Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)" )' returned 263 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Lutia

(124 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Possibly modern Cantalucia near Osma in the Spanish province of Soria [1]. The name is presumably Iberian [2]. When in 134/3 BC the position of the fortress Numantia was besieged by the Romans and became untenable, the youth of L. was inclined to provide help to the Numantians who were in dire straits. But the elders betrayed this to Scipio, who hurried there and as punishment had the hands of 400 young men cut off (App. Hisp. 409-411). L. is mentioned on the bronze tablet of Luzaga as a member of an Arevacian league of cities and on coins ( lutaqs). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliog…

Germani, Germania

(3,987 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
G. is a collective noun attested in various regions of Europe and West Asia and was disseminated, at least in part, by the migrations of splinter groups. Linguistically, Germanic belongs to the Indo-European language family ( Germanic languages); the term ‘Germanic’ was attributed from outside. Countering popular, Romantically influenced ideas that assumed a parallelism of language and material culture, as well as a lasting ethnic constancy, and countering an inherently racist concept of the uni…

Pompaelo

(95 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] City in the lands of the Vascones, modern Pamplona in Navarre, founded by Pompeius [I 3] (Str. 3,4,10: Πομπέλων ὡς ἂν Πομπηιόπολις/ Pompélōn hōs àn Pompēiópolis, 'Pompelon as if Pompeiopolis') in the winter of 75/4 BC during a war with Sertorius where the Tarraco-Oiasso (Str. l.c.) and Astorga-Roncevalles (It. Ant. 455,5) roads cross. Roman remains: street and drainage system, city wall, a macellum, building sites with mosaics, small finds. Inscriptions: CIL III 2958-2961. Episcopal see since the 6th cent. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 2,3, 1989, …

Althia

(69 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] According to Pol. 3,13,5, the mightiest city of the  Olcades in the upper Guadiana valley, conquered by  Hannibal in 220 BC. Liv. 21,5,4 calls the city Cartala. Its location remains unknown. There is little likelihood that the proposed [1. 216] identification with today's Altea (Alicante province) is valid. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 G. V. Sumner, Roman Policy in Spain before the Hannibalic War, in: HSPh 72,1968,205-246. Tovar 3, 1989,185.

Mentesa

(111 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
Name, possibly Iberian [1. 549], of two towns. [German version] [1] M. Bastitanorum (CIL II 3377f.; 3380), modern La Guardia, south east of Castulo (Plin. HN 3,9; 19; 25; It. Ant. 402,4). Mint and bishopric in the Visigothic period. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Town beside modern Villanueva de la Fuente (Μέντισα; Méntisa). Probably near the modern Villanueva de la Fuente, close to the source of the Guadiana Menor, in the conventus of Carthago Nova (CIL II p. 434f.; Plin. HN 3,25; Ptol. 2,6,59; CIL XI 3281-3284). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 2. A. Schulte…

Pollentia

(385 words)

Author(s): Mennella, Giovanni (Genoa) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Town in the region of the Ligures Bagienni This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Town (present-day Pollenzo in the province of Cuneo) in the region of the Ligures Bagienni, close to where the Stura flows into the Tanarus on the southern section of the via Fulvia between the Appenninus and the upper course of the river Padus. It was probably founded at the time of the campaigns of Fulvius [I 9] (rather than Fulvius [I 12]) in 125-123 BC. The town was famous for producing wool and ceramics (Plin. HN. 8,191; 35,16…

Palma

(82 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia City in Maiorica (modern Majorca), the largest of the Baliares Islands, founded in 122 BC after a victory over the local inhabitants by the consul Caecilius [I 19], subsequently Baliaricus, and named after the palm of victory (Str. 3,5,1; Mela 2,124; Plin. HN 3,77f.; Ptol. 2,6,78). It has the same name today. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 2,3, 1989, 277  TIR K/J 31 Tarraco, 1997, 117.

Cartima

(82 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Modern Cártama, province of Málaga. Iberian, according to [1. 1126] Celtiberian town; mainly epigraphically verified (CIL II 1949-1962; identical with Certima in Liv. 40,47,2?). In AD 53/54, it became a civitas libera (CIL II 1953: decemviri), under Vespasian a municipium civium Latinorum (CIL II 1956 and Suppl. 5488). According to inscriptions and extant remains (CIL II p. 248; Suppl. p. 876), C. also seems to have enjoyed prosperity later on. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 3. Tovar 1, 132.

Lagni

(93 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian town near Numantia; name possibly Iberian [1]. For coin evidence cf. [2; 3]. Allied to Numantia, L. was conquered and destroyed by the consul Q. Pompeius in 141 BC (Diod. Sic. 33,17). L. may be identical to Malia (App. Hisp. 329); on the contradictory reports in the sources cf. [4]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. L. 2 A. Vives, La moneda hispánica 2, 1924, 64 3 A. Hübner, Monumenta linguae Ibericae, s.v. lagne, 1893, 38 4 H. Simon, Roms Kriege in Spanien, 1962, 110. Tovar 3, 461.

Iberus

(162 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Hiberus). Name of two Spanish rivers, derived from the people of the same name, not - as ancient scholars (Plin. HN 3,21; Just. Epit. 44,1,2) believed - the other way around [1. 307-315]. [German version] [1] Modern Ebro Modern Ebro. All sources agree that the ancient I., with its tributaries, corresponds almost completely to the modern Ebro. The single difference: the ancient river was navigable (Plin. HN 3,21) as far as Vareia (modern Varea, east of Logroño), today only as far as Tortosa (other, newer views contradict this ident…

Gades

(981 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Wine | | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula (oldest Phoenician form of the name Gdr, ‘wall’, ‘citadel’, ‘fortress’, cf. Avien. 85, 267, 269, and [1. I 119; 3. 101f.], Greek Γάδειρα ( Gádeira), Latin Gades, modern Cádiz). The date of its foundation is linked to the foundations of Utica and Carthage; according to literary sources, it is estimated for c. 1100 BC (Vell. Pat. 1,2; Iust. 44,5,2; Mela 3,46; Plin. HN 16,216; cf. [3. 5-12;…

Numantia

(488 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia | Pyrenean peninsula City in northern central Spain at the confluence of the rivers Duero, Merdancho and Tera on a hill (Muela de Garray, 67 m above river level), 6 km from Soria (Castilla la Vieja plateau). It had been settled since the late Neolithic (about 2000 BC) and in the Bronze Age. The adjoining Iron Age settlement from about 850 BC bears all the hallmarks of the more recent Hallstatt Culture, particularly from the 5th cent. [3. vol. 2, 110-113, 225ff.]. In the 4th/3rd cents. BC the place was fortified. N. (pr…

Hispal(is, Spalis)

(222 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Coloniae | Pyrenean peninsula Modern Seville. First mentioned as a base for Caesar's Spanish campaigns, but surely an ancient Iberian settlement; Phoenician origin has been assumed. H. belongs to the few cities that have retained their importance from antiquity until today. For antiquity this is attested by literary sources, inscriptions (CIL II Suppl. p. 1145f.) and coins [1]. Its importance is based on its geopolitically favourable locat…

Medobriga

(119 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (or Medubriga; Celtic [1. 526] ‘Castle of Medus’). Town in Lusitania ( Lusitani), captured in 48 BC by Q. Cassius [I 16] Longinus, together with the Herminius mons (the modern Sierra de la Estrella), to which the inhabitants had fled (Bell. Alex. 48,2). According to CIL II 760, the Meidobrigenses were involved in the building of the Tagus bridge in Alcántara during the reign of Trajan. According to Pliny, the inhabitants of M. were also known as Plumbari ( qui et Plumbari, HN 4,118) - apparently, there was a lead-mine associated with M. [2. 254f.]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bib…

Clunia

(220 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Coloniae The important ruins of C. lie c. 40 km north-west of Uxama Argaela (now Osma near Coruña del Conde; CIL II p. 382). On Augustan coins the name is spelled Clounioq, later C. [2. 111ff.) and is probably Celtic ([1. 131]; a different view in [3. 1048]). C. played a part in the revolt by  Sertorius (75 BC: Liv. Per. 92; 72 BC: Exsuperantius 8; Flor. 2,10,9), in that of 55 BC (Cass. Dio 39,54) and that of  Galba in AD 68 (Suet. Galba 9,2;…

Ilerda

(181 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Pyrenean peninsula Ancient Iberian city on the Sicoris (modern Segre), modern Lérida (loss of the Iberian prefix I). Remains are mostly found above the modern city. Inscriptions: CIL II Suppl. p. 1146. Possibly already mentioned in Avien. 475. I. repeatedly played a role in Roman military history, especially in Caesar's battles with Pompey's legates. Augustus raised I. to the status of municipium (coins, Plin. HN 3,24). It is still mentioned several times in Ausonius (e.g. commemoratio professoru…

Caesaraugusta

(154 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Commerce | Pilgrimage Modern Zaragoza on the Iberus. Originally the likely location of the Iberian settlement of Saduia (Plin. HN 3,24: Salduba) in the tribal area of the Edetani (Ptol. 2,6,62). The Roman colony, founded under Augustus, developed into one of Spain's most important urban centres (cf. Mela 2,88; Str. 3,2,15; 4,10; 13). Important road junction. Possibly the garrison of the 10th legion up to the time of Nero. C.…

Edetani

(198 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe on the Spanish east coast. The main city was Liria, today still known as Liria on the Guadalaviar (CIL II p. 509), and the tribal area corresponded roughly to the hinterland of Valencia and Saguntum ([1. 111]). Schulten [2. 326] refers to them as the inhabitants of the province of Teruel further to the north. The location can be deduced from that of the main city and from other sources (cf. also [3. 58]: Edeta[nia]). The E. are mentioned for the years of 209 and 141 BC: Pol. 10,34,2 (uncertain reading); App. Ib. 330f. (here, Sedetania should clearly be read as Edet…

Ilergetes

(86 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe around  Ilerda in the modern province of Huesca. The I. are often mentioned in the context of the Second Punic War. They initially supported the Carthaginians, were defeated by the Romans in 205 BC (Liv. 29,3) and later became socii (Liv. 34,11). Mentioned in Str. 3,4,10 and Plin. HN 3,21, but not later. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 232 Tovar 3, 1989, 46f. Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 21974, 309 A. Vives, La moneda hispánica 2, 1924, 52.

Carmo

(107 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pyrenean peninsula Settlement of the  Turdetani, modern Carmona (province of Sevilla in Spain). C. rose to importance during the conflicts between Rome and Carthage (3rd/2nd cents. BC; App. Ib. 25; Liv. 33,21,6ff.). Caes. B Civ. 2,19,4 and Str. 3,2,2 refer to C. as one of the most important towns of Baetica. The names of some of the officials of this   municipium civium Romanorum or Latinorum are known from coins [1. 199] and from inscriptions (CIL II 1378ff.; 5120). Barceló, Pedro (Pots…

Lancia

(300 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Town near modern Mansilla de las Mulas, northern Spain Town of the Astures near modern Mansilla de las Mulas, northern Spain, approximately 20 km from León (on the Celtic place name [1; 2], also [3; 4]). Conquered in 25 BC by P. Carisius, but spared (Cass. Dio 53,25,8; Flor. Epit. 2,33,37f.; Oros. 6,21,10; cf. also Plin. HN 3,28; Ptol. 2,6,28; It. Ant. 395,3; [5]). Substantial, almost exclusively Roman remains; Roman coins. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. L. 2 A. Schulten, Los Cántabros y Astures ..., 1943, 107, 151 3 F. Abbad Rios, F. Jordá Cerdá, In…

Bergistani, Bargusii

(68 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe in Hispania Tarraconensis (now Cataluña); the place name Berga (province of Barcelona) commemorates it. On his march to Italy Hannibal passed through the tribe's territory (Pol. 3,35; Liv. 21,19; 23). In the first phase of the Roman conquest of Spain the B. put up resistance, but were subdued by Cato in 195 BC (Liv. 34,16ff.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 39f.

Murgis

(82 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: City in southern Spain, since the Augustan provincial reform on the border between Hispania Baetica and Hispania Tarraconensis. The city's name, according to [2], is Iberian. Its location on the Campo de Dalias, 31 km to the west of Almería, is documented in inscriptions (CIL II Suppl. 5489f.; cf. Plin. HN 3,8; 17, Baeticae finis; Itin. Anton. 405,2; Ptol. 2,4,9; [2. 84f.]). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Tovar 2, 1974 2 Holder, s.v. M.

Ercavica

(165 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian settlement. The origin of the name is uncertain: it may be Celtiberian ([1. 1485] or Basque [2. 72]). Despite being attested in several sources, the precise location of E. cannot be established ([3]: on the Cabeza del Griego west of Cuenca? A contrary view is [2. 331,5]; cf. also CIL II p. 419, 425). It belonged to the conventus of Caesaraugusta (Plin. HN 3,24; CIL II 4203). The nobilis et potens civitas (‘noble and mighty city’) surrendered in 179 BC without resistance to the propraetor Tib. Gracchus (Liv. 40,50,1). It was a municipium (coins: [4. 109]) an…

Centobriga

(68 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town mentioned only in the context of the anecdote about  Metellus' mild treatment of the besieged population of C. (142 BC; Val. Max. 5,1,5; Liv. POxy. 161-163). C. -- the name is Celtic [1. 989] -- was probably situated in the valley of the Jalón [3. 354]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1 2 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 4, 1937, 33f. 3 Id., Numantia 1, 1914 4 Tovar 3, 369-370.

Lusitani, Lusitania

(554 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Name Iberian [1], similarly the people with a marked Celtic element which is evaluated in various ways [2]. Originally the L. settled between the Durius and the Tagus (cf. [3]) and advanced to the Anas (App. Hisp. 239). The later Roman province of L. set up by Augustus corresponds approximately to modern Portugal and therefore comprises a much bigger region than the original settlement area. The country encompasses only a few towns [4] which presumably, as with the Celtiberi, originally served as refuges. Especially in the north there are numerous castros, i.e. ring wa…

Accis

(177 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae Town of the  Bastetani (Ptol. 2,6,60), on the crossing of the road from  Tarraco via  Carthago Nova to  Castulo and  Malaca. The ancient settlement was built along the slopes of the western Guadix (province of Granada). Its Roman name of Colonia Iulia Gemella or Gemellensis (CIL II 3391; 3393 f.) points to its origins as a military colony, founded either by Caesar in 45 BC or later by Augustus. A. was under the jurisdiction of the conventus Carthaginiensis. Its inhabitants had the ius Italiae (Plin. HN 3,25); CIL II…

Lyco

(60 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] City of the Bastetani, name probably Iberian. A more precise location cannot be determined and identification with Ilugo, Ilucia, Ἴλουνον/ Ílounon remains problematical [1]. At L. the Lusitani inflicted heavy losses on L. Aemilius [I 32] Paullus in 190 (Liv. 37,46,7). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 199ff. Tovar 3, 157.

Saguntia

(31 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town in western Hispania Baetica (Liv. 34,19,10; Plin. HN 3,15) on the Guadalete; modern Baños de Gigonza (Paterna de Rivera). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 1, 54 f.

Ilipa

(146 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Punic Wars Modern Alcalá del Río (from the Arabic for ‘river fortification’) on the right bank of the  Baetis. The name and town are Iberian [1. 1221]. I. was important for navigation (Str. 3,2,3; CIL II 1085), but also because of nearby silver mines (Str. l.c.), agriculture and fishing (coins), which earned it the epithet Magna (Ptol. 2,4,10; Plin. HN 3,11?). P. Cornelius Scipio defeated the Carthaginians near I. in 206 BC. I. was mentioned as a diocese in the Visigothic period [2. 216]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 …

Ilici

(182 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula Ancient Iberian town, in late antiquity Elece, modern Elche. It is assumed that Hamilcar [3] Barka died here in 228 BC; however, this must be corrected in favour of Helice (Elche de la Sierra) [2. 11f.]. In the Roman era, I. was colonia immunis (Plin. HN 3,19). In its harbour the fleet of Maiorianus was destroyed by Vandali in AD 460 [3. 81f.]. In the Visigothic period, I. is often mentioned as a diocese [3. 449]. The ancient site lay somewhat close…

Navia

(221 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Nabia). [German version] [1] Goddess in the west of the Iberian Peninsula, poss. Celtic Goddess of indeterminate character and of Celtic (?) provenance. Her votive offerings (inscriptions) have been found widely distributed in the west of the Iberian Peninsula, in Lusitania and Gallaecia in modern Portugal and Spain. N., who was given no interpretatio Romana, is at one occasion given the epithets Elaesurraeca and Sesmaca (possibly place names, clan names or similar). An interpretation of N. as a water goddess on the basis of the derivation of the name from the Celtic root  nav- is unce…

M(a)enaca

(288 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni (Μαινάκη/ Mainákē, Lat. Menace), city in southern Spain. The name is probably derived from μαίνη/ maínē or Lat. maena, a salted fish (Avien. 426-431 confused M. with Malaca [1. 80]; Scymn. 147; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ., where M. is called Celtic). According to Str. 3,4,2 M. was a colony of Phocaea, which no longer existed at that time. Schulten [2. 35-38] assumed it was located west of the mouth of the Vélez on the hill Cerro del Peñón. This hypothes…

Carthago Nova

(350 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Coloniae | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula | Rome | Rome Carthago Nova (CN) was founded by  Hasdrubal in c. 225 BC as his new centre of power in the location of Mastia (with the best harbour of the entire Spanish Mediterranean coast; modern Cartagena). The Carthaginian town was adorned with many representative buildings: a temple to the Punic deities  Baal and  Eshmun, palaces, docks, as well as a massi…

Iuliobriga

(109 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia (Celtic for ‘castle of Iulius’; [1. 87]). Probably a foundation by Augustus dating from the Cantabrian campaign [2. 195]. Remains near the village of Retortillo, 3 km south of Reinosa, not far from the source of the Ebro. References: Plin. HN 3,21; 27; 4,111; Ptol. 2,6,50; Not. Dign. Occ. 42,30; CIL II Suppl. p. 1148. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 2, 1919 2 A. Schulten, Los Cántabros y Astures, 1943. A. García y Bellido, Excavaciones en Iuliobriga, in: Archivio español de arqueo…

Arx Gerontis

(130 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Place name, originating from Geron/Theron, a king of  Tartessus ( fani est prominens et ... Gerontis arx est eminens: Avien. Ora maritima 261; 263; 304). The sanctuary was supposedly located within the delta area of the  Baetis [1. 237], the Arx Gerontis to the south of it, possibly on the Salmedina peninsula, of which these days only a few cliffs remain, washed over by the sea [2. 39, 41, map 1; 1. 236f.]. According to a later source (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,767), the place was also called ἄκρα Γλαύκου ( ákra Glaúkou), showing the identification of King Geron with the…

Laeetani

(134 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe ( laiescon [1. 19]) on the Spanish east coast between Barcelona and Blanes; regarding the various spellings and misspellings of the name ( Laietani, Leetani, Lacetani, Laletani, Lasetani) cf. [2. vol. 6, 235; 3; 4]; Plin. HN 3,21; Str. 3,4,8; Ptol. 2,6,18; 72; ILS 2714a; CIL II Suppl. 6171. Wine of inferior quality was cultivated there in large amounts (Plin. HN 14,71; Mart. 1,26; [2. vol. 1, 136, vol. 3, 51, vol. 6, 235f.; 5. vol. 8, 184, 195, 292]). Viticulture Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Hübner, Monumenta Linguae Ibericae, 1893 2 A. Schulten (…

Nertobriga

(148 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] City in northern Spain City in northern Spain (Celtic place name: narto, ‘strength’, briga, ‘fortress’ [1]), modern Calatorao in the Jalón valley, 30 km to the northeast of Bilbilis. The consul M. Claudius [I 13] Marcellus conquered N. in 152 BC. The city was finally subjugated in 143 BC (App. Ib. 48; 50; Flor. Epit. 1,33,10). Itin. Anton. 437,4; 439,2; coins. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1, 533; 2, 723. Tovar 2, 414  TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 158f. [German version] [2] City in central Spain City in central Spain, as a Roman colony N. Concordia Iulia (Pli…

Cortona

(282 words)

Author(s): Cataudella, Michele (Florence) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Κρότων; Krótōn, (ἡ) Κυρτώνιος; (hē) Kyrtṓnios, Κόρτωνα; Kórtōna, Γορτυναία; Gortynaia; Corythos, Etruscan curthute). [German version] [1] Etruscan city This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Umbri, Umbria | Etrusci, Etruria | Etrusci, Etruria Etruscan city on a hill north of the lacus Trasumenus, modern Cortona. In connection with the legend of  Dardanus, the son of Corythus, C. aroused particular interest among Hellenistic scholars (cf. Verg. Aen. 3,167ff.; 7,206ff.; Serv. Aen. 1,380; Plin. HN 3,63). Its origin is recorded…

Iliberis

(242 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] I., Iliberri This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Pyrenean peninsula Iberian town, probably near Granada in the Sierra de Elvira. Mentioned in Plin. HN 3,10 and Ptol. 2,4,9. Diocese in the Christian era, site of the concilium Eliberitanum (AD 306 ?) [1]. Often mentioned on coins and in inscriptions, here several times as municipium Florentinum (e.g. CIL II 1572; 2070). After the Arab invasion, the town appears to have steadily declined and the population to have moved to Garnatha, modern Granada. Inscriptions: CIL II p. 285ff., Suppl. p. 1146. Ba…

Mago

(1,896 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ruffing, Kai (Münster) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(* Mgn = ‘(god's) gift’; Greek Μάγων; Mágōn). [German version] [1] Carthaginian king (?), 2nd half 6th cent. BC Carthaginian, leading figure (king?) in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC; successor of Malchus [1], efficient promoter of Carthaginian power (Iust. 18,7,19; 19,1,1; [1. 173f.; 2. 475f.]), to whom a great army reform with the goal of the deployment of mercenaries is erroneously attributed [3. 184-187]. As father (?) of Hamilcar [1] and Hasdrubal (Iust. 19,1,2), M. is considered the ancestor of the Magonid…

Lacetani

(88 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe (not to be confused with the Iaccetani; e.g. Ptol. 2,6,71; [1]), who settled the southern foothills of the eastern Pyrenees, west of Llobregat, east of Segre, south of Noya and Cervera (Liv. 21,61,8; 28,24,4; 34,20,1; Plin. HN 3,21). They were one of the earliest tribes to be subjugated by the Romans (Plut. Cato Maior 11,2; cf. Cass. Dio 45,10; Sall. Hist. 2,98,5; [2. 50f.]). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. iaccos 2 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935. Tovar 3, 35ff.

Asturia

(108 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Region on the Atlantic coast of northern Spain. It corresponds with the modern provinces of Asturias, Leon and Valladolid. The Astures split up into tribal groups (

Castulo

(287 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Blech, Michael (Madrid)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Pyrenean peninsula Iberian settlement 7 km south of Linares (possibly the modern Cazlona, province of Jaén) above the right bank of the Guadalimar. Lead and silver mines, communication links with the Iberian east coast and the Atlantic ( via Augusta and Guadalquivir) and the fertile surrounding countryside governed the history of C. The first settlement (La Muela) is i.a. verified by a metallurgical workshop (8th cent. BC), as well as a sanctuary, which was later built on top. Nec…

Ebora

(236 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
Whether the name E. is Iberian, Ligurian or Celtic, remains unclear [1. vol. 1, 1394; vol. 2, 205; 2. 68; 3. 150]. [German version] [1] Town of the Carpetani, modern Montalba Town of the Carpetani, today Montalba on the Tajo. The town Aebura referred to in Livy (40,30; 32f.) is probably identical with Libora (Ptol. 2,6,56; Geogr. Rav. 4,44, Lebura; but cf. CIL II p. 111 s. Caesarobriga). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] …

Minius

(119 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Spanish river (Str. 3,3,4: also Βαῖνις/ Baínis; App. Hisp. 301: also Βαίτις/ Baítis), modern Miño; Name according to [1] perhaps Iberian, according to [2] Etruscan, though this is unlikely [1. 595, 2354ff.; 3. 361]. The ancient derivation from minium (‘cinnabar’, Just. Epit. 44,3,4; Isid. Orig. 19,17,7) is unfounded. M. and its tributaries had the same course as they do now [4. 276], but contained more water. According to Str. l.c. it was navigable for 800 stages (i.e. 160 km), but today this is only about 100 km. On its banks was the Mons Medullius. Barceló, Pedro (P…

Baliares

(399 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] A. General The modern B. were named Gymnḗsiai by the Greeks, because their inhabitants went naked during the summer. The two main islands were referred to respectively as insula maior and insula minor; the names of Maiorica and Menorica (modern Mallorca and Minorca) are only found from the 3rd cent. AD (Georgius Cyprianus, p. 108, 673 Gelzer). Apart from those two islands, Plin. HN 3,78 also lists Capraria, Triquada and parva (sc. insula) Hannibalis, also Menariae. They can undoubtedly be identified with the islands of Cabrera, Porrasa, Sech and the Las …

Carpetani

(180 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The C. are mentioned by Pol. 3,14,2 in the context of  Hannibal's expansion into central Spain as the most powerful tribal group of tha…

Sexi

(162 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars Phoenician settlement (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 43: Σίξος/ Síxos; Str. 3,4,2; 3,5,5: Ἐξιτανοί/ Exitanoí; Mela 2,94; Plin. HN 3,8: Sexi Firmum Iulium; Ptol. 2,4,7: Σέξ/ Séx; …

Acra Leuce

(225 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia (Ἀκρα Λευκή; Ákra Leukḗ) Because of its Greek name, García y Bellido [2. 5925,10,3] took the town's foundation by  Hamilcar, as reported in Diod. Sic. 25,10,3 f.; 25,10,12, as evidence for the existence of a preceding Greek settlement at A. Generally, ba…
▲   Back to top   ▲