceló, A…

Barcino(na)

(103 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Pyrenean peninsula The present-day Barcelona was an Iberian settlement of the  Lacetani (Mela 2,90; Plin. HN 3,22; Ptol. 2,6, 18). During the Civil War, B. was on Caesar's side. B. received the name Faventia Julia Augusta Pia (or Paterna?) Immunis. B. reached its highest peak during Roman imperial times. The city attained its special significance not least because of its bishops -- under the  Visigoths, when the decline of Tarraco started. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 438-440 R. W…

Olisippo

(189 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni City on the right bank at the mouth of the Tagus (Tejo) in Lusitania, modern Lisboa (Lisbon) in Portugal. Attested variant names: Olisipo, It. Ant. 416,4; 418,7; 419,7; 420,8; Olisipona, Tab. Peut. 1,1; Ὀλυσιπών/ Olysipṓn, Str. 3,3,1; Olisippo: Plin. HN 4,116f.; Ulisippo, Mela 3,1,8; Ὀλιοσείπων/ Olioseípōn, Ptol. 2,5,3. There was a palaeolithic settlement on the hill of Castelo São Jorge on the Tejo. Important trade centre. In 138 BC, O. was the basis for consul…

Ilipula

(183 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
There were several towns with this name in the province of  Hispania Baetica [3. 1225]. Often they are difficult to distinguish from Ilipa, Ilipla, Elepla, Elipla [1]. Only the most important are briefly listed here. [German version] [1] I. Magna (Ptol. 2,4,9) or I. Laus ( Iulia?, Plin. HN 3,10). Location unknown. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] I. Minor (Plin. HN 3,12; CIL II 1469f.), modern Repla, south of Osuna. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [3] I., Ilipla ([2]; Ptol. 2,410). Between  Baetis and Anas, modern Niebla. The ruins of the old town a…

Hispania Tarraconensis, Hispania Citerior

(251 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The province Hispania Tarraconensis (HT) was established by the administrative reorganization of the Iberian peninsula by Augustus in 27 BC (Cass. Dio 80,2). Initially it encompassed the northeastern half of Hispania and was the largest of the three Hispanic provinces. In the north it extended to the Atlantic and the Pyrenees, in the east the Mediterranean formed a natural border, including the Balearics, in the south it was bounded by Baetica, and in the west by Lusitania. As the…

Anas

(60 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Ἄνας; Ánas) Modern Guadiana, next to the Guadalquivir (Baetis), the most important river of southern Spain. It rises in Ruidera (Ciudad Real province); in antiquity, it branched into two arms (Avien. Or. m. 208; Str. 3,1,9) at its mouth into the Atlantic near Ayamonte, close to the Spanish-Portuguese border. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 1989, 179.

Calpe

(257 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [1] Rock of Gibraltar The rock of Gibraltar ( Pylae Gadeirides). The derivation of the name from the Greek κάλπη ( kálpē) = κάλπις/ kálpis ‘jug’ (already found in Avien. 348) is founded on popular etymology, based on the cavity in the eastern face of the rock (Mela 2,95), which nowadays is largely taken up by fill and the town of Gibraltar itself [1]. Maybe the Greeks transferred this name -- of unknown origin -- from the Bithynian C. (modern Kirpe) to the Spanish peninsula [2]. C. was one of the two ‘P…

Cinginnia

(46 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Lusitanian settlement of unknown location. Val. Max. 6,4,1 reports an incident when, during his campaign of 136 BC, D. Iunius Brutus offered a large amount of gold to the besieged inhabitants of C., if they capitulated. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 270.

Emporiae

(567 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | | Etrusci, Etruria | Hispania, Iberia | Colonization | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula (Emporion). Sea-trading port, now Ampurias, on the eastern edge of the Pyrenees, in the province Gerona, on the Costa Brava. Sources: [1; 2]. Archaeological activity that was unparalleled in Spain took place here from the start of the 20th cent. and has been extensively covered in several publications [3. 334ff.; 4. 66ff.; 5. 94; 6; 7; 8. 273ff.]. The inscriptions have pr…

Munda

(195 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
Iberian [1] name of two cities. [German version] [1] City in southern Spain This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Hispania, Iberia City in southern Spain, modern-day Montilla near Córdoba (Bell. Hisp. 30ff. [2]; Plin. HN 3,12). Scene of two ancient battles: It was there that Cn. Cornelius [I 77] Scipio defeated the Carthaginians (Liv. 24,42,1-4) in 214 BC; in 45 BC Caesar defeated the Pompeians there. The latter occasion probably marked the final destruction of M. (Bell. Hisp. 41). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] City in Celtiberia City in Celtiberia, con…

Olcades

(86 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian people in the region of modern Alcoy, north of Alicante in southeastern Spain, with a centre in Althaea or Cartana (Pol. 3,13f.; 33,9; Liv. 21,5; site unknown); subjugated by Hannibal [4] straight after he was appointed strategos in 221 BC. In 219 the O. sent troops to Africa to secure the Libyan coast. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography P. Barceló, Hannibal, 1998, 35  G.V. Sumner, Roman Policy in Spain before the Hannibalic War, in: HSPh 72, 1967, 205-246, esp. 215f.  Tovar 2, 94f.

Segisamo

(64 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Station on the road from Tarraco to Asturica at modern Sasamón (Str. 3,4,13; Plin. HN 3,26; Ptol. 2,6,50; CIL II Suppl. p. 932 f.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography P. Barceló, Das kantabrische Gebirge im Altertum, in: E. Olshausen, H. Sonnabend (eds.), Gebirgsland als Lebensraum (Geographica Historica 8), 1996, 53-61, plate XIX  F. J. Lomas Salmonte, Asturia prerromana y altoimperial, 1989, 87  TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 207 f.

Ilorci

(78 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian town in the area of the upper  Baetis, with the tomb of one of the two Scipios who fell in 211 BC, probably Cn. Scipio (Plin. HN 3,25). The equation of I. with the modern Lorca (province of Murcia) is disputed. CIL II p. 476. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 91 J. B. Keune, s.v. I., RE Suppl. 3, 1229 G. Alföldy, Röm. Städtewesen auf der neukastilischen Hochebene, 1981, 38.

Baria

(161 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni | Pyrenean peninsula Today Vera near Villaricos (province of Almeria), city of the  Bastetani with strong Punic influences, at the mouth of the Almanzora. Possibly allied with the Carthaginians. Since the 6th cent. BC Punic main centre for the development of the important mining area (silver, copper, lead) of the Sierra Almagrera. More than 2,000 graves have been uncovered from the time between the 6th and 1st cent. BC, the typology and grave contents of which are stamped by Carthaginian-Punic influence. Sc…

Cantabri

(147 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Alongside the  Astures, the C. were the most important tribe of the Spanish Atlantic coastal region. The main income of this tribe, which was split up into various groups, was derived from breeding cattle in the mountainous regions of the modern districts of Asturia and Santander; arable farming was very much of secondary importance only. Food shortages in the mountains may have been the motivation for the C.'s raids on the  Vaccaei, who settled in the fertile Duero valley. The C.…

Suessetani

(76 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe (Liv. 25,34,6; 28,24,4; 34,20,1 on events in the years 210 to 184 BC; Plin. HN 3,24: 'Suessetania') between the Iberus [1] (Ebro) and the Pyrenees [2], between Vascones in the west, Sedetani in the south and Lacetani in the east; Corbio [2] (location unknown) was one of its settlement centres (Liv. 39,42,1). The S. may have been identical with the Cessetani. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 215.

Italica

(247 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Hispania, Iberia City near Santiponce in the vicinity of Seville. Founded in 206 BC by P. Cornelius Scipio and settled with veterans (App. Hisp. 38) as a vicus civium Romanorum (CIL II 1119). From the time of Caesar, I. appears as a municipium (Bell. Alex. 52,4; coins), from the time of Hadrian (AD 117-138) as a colonia (Gell. NA 16,13,4; CIL II 1135; XI 2699; XII 1856). I. was the home of the emperors Trajan and Hadrian, but probably not that of the poet Silius Italicus. The legio VII (CIL II 1125f.) and the cohors III Gallica

Augusta

(3,972 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Gaggero, Gianfranco (Genoa) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Walser, Gerold (Basle) | Et al.
(Αὐγούστα, Αὐγοῦστα; Augoústa, Augoûsta). [German version] [0] Title First to receive the name A. (‘the Sublime’) was  Livia [2], by the terms of the will of her husband  Augustus (Tac. Ann. 1,8,1; Vell. Pat. 2,75,3; Suet. Aug. 101,2), who at the same time adopted her into the Julian family (thus: Iulia Augusta). Hellenistic influence is disputed (in favour [1], against [2. 140-145]); the name Σεβαστή/ Sebastḗ with the same literal meaning was bestowed on the wives of Roman emperors in the Greek-speaking world independently of any conferring of the name of A…

Gerunda

(149 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Pyrenean peninsula (modern Gerona). The place name is probably Iberian (an almost complete collection of toponymical evidence in [1. 2015]). It is debatable whether the Iberian coins with Krsa (?) on it refer to G. [2. 81]. The place is frequently mentioned in inscriptions (CIL II p. 614; Suppl. p. 1145). According to Plin. HN 3,23, G. was an oppidum civium Latinorum. In the Christian period G. played a role as the city of the martyr Felix (died during the reign of Diocletian; Prudent. 4,2…

Il(l)urco

(74 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pyrenean peninsula Iberian town in the province of  Hispania Baetica, modern Pinos Puente near Illora la Vieja west of Granada (Plin. HN 3,10). Its location is certain from inscriptions (CIL II p. 284; Suppl. p. 1147). Coins [1. 107f.; 2. 1234]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Vives, La moneda hispánica 3, 1924 2 J. B. Keune, s.v. I., RE Suppl. 3, 1233-1235. Tovar 1, 136; 3, 163ff.

Berones

(41 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtic tribe on the middle Iberus in La Rioja. Their most important towns were Tricio, Oliba and  Vareia (Liv. fr. 91: validissima urbs). Sertorius occupied the tribe's territory in 76 BC. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 77-78.

Tagonius

(50 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] River in the territory of the Carpetani (Plut. Sertorius 17,2), modern Tajuña. It rises in the extreme east of the Sierra de Guadalajara at Maranchón, flows past Caracca and into the Tagus (Tajo) on its right side. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 216.

Lauro

(211 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] City between Saguntum and Valentia Iberian [1] city between Saguntum and Valentia on the hill of La Pedrera [2; 3]; the settlement from the Roman period lies somewhat to its west on the site of modern Puig. L. was destroyed in the battles between Pompey and Sertorius (Plut. Sertorius 18, Plut. Pompey 18; App. B Civ. 1,109; Frontin. Str. 2,5,31; Oros. 5,23,6f.). Mentioned by Plin. HN 14,71 because of its excellent wine. Coins [4], inscription CIL II 3875, XV 4577f. Viticulture Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 2, 163 2 C. Konrad, Plutarch's Sertorius. A H…

Munigua

(173 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town in southern Spain (Sierra Morena) near modern Villanueva de las Minas in the province of Seville (the form of the name has been deduced from municipium [ Flavium] Muniguense, CIL II 1049-1051 [2]), modern Castillo de Mulva. Probably an Iberian [1] place name. Under Vespasian (AD 69-79) municipium; M. had a special official to apply municipal rights, known as the promotor (?) iuris Latini (CIL II 1052). In the 2nd cent., M. became a prosperous mining town with a large terraced sanctuary (emperor cult?) [3; 4]. Around AD 300, M. was abandon…

Hispania, Iberia

(5,486 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) | Untermann, Jürgen (Pulheim/Köln) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
I. Geography and history [German version] A. Name Since the 1st cent. AD, H. has referred more and more to the entire Iberian Peninsula. Although the name Hispania is only attested since the time of the 2nd Punic War (218-201 BC; Liv. 21,2; Enn. Ann. 503), it is the oldest of all, because it is derived from Phoenician í-shephanním, ‘rabbit coast’ (according to a new interpretation ‘land of metal plates’). A further name was Ophioussa (‘land of the snakes’; Avien. 148; 152; 172; 196), which was probably coined by the Phocaeans when they came into contact with some reg…

Arbucale

(106 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Described in Pol. 3,14,1 (cf. Liv. 21,5,6) as a city of the  Vaccaei (in the provinces of Segovia and Salamanca) [1. 98]. Further references in [2]. Its location is unknown: Toro and Alba de Tormes are considered as possibilities [1. 323]. In 220 BC, after putting up a strong resistance, the city had to surrender to  Hannibal. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Tovar 3, 1989 2 E. Hübner, s. v. A., RE 2,1, 420-421. R. Martin Valls, G. Delibes de Castro, Toro ciudad celtibérica, in: Boletín del Seminario de Estudios de Arte y Arqueologia 43, 1977, 306 ff. F. Wattemb…

Segobriga

(102 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Ibero-Roman city Ibero-Roman city (Str. 3,4,13: Σεγοβρίγα/ Segobríga; Ptol. 2,6,56: Σεγουβία/ Segoubía; Plin. HN 3,25), Ruins - including an amphitheatre - on the Cabeza del Griego hill, 2 Roman miles to the south of Saelices (province of Cuenca). S. was a member of the  conventus of Carthago Nova (CIL II 4252). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Bishopric at Castellón Bishopric at Castellón, suffragan to Tarragona, later to Cartagena, modern Segorbe [1]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 M. Almagro, Historía de Albarracín y su sierra…

Complutum

(106 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Celtiberian town, whose location near Alcalá de Henares was determined from ruins and inscriptions (CIL II p. 410; Suppl. p. 941). The name of C. is probably Iberian according to Holder [1. 1087] but Roman according to Hübner [2. 795] (‘City of Rain’). Its inhabitants belonged to the  Carpetani (Ptol. Geog. 2,6,56). C. only became important in the Christian period (Paul. Nol. 31,607; Prudent 4,41ff.; Chron. min. 3,648), especially as a diocesan town [3. 444]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1 2…

Durius

(178 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The modern river Duero (Span.; Portug. Douro). The pre-Celtic name is D. (Sil. Pun. 1,438; 5,323; [1. 1380]), possibly with variant Duris (CIL II 2370). All references (Str. 3,3,2; 4; 6; 3,4,12; 20; Mela 3,8; 10; Plin. HN 4,112f.; 115) indicate that its course was the same in antiquity as it is today. That it was navigable by large vessels for 800 stadia upstream (Str. 3,3,4) is still true today: from its mouth to Barca d'Alva; sailing even small boats on its upper course is today not possible, where…

Oretani

(147 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtic Iberian tribe in the area of the middle and upper Guadiana and on the northern slope of the Sierra Morena ( Oretana iuga, Plin. HN 3,6), with their centre in Oretum, 33 km west of Valdepeñas on the Jabalón [1; 2]. They were first mentioned as troops sent to Africa by Hannibal [4] in 219 BC to secure Metagonia and Carthage (Ὀρῆτες Ἴβηρες/ Orêtes Íbēres, Pol. 3,33,9, possibly to differentiate them from the Ωρητανοί/ Ōrētanoí, Ptol. 2,6,58, or O. Germani, Plin. HN 3,25 [3. 29721]) who lived in the same region. In the Visigothic period (6th/7th cent. AD) the bishopric of Oret…

Limia

(125 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Coastal river south of Miño, modern Lima. According to [1], the name is Celtic. Ancient references: ‘Millia and Oblivio’, Mela 3,10; ‘Lethe’, Sil. Pun. 1,236; 16,476; ‘Oblivio’, Flor. Epit. 1,33,48; ‘L., Limaea and Aeminius’, Plin. HN 4,112; 115; Λίμιος, Ptol. 2,6,1; Λιμαία, Λήθης and Βελιών, Str. 3,3,4f.; Λήθης, App. Hisp. 301; 304. Explanations of the diversity of names are given by [2]; suppositions of a city L. and the residents of the river, the Lusitanian Limici, in [4]; on the sources in [3]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. L. 2 Schulten, Land…

Hispania Baetica, Hispania Ulterior

(134 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The beginnings of the province Hispania Baetica (HB) are linked to Augustus' restructuring of the provinces in 27 BC (Cass. Dio 80,2). The earliest document naming HB is an inscription in the Forum Augustum in Rome (ILS 103). From the 2nd cent. AD, HB was named Baetica Provincia or Hispania Baetica (ILS 269). The borders of HB are the Anas (Guadiana) in the west, the Sierra Morena in the north, and the Atlantic and the Mediterranean in the south. The capital of this senatorial province was  Corduba.  Lusitania Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography C. Castillo Garcia, Städ…

Norba

(197 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Latin colony in the territory of the Volsci This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Coloniae | Latini, Latium Latin colony in the territory of the Volsci, modern Norma. Possibly founded in 492 BC (Liv. 2,34,6; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 7,13,5), but more likely in the 4th cent.; laid waste by the Privernates in 327 (Liv. 7,42,8). Loyal to Rome through the Punic Wars, destroyed by Sullan forces in 82/1 BC (App. B Civ. 1,94). Archaeology: Ring walls, adapted to the topography ( opus polygonale) from the 4th cent. BC, 2,662 m long, three gates; two acropoleis, rectangu…

Boletum

(45 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] City known to us only through inscriptions (CIL II 5843; 5845), probably located near Barbastro/Hispania Tarraconensis. The place name Boletania lasted beyond the Middle Ages; Arab geographers wrote Bortana, which has survived as today's Boltaña. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 384f.

Rubricatum flumen

(50 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] River flowing into the Mare Tyrrhenum  to the south of Barcino(na) in the territory of the Laietani (Mela 2,90; Plin. HN 3,21; Ptol. 2,6,18), modern Llobregat. Upstream is the city of Rhoubrikata (Ῥουβρικάτα; Ptol. 2,6,74), modern Rubí. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K/J 31 Tarraco, 1997, 134.

Complega

(55 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian town, only mentioned in App. Hisp. 42f. in association with the Roman campaigns of 181-179 BC. A. Schulten [2. 136] identified C. with  Contrebia (C. a Celtic variant, not identical with  Complutum, as [1. 795]) still has. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 E. Hübner, s.v. C., RE IV, 794f. 2 A. Schulten, Numantia 1, 1914. Tovar 3, 340.

Lutia

(124 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Possibly modern Cantalucia near Osma in the Spanish province of Soria [1]. The name is presumably Iberian [2]. When in 134/3 BC the position of the fortress Numantia was besieged by the Romans and became untenable, the youth of L. was inclined to provide help to the Numantians who were in dire straits. But the elders betrayed this to Scipio, who hurried there and as punishment had the hands of 400 young men cut off (App. Hisp. 409-411). L. is mentioned on the bronze tablet of Luzaga as a member of an Arevacian league of cities and on coins ( lutaqs). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliog…

Germani, Germania

(3,987 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
G. is a collective noun attested in various regions of Europe and West Asia and was disseminated, at least in part, by the migrations of splinter groups. Linguistically, Germanic belongs to the Indo-European language family ( Germanic languages); the term ‘Germanic’ was attributed from outside. Countering popular, Romantically influenced ideas that assumed a parallelism of language and material culture, as well as a lasting ethnic constancy, and countering an inherently racist concept of the uni…
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