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Nil Sorsky, Saint

(217 words)

Author(s): Bryner, Erich
[German Version] (Nikolai Maikov; 1433, Moscow – 1508, Nil Sorsky hermitage monastery on the White Sea), Russian saint. As scion of a noble Muscovite family, Nil Sorsky began a bureaucratic career at the court of the grand duke, but soon entered the monastery of St. Cyril on the White Sea. During a lengthy stay on Mount Athos, he became familiar with Hesychasm. After his return he founded a hermitage (skit) on the Sora not far from his home monastery. His Hesychast piety attracted many followers. …


(292 words)

Author(s): Bryner, Erich
[German Version] Pateriks or books of the fathers are collections of the sayings of the fathers of monasticism, especially in the Eastern church. The collections contain abstract words of wisdom, sayings embedded in short narrative episodes ( Apophthegmata patrum ), and later entire narratives, some including miracles. The collections reflect the spiritual experiences of the monastic fathers and seek to share these experiences with future ascetics, to open or ease the path leading to God and the “angelic life.” A fundamental source for the history of ¶ monastic spirituality is the Apo…


(527 words)

Author(s): Bryner, Erich
[German Version] I. The predominant religion in Albania is Islam. From 1385 to 1479, the area that is now Albania was part of the Ottoman empire. After an initial period of resistance, large portions of the population converted to Islam, usually to escape the head tax imposed on all non-Muslim subjects and to make it possible to rise in the political and socia…

Bible Translations

(16,696 words)

Author(s): Dogniez, Cécile | Schulz-Flügel, Eva | Juckel, Andreas | Veltri, Giuseppe | Griffith, Sydney H. | Et al.
[German Version] I. Translations into Ancient Languages – II. Christian Translations into European Languages since the Middle Ages– III. Translations into Non-European Languages in Modern Times I. Translations into Ancient Languages 1. Translations of the Old Testament into Greek a. The first written translation of the Hebrew Bible, the Septuagint (LXX), owes its name to the circumstance that the Letter of Aristeas refers to 72 elders who had come to Alexandria from Jerusalem in order to translate the Torah of the Jews into…


(3,883 words)

Author(s): Sparn, Walter | Leppin, Volker | Bryner, Erich | Grözinger, Karl Erich
1. IntroductionThe noun mysticism, a general term dating from the 17th century, eluded all attempts of students of religion and the psychology of religion to define it in the 19th and early 20th century [1]; [3]; [5]. More recent researchers therefore use it only as a heuristic term for highly diverse phenomena of an intense individual experience of bonding or union (Latin  unio mystica) with God, the divine, the holy, etc. – always in specific cultural and social contexts. These phenomena are never accessible directly, since we know of them only through (…
Date: 2020-04-06


(5,400 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Becker, Rainald | Putz, Hannelore | Roggenkamp, Antje | Bryner, Erich
1. General See Childhood; Pedagogy; SchoolPeter Walter2. Late medieval religious education and HumanismDuring the Middle Ages, transmission of at least the rudiments of religious teaching and practice was considered primarily the task of the family. Contrary to the assumption of earlier researchers, however, besides their own religious practice and the preaching of the church (Sermon), there do not appear to have been sermons addressed specifically to children [6. 278]). The tools available to parents included brief written guides, which could be acquired an…
Date: 2019-10-14

Bible translation

(4,210 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht | Walter, Peter | Bryner, Erich
1. Protestantism The Reformers saw the Bible as the complete, self-evident revelation of God. This meant a rejection of a spiritualistic appeal to additional inner revelations as well as the Catholic view that God has revealed himself equally in the Bible and in Church tradition so that the Bible can only be properly understood and interpreted by ecclesiastical ministers of the teaching tradition (Ministry [ecclesiastical]), and under no circumstances by just anyone. This difference in revelation …
Date: 2019-10-14


(4,019 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Michael | Leppin, Volker | Bryner, Erich
1. Allgemein 1.1. Begriff Unter V. (engl. popular religion, franz. religion populaire) wird die alltägliche und lebensrelevante Religiosität der Vielen verstanden, unabhängig davon, ob diese aus einem theologischen bzw. religionsphänomenologischen Blickwinkel als »christl.« oder »kirchl.« anzusehen ist. V. will den gesamten Alltag und die Umwelt heiligen bzw. das Leben und die eigene Erfahrungswelt mit dem Religiösen in Beziehung setzen. In der neueren Forschung wird statt von V. auch von »populärer« bzw. »popularer« Frömmigkeit (= Fr.) gesprochen oder einfach von »…
Date: 2019-11-19


(3,557 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht | Walter, Peter | Bryner, Erich
1. ProtestantismusDie Reformatoren sahen in der Bibel die vollständige, in sich evidente Offenbarung Gottes. Damit war eine spiritualistische Berufung auf zusätzliche innere Offenbarungen ebenso abgewehrt wie die katholische Auffassung, dass sich Gott gleichermaßen in Bibel und kirchlicher Tradition offenbart habe und die Bibel deshalb allein von den kirchlichen Sachwaltern der Lehrtradition (Lehramt), keinesfalls aber…
Date: 2019-11-19


(5,017 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Becker, Rainald | Putz, Hannelore | Roggenkamp, Antje | Bryner, Erich
1. AllgemeinS. Kindheit; Pädagogik; Schule2. Religiöse Erziehung in Spätmittelalter und HumanismusWährend des MA wurde es hauptsächlich als Aufgabe der Familie angesehen, für die Vermittlung wenigstens rudimentärer Kenntnisse von religiösen Lehren und Gebräuchen Sorge zu tragen. An Hilfsmitteln standen den Eltern dafür neben der eigenen religiösen Praxis und der kirchlichen Verkündigung (Predigt; eigene Kinderpredigten scheint es, anders als früher von der Forschung vermutet, aber nicht gegeben zu haben [6. 278]) auch kurzgefasste schriftliche Anleitungen zur Ve…
Date: 2019-11-19


(3,613 words)

Author(s): Sparn, Walter | Leppin, Volker | Bryner, Erich | Grözinger, Karl Erich
1. EinleitungM., ein aus dem 17. Jh. datierender Allgemeinbegriff, hat sich allen religionswiss. und -psychologischen Definitionsversuchen des 19. und frühen 20. Jh.s entzogen [1]; [3]; [5]. Die neuere Forschung gebraucht ihn daher nur als heuristischen Begriff für sehr unterschiedliche, jeweils bestimmten kulturellen und sozialen Kontexten zugehörige Phänomene intensiver individueller Erfahrung der Verbindung oder Vereinigung (lat. unio mystica) mit dem Gott, dem Göttlichen, dem Heiligen usw. Diese Phänomene sind niemals unmittelbar zugänglich, da…
Date: 2019-11-19