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Abū Sayyāra

(303 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, ʿumayla b. al-aʿzal b. k̲h̲ālīd al-ʿadawanī , a personage of the end of the D̲j̲āhiliyya, said have been the first to fix the diya or pecuniary composition for murder at 100 camels and the last to lead the pilgrims, either at the departure for ʿArafāt ( ifāḍa ) or from al-Muzdalifa to Minā ( id̲j̲āza ), since the sources disagree on this point, and the more careful authors merely use the expression dafaʿa bi ’l-nās . This man, who probably owed his kunya to this function of his, a privilege of the Ḳaysī tribe of ʿAdwān (see Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, Tab. 92 …

Ibn Abī K̲h̲ayt̲h̲ama

(258 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. Zuhayr (= Abū K̲h̲aythama) b. Ḥarb b. S̲h̲addād al-Nasāʾī al-Bag̲h̲dādī , traditionist, genealogist, historian and poet, born at Nasāʾ in 185/801, died at Bag̲h̲dād in 279/892 (the dates 205/820 and 299/911-2 are probably too late). The son of Abū K̲h̲ayt̲h̲ama (d. 243/857), who was the author of a K. al-Musnad and a K. al-ʿIlm ( Fihrist , Cairo ed., 321), he was the pupil of Ibn Ḥanbal in ḥadīt̲h̲ and fiḳh , of Muṣʿab al-Zubayrī in genealogy, of al-Madāʾinī in history and of Muḥammad b. Sallām in literature. The Fihrist mentions among his works K. al-Muntamīn (?), K. al-Aʿrā…

Kaʿb b. Ḏj̲uʿayl al-Tag̲h̲labī

(726 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, a minor Arab poet of the 1st/7th century whom Ibn Sallām ( Ṭabaḳāt , 485-9) places in the 3rd rank of Islamic poets. His genealogy varies with the different authors (Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, Tab. 165, no doubt provides the most accurate one), and very little is known of his life. Probably born during the earliest years of the Hid̲j̲ra , he made his appearance at the time of the battle of Ṣiffīn (37/657) as an intimate of Muʿāwiya, of whom, like most of the Tag̲h̲lib [ q.v.], he was a passionate supporter. The conflict with ʿAlī inspired him to write a number of poems, in particular…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḏj̲udʿān

(402 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Ḳurays̲h̲ite notable of the clan of Taym b. Murra, at the end of the 6th c. A.D. He acquired such wealth from the caravan and slave trade that he possessed one of the largest fortunes in Mecca (Ps.-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, Maḥāsin (van Vloten), 165; Ibn Rusta, 215; Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ , vi, 153 ff.; Lammens, La Mecque à la veille de l’Hégire , index). He surrounded himself with unusual luxury (being nick-named ḥāsī ‘l-d̲h̲ahab , because he used to drink from a golden cup), and was the owner of the two singing-girls called "Locusts of ʿĀd" ( Ḏj̲arādatā ʿĀd ) whom he offered to Umayya b…

al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Ḥilliza

(603 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Yas̲h̲kurī , a pre-Islamic Arab poet to whom is attributed principally a ḳaṣīda which mediaeval critics regarded as the seventh of the muʿallaḳāt [ q.v.]. The information that we possess in respect of his life deserves no credence, and the poem that is the cause of his renown is in itself so suspect that Ṭāhā Ḥusayn considers it to be totally apocryphal (cf. also al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, Ḥayawān , iii, 449, on the questions of other verses). This ḳaṣīda, in k̲h̲afīf metre and with -āʾū rhyme (with an iḳwāʾ in one verse in -āʾī ), is said by legendary tradition to have been …

al-K̲h̲ubzaʾaruzzī

(371 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(many possible vocalisations), Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Naṣr b. Aḥmad b. al-Maʾmūn , ¶ popular poet of Baṣra, who probably died in 327/938. He made rice bread ( k̲h̲ubz aruzz ) in a shop at the Mirbad [ q.v.], where his biographers show him as surrounded by a circle of admirers who were especially attracted by his g̲h̲azal verses on boys, these being his speciality. It does not seem that he should be included in the list of those poets whose belligerence involved them in contests and controversies, nor does he seem to have been inclined, l…

Ayman b. K̲h̲uraym

(242 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. fātik b. al-ak̲h̲ram al-asadī , Arab poet of the Umayyad period, son of the Companion of the Prophet Ḵh̲uraym al-Nāʿim, whose ḥadīt̲h̲s he has handed down. After settling at Kūfa, he composed, like many of the poets of that town g̲h̲azal poems, but also panegyrics on the Umayyad princes ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz and Bis̲h̲r, son of Marwān; although he contracted tubercular leprosy ( abraṣ ), his poetry allowed him to enjoy their intimate friendship, and this favour won him the surname of k̲h̲alīl al-k̲h̲ulafāʾ (the friend of caliphs). In some of his poems he touch…

Muṣʿab b. al-Zubayr

(986 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H. | Pellat, Ch.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh or Abū ʿĪsā, son of the famous Companion of the Prophet al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām [ q.v.] and brother of the anti-caliph ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr [ q.v.]. Handsome, chivalrous, generous to the utmost ¶ degree of prodigality, he resembled his older brother and the Zubayrid family only in his courage and outbursts of severity in repression. He began his military career at the outset of the caliphate of Marwān b. al-Ḥakam, with an ill-conceived expedition in Palestine. His name has gone down in history chiefly owing to his campaign, in his capa…

Abū ʿImrān al-Fāsī

(1,137 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, mūsā b. ʿīsā b. abī ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲/ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ (?), Mālikī faḳīh , probably born between 365/975 and 368/978 at Fās into a Berber family whose nisba is impossible to reconstruct. No doubt to complete his studies, but perhaps also because of other reasons hard to discern, he went to settle in al-Ḳayrawān, where his master was in particular al-Ḳābisī (d. 403/1012 [ q.v.]). He is known to have stayed in Cordova with Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr [ q.v.] and to have profited by the chance to follow the lectures of various scholars there, which his biographers list, without however gi…

Hart̲h̲ama b. Aʿyan

(477 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, a general and governor of the ʿAbbāsid period, a native of K̲h̲urāsān. As a supporter of ʿĪsā b. Mūsā [ q.v.] in the reign of al-Manṣūr, he was brought to Bag̲h̲dād in chains and remained in obscurity throughout the reign of al-Mahdī. He then became the confidential adviser of al-Hādī who is even said to have ordered him to kill Hārūn, and was stopped from doing so only by al-K̲h̲ayzurān’s intervention. However, on the death of al-Hādī, it was he who brought Hārūn out of prison and took part in his enthronement. T…

Maṭmūra

(868 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a), from ṭamara , which signifies in particular “to hide”, denotes a natural or man-made cavity used for the concealment of victuals ( ṭaʿām ) or of riches ( māl ); such is the definition adopted by the ¶ LA (s.v.), which specifies that it is the plural maṭāmīr which should be applied to underground silos where grain is stored. In fact, the singular currently denotes a silo, and the plural, a group of silos garded by a ṭammār and called mərs in Morocco ( rətba in Takrūna, where the guardian is known as rattāb ; W. Marçais, Glossaire de Takroûna , v, 2408-9, with discussio…

Aḥmad b. Ḥābiṭ

(360 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(rather than Ḥāʾiṭ, if the position in the alphabetical order given to him by al-ʿAsḳalānī is taken into consideration), a theologian ranked among the Muʿtazilites; he was the pupil of al-Naẓẓām [ q.v.], and the teacher, in particular, of al-Faḍl al-Ḥadat̲h̲ī. Nothing is known about his life, and only his "innovations" are partly known to us. His doctrine, evolved before 232/846-7, seems to differ from Muʿtazilite teaching on the following two fundamental dogmas, which are borrowed from systems alien to Islam but which, in the…

Ḥilf al-Fuḍūl

(695 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, a famous pact concluded between several Ḳurays̲h̲ī clans a few years before the Prophet’s mission, more precisely, according to certain authorities, in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda on the return from the war of Fid̲j̲ār [ q.v.]. The traditions concerning the events which brought it about are divergent, but can be reduced to the following outline: a merchant of Zabīd (or elsewhere, or even the poet al-Ṭamaḥān al-Ḳaysī) sells merchandise to a leading man of the clan of the Banū Sahm who proves to be a bad payer and wants to harm the merchant.…

Badr al-Muʿtaḍidī

(502 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abu ’l-Nad̲j̲m , commander-in-chief of the armies of the caliph al-Muʿtaḍid (279-89/892-902). He was the son of one of al-Mutawakkil’s mawālī , whose name cannot be established with certainty (Ḵh̲urr or Ḵh̲ayr?), and was first in service as an equerry to al-Muwaffaḳ, gaining from that time the favour of the future caliph al-Muʿtaḍid, who, whilst still regent after al-Muwaffaḳ’s death (Ṣafar 278/June 891), made him chief of police in Bag̲h̲dād and then, after his accession, com-mander of all th…

Laḳīṭ b. Zurāra

(830 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿUdus b. Zayd b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Dārim , Abu Nahs̲h̲al , poet and sayyid of the second half of the 6th century A.D. His name apparently appears for the first time in a tradition concerning the assassination by his brother-in-law Suwayd b. Rabīʿa b. Zayd (see Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, D̲j̲amhara , Tab. 60, and Register, ii, 521) of a son (or of a young brother) Mālik, of al-Mund̲h̲ir b. Māʾ al-Samāʾ, who had entrusted him to Zurāra, and the vengeance of ʿAmr b. Hind [ q.v.], in the first place on the seven sons of the murdered man and then on the Banū Ḥanẓala b. Mālik (Ibn al-Kalbī-Ca…

Ḥisāb al-ʿAḳd

(1,582 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(— al-ʿuḳad , — al-ʿuḳūd , — al-Ḳabḍa bi ’l-yad , — al-yad), dactylonomy, digital computation, the art of expressing numbers by the position of the fingers. Some indications prove that the ancient Arabs not only at times used to show their outstretched hands, bending down one or more fingers when necessary, to indicate some small numbers (see I. Goldziher, in Arabica , viii/3, 272), but also had the ability to express larger numbers by holding their fingers in a given position (see G. Levi Della Vida, in Isl ., x (1920), 243), and ¶ it is not impossible that certain gestures used by the …

Diḥya

(514 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H. | Pellat, Ch.
(or Daḥya ) b. K̲h̲alīfa al-Kalbī , Companion of the Prophet and a somewhat mysterious character. He is traditionally represented as a rich merchant of such outstanding beauty that the Angel Gabriel took his features; and, when he arrived at Medina, all the women ( muʿṣir , see LA, root. ʿṣr ) came out to see him (Ḳurʾān, LXII, n, may be an allusion to this occurrence). There is no reason to accept the suggestion put forward by Lammens ( EI 1, s.v.) of some commercial connexion with Muḥammad; we only know that a sudden death put ¶ a stop to a projected marriage between a niece of Diḥya and …

Ḥafṣa Bint al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲

(357 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Rukūniyya (al-Rakūniyya), poetess of Granada born after 530/1135, d. 589/1190-1. Ibn al-K̲h̲aṭīb ( Iḥāṭa , i, 316) and other writers praise the beauty, distinction, literary culture, wit, and poetic gifts of this woman, who was remembered in later ages above all for her love-affair with the poet Abū D̲j̲aʿfar Ibn Saʿīd of the Banū Saʿīd [see ibn saʿīd ] family. Abu D̲j̲aʿfar was the inspiration of most of her poetry which we possess. After the arrival at Granada of Abū Saʿīd ʿUt̲h̲mān, the son of the Almohad ʿAbd al-Muʾmin, sh…

K̲h̲ālid b. Sinān

(347 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿayt̲h̲ al-ʿabsī (see his genealogy in Ibn al-Kalbī D̲j̲amhara , Tab. 133), one of the personages of the interval [see fatra ] between Christ and Muḥammad who, in Islamic tradition, was considered as a prophet; he was even regarded as the first prophet to arise amongst the descendants of Ismāʿīl. He is said to have foretold the coming of Muḥammad, and the latter is said to have greeted K̲h̲ālid’s daughter, who had come to him, with these words “Here is the daughter of a prophet whom his people has lost”; popular belief even went as far as to attribute to him knowledge of Sūrat al-Ik̲h̲lāṣ ( T̲h̲im…

Abū ʿĀṣim al-Nabīl

(287 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, al-ḍaḥḥāk b. mak̲h̲lad b. muslim b. al-ḍaḥḥāk al-s̲h̲aybānī al-baṣri , traditionist, born at Mecca in 122/740 but established subsequently at Baṣra, where he transmitted from a host of scholars (notably al-Aṣmaʿī) a large quantity of ḥadīt̲h̲s gathered by himself, and especially from several tābiʿīs or Successors. He was considered as trustworthy, and some of his ḥadīt̲h̲s were included in the great collections; his biographers assert that he never fabricated a single one, although he is said to have declared that pious men never lie so much as in …

G̲h̲ūl

(1,202 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B. | Pellat, Ch.
(A., pl. g̲h̲īlān or ag̲h̲wāl ), fabulous being believed by the ancient Arabs to inhabit desert places and, assuming different forms, to lead travellers astray (sometimes, like the Bedouins, lighting fires on the hills the more easily to attract them), to fall upon them unawares and devour them; certain isolated sources (cf. al-Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ , iii, 315) affirm however that it fled as soon as it was challenged; according to al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ ( Ḥayawān , i, 309), it rode on hares, dogs and ostriches; men could kill it, but only by giving it one singl…

Ibn al-Abbār

(800 words)

Author(s): Bencheneb, M. | Pellat, Ch.
, Abu ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī Bakr b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr al-Ḳuḍāʿī , historian, traditionist, littérateur, and poet, belonged to a family which had its origin in Onda, the patrimony of the Ḳuḍāʾīs of Spain; he was born in Rabīʿ II 595/February 1199 at Valencia, where he passed his youth studying under the direction of several teachers whom he quotes in his Muʿd̲j̲am . For more than twenty years he was the disciple of the most learned traditionist in Spain, Abu ’l-Rabīʿ b. Sālim, who persuaded him to complete the Ṣila of Ibn B…

Mūsā S̲h̲ahawātin

(382 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Muḥammad, a poet of Medina considerably less known than his brother Ismāʿīl b. Yasār [ q.v.], with the result that Yāḳūt, who devotes an article to him, calls him Mūsā b. Bas̲h̲s̲h̲ār; he gives him the nisba of al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī, as the person in question was in fact a mawlā of Ḳurays̲h̲, variously associated with the Banū Taym b. Murra, with the Banū Sahm or even with Sulaymān b. Abī K̲h̲ayt̲h̲ama al-ʿAdawī (of the ʿAdī b. Kaʿb b. Luʾayy). Since the reason for his cognomen has been forgotten, numerous explanations have b…

D̲j̲uḥā

(2,439 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
( or ), the nickname of a personage whom popular imagination made the hero of a few hundred jests, anecdotes and amusing stories. The oldest literary instance of this name goes back to the first half of the 3rd/9th century, in al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, who numbers D̲j̲uḥā among others renowned for their follies ( Risāla fi ’l-Ḥakamayn , ed. Pellat, in Machriq , 1958, 431), and attributes to him futile schemes and an extraordinary tendency to make mistakes and blunders; the same author also quotes ( K. al-Big̲h̲āl , ed. Pellat, Cairo 1955, 36) a story borrowed from Abu ’l…

Kurd ʿAlī

(1,075 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Muḥammad Farīd , Syrian journalist, scholar and man of letters, was born in Damascus in 1876, of a father of Kurdish origin and a Čerkes mother. From an early age, he showed an interest in nature and in books, and it was reading which, combined with his innate curiosity and gifts of observation, made the greatest contribution to his intellectual development. Already bilingual in Turkish and Arabic, he learnt French from the Lazarist Fathers of Damascus, and this enable him t…

Fatra

(407 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(Ar.), which in general means a relaxing, and then an interval of time ( e.g., the modern fatrat al-intiḳāl “period of transition”), is applied more particularly to the period separating two prophets or two successive messengers ( rasūl ); al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ ( Rasāʾil , ed. Sandūbī, Cairo 1352/1933, 133-4), in his exposition of prophetic history, uses the term fatra for the end of the period separating two prophets, making it clear that the “slackening” (of observance of the earlier prophet’s teachings) is not a “break” ( ḳaṭʿa ). Al-Masʿūdī ( Murūd̲j̲ , iii, 85) for e…

Ibn Harma

(513 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Ibrāhīm b. ʿAlī b. Salama (b. ʿĀmir) b. Harma al-Fihrī , Abū Isḥāḳ , Arab poet of Medina, born in 90/709, who, if his genealogy is authentic, belonged to the tribe of Ḳurays̲h̲. Little is known of his life. A supporter of the ʿAlids, he attended and panegyrised ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Ḥasan [ q.v.] and al-Ḥasan b. Zayd [ q.v.], but he is said to have refrained from giving his support to Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh [ q.v.] when the latter revolted against the ʿAbbāsids. The Ag̲h̲ānī names several persons for whom he had occasion to exercise his poetic gifts, but it must…

Damnāt

(754 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
( Demnate , Demnat ), a small Berber town situated on the edge of the Great Atlas in Morocco, 120 km. east of Marrākush, at an altitude of 960 m., on a small hill overlooking the fertile valley (barley, beans) of the Oued Tassawt, the slopes of which are covered with olive-trees and vines. The town is surrounded by a rectangular wall and includes a məllāḥ (Jewish quarter); in fact almost half the population, which stands at about 4,000, consists of Jews, whose numbers however are diminishing regularly. Local trade on a large scale in oil…

Mart̲h̲iya

(12,364 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch. | Hanaway, W. L. | Flemming, B. | Haywood, J.A. | Knappert, J.
or mart̲h̲āt (A., pl. marāt̲h̲ī ) “elegy”, a poem composed in Arabic (or in an Islamic language following the Arabic tradition) to lament the passing of a beloved person and to celebrate his ¶ merits; rit̲h̲āʾ , from the same root, denotes both lamentation and the corresponding literary genre. 1. In Arabic literature. The origin of the mart̲h̲iya may be found in the rhymed and rhythmic laments going with the ritual movements performed as a ritual around the funeral cortège by female relatives of the deceased, before this role bec…

Mukaddī

(2,089 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.), pl. mukaddūn , defined by al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ ¶ ( Buk̲h̲alāʾ , ed. Ḥād̲j̲iri, 46) as a man who practices kidāʾ ( ṣāḥib al-kidāʾ ), a term often replaced at a later date by kudya or takdiya and defined as “begging”, in fact denotes a wandering beggar or vagrant who, with the help of a remarkable talent for plausible lying and a knowledge of certain effective dodges, succeeds in opening up the purses of those simple persons who allow themselves to be taken in by his eloquent but mendacious words. The different w…

Ibn Sayḥān

(262 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (b. Sayḥān) b. Arṭāt al-Muḥāribī , a minor poet of Medina who lived in the 1st/7th century, on intimate terms with the governors or members of the Umayyad aristocracy of the town—al-Walīd b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffān, al-Walīd b. ʿUtba b. Abī Sufyān, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. al-Ḥakam and al-Walīd b. ʿUḳba b. Abī Muʿayṭ; indeed he belonged to a clan which was a ḥalīf of the Banū Ḥarb b. Umayya, a fact which incidentally won him the friendship and protection of Muʿāwiya. Although we possess a number of his verses, which belong to the c…

Fuḳahāʾ al-Madīna al-Sabʿa

(1,764 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the seven “jurists” of Medina, to whom tradition attributes a significant role in the formation of fiḳh . J. Schacht, who was especially interested in these fuḳahāʾ , wrote ( Esquisse d’une histoire du droit musulman , Paris 1952, 28; cf. idem, An introduction to Islamic law, Oxford 1964, 31): “The Medinans ... traced back the origin of their special brand of legal teaching to a number of ancient authorities, who died in the final years of the first and the early years of the second century of the Hegira. In a later p…

Ibn al-Habbāriyya

(957 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Yaʿlā al-S̲h̲arīf Niẓām al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Ṣāliḥ al-ʿAbbāsī al-Hās̲h̲imī , Arab poet of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid period, a descendant of the ʿAbbāsid prince ʿĪsā b. Mūsā [ q.v.], who is named after his maternal grandfather, a certain Habbār. He was born probably in Bag̲h̲dād (though it is also said that he was born in Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān) before the middle of the 5th/11th century and followed the traditional pattern of study so thoroughly as to be included among the transmitters of ḥadīt̲h̲ , but he could not bring himself to take an interest in the…

al-Masʿūdī

(6,078 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn , Arab writer whose activity, in the words of Brockelmann (in EI 1, s.v.) “has been undertaken outside the well-trodden paths of professional scholarship”, with the result that he has been rather neglected by biographers and copyists and that a normally well-informed writer like Ibn al-Nadīm, who has obviously not read his works, takes him ( Fihrist , 154) for a Mag̲h̲ribī and devotes to him only a short, moreover probably truncated, article. In fact, the only reliable account which is available concern…

Ibn ʿĀʾis̲h̲a

(427 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, by-name of several persons, who may be distinguished as follows: I. Muḥammad b. ʿĀʾis̲h̲a , Abū D̲j̲aʿfar , Medinan singer of unknown father. A pupil of Maʿbad and of Malik, he was regarded as the equal if not the superior of his masters, and celebrated for his skill at launching into a performance. He was highly respected at Mecca and at Medina, but, extremely vain, he would become very angry when asked to sing. He was invited to the court of Damascus, probably by al-Walīd b. Yazīd but du…

al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ

(3,222 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
Abū ʿUt̲h̲mān ʿAmr b. Baḥr al-Fuḳaymī al-Baṣrī , was a famous Arab prose writer, the author of works of adab , Muʿtazilī theology and politico-religious polemics. Born at Baṣra about 160/776 in an obscure family of mawālī from the Banū Kināna and probably of Abyssinian origin, he owes his sobriquet to a malformation of the eyes ( d̲j̲āḥiẓ = with a projecting cornea). Little is known of his childhood in Baṣra, except that from an early age an invincible desire for learning and a remarkably inquisitive mind urged him towards a life of independence and, m…

Kināya

(1,904 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.), a technical term of rhetoric corresponding approximately to “metonymy” and meaning the replacement, under certain conditions, of a word by another word which has a logical connection with it (from cause to effect, from containing to contained, from physical to moral, by apposition etc.). Etymologically, this term implies a sense of dissimulation found also in the word kunya [ q.v.], which is considered by such a grammarian as al-Mubarrad ( Kāmil , 677) to be derived from kināya . Kināya constitutes a particular type of metaphor ( istiʿāra [ q.v.]) and it is distinct from trope ( mad̲j̲…

al-Ḳalammas

(415 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, appellation bestowed on the man who, according to tradition, was the first nasīʾ [ q.v.] of the Arabs, Ḥud̲h̲ayfa b. ʿAbd b. Fuḳaym b. ʿAdī, of the Banū Mālik b. Kināna; al-Marzubānī ( Muʿd̲j̲am , 250), however, echoes a tradition according to which al-Ḳalammas al-Akbar was ʿAdī, great-grandfather of Ḥud̲h̲ayfa, and al-Ṭabarī ( Tafsīr , Būlāḳ 1327/1909, x, 2) states that three men were the first to be designated nasīʾ, but he does not mention Ḥud̲h̲ayfa by name. However he does mention him in this respect in Annales , i, 1134. According to al-Masʿūdī (Murūd̲j…

Ibn (al-)Aḥmar

(264 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, byname of several poets, including an Iyādī (see Āmidī, Muʾtalif , 38), a Kinānī ( ibid.), a Bad̲j̲alī ( op. cit., 37; al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, Ḥayawān , ii, 214) and a Bāhilī, who is the best known. The sources vary considerably with regard to the genealogy of this poet, but he seems to have been called Abu ’l-K̲h̲aṭṭāb ʿAmr b. (al-) Aḥmar b. ¶ al-ʿAmarrad b. Tamīm b. Rabīʿa b. Ḥirām b. Farrāṣ b. Maʿn b. Aʿṣur al-Bāhilī. He is included among the muk̲h̲aḍramūn [ q.v.], embraced Islam, took part in the conquests in South-west Asia (in the course of which he lost an eye), settled in Syria …

Laʿaḳat al-Dam

(912 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
“lickers of blood”, the name given to a group of clans of Ḳurays̲h̲. According to tradition, Ḳuṣayy [ q.v.] had allocated to the different subdivisions of Ḳurays̲h̲ the quarters which they were to occupy in Mecca and had entrusted to the Banū ʿAbd al-Dār various local offices: administration of the dār al-nadwa and bearing the standard ( liwāʾ ), the furnishing of provisions ( rifāda ) and drink ( siḳāya ) to the pilgrims, and custodianship of the Kaʿba ( ḥid̲j̲āba [see kaʿba ]). However, the Banū ʿAbd Manāf thought themselves more worthy of these privile…

Ḥirbāʾ

(499 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.), chameleon. Triptote with the meaning of “the head of nails joining the links of a coat of mail”, this word, because of its ending, is often treated as diptote and feminine, although it is masculine and for its feminine form has ḥirbāʾa . However, the female chameleon is most often called umm ḥubayn , while the male is referred to by a number of kunya s, of which the most frequent in Muslim Spain, abū barāḳis̲h̲ , often leads translators into error (see E. Lévi-Provencal, En relisant le Collier de la colombe, in al-Andalus , xv/2 (1950), 353). This reptile, which is classified with the aḥnās̲h̲…

al-Naḍr b. S̲h̲umayl

(562 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. K̲h̲aras̲h̲a al-Māzinī, Abu ’l-Ḥasan, Arab scholar who, born in Marw al-Rūd̲h̲ in 122/740, was brought up at Baṣra. He led a miserable life there, but was able to derive instruction from the most famous masters of the time (see Pellat, Milieu , passim ), notably al-K̲h̲alīl b. Aḥmad [ q.v.], whose K. al-ʿAyn he was to enrich by an introduction. He probably lived for some time (allegedly 40 years, which must be an exaggeration) among the Bedouins, whom he was also able to question at the Mirbad [ q.v.]. He was interested in the various branches of knowledge cultivated in his time …

al-K̲h̲wārazmī

(568 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. al-ʿAbbās , Arabic poet and writer (323-83/934-93). Since he alleged that his mother was the sister of the historian al-Ṭabarī, he fabricated for himself the nisba of al-Ṭabark̲h̲azī. He was born in K̲h̲wārazm and spent his youth there, but left it at an early date. It is difficult to trace his peregrinations, but he seems to have sought out, above all, the company of great men in order to live off their munificience. Hence we find him at Aleppo, in the service of Sayf al-Dawla; at Buk̲h̲ārā, with the vizier …

al-Marzūḳī

(313 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū ʿAlī Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan , philologist who acted as a tutor to certain of the Buy ids of Iṣfahān and who died in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 421/December 1030. The vizier the Ṣāḥib Ibn ʿAbbād [ q.v.], whom he had antagonised by neglecting to rise on his entry, nevertheless recognised al-Marzūḳī’s value, at the same time dubbing him (in Yāḳūt, Udabāʾ , xviii, 215) a weaver ( ḥāʾik ), probably without any pejorative intention, since it is possible that he worked at this trade in his youth. Apart from this, we have hardly any details about his life, and it is merely known that he studied the Kitā…

Muraḳḳis̲h̲

(1,242 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
cognomen by which two pre-Islamic Arab poets are known, belonging to a family of which several members have made their mark in the history of poetry in the Arabic language. 1. The Elder, al-Akbar , was called either Rabīʿa, or ʿAwf, or even ʿAmr, the uncertainty deriving from the fact that his father, Saʿd b. Malik b. Ḍubayʿa, had eleven sons (see Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, Tab. 155) whom the historians and biographers may have confused; ʿAmr b. Saʿd seems however to be the form that should be retained. The Arab …

al-Nāṭiḳ bi’l-Ḥaḳḳ

(262 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the honorific given by the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Amīn [ q.v.] to his son Mūsā in 194/809, when he designated him as heir presumptive in place of al-Maʾmūn [ q.v.], whereas their father Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd had specified that the inheritance of the caliphate should pass to al-Maʾmūn and had taken the precaution of sending a circular letter on this subject to all the provinces and of attaching to the kisāʾ of the Kaʿba a copy of this, for the tearing-down of which al-Faḍl b. al-Rabīʾ [ q.v.] sent a ḥād̲j̲ib . It was in effect this vizier of al-Amīn’s who led the calip…

Ḥanẓala b. Ṣafwān

(390 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, one of the people of the Interval ( fatra [ q.v.]), regarded as a prophet sent to the Aṣḥāb al-Rass [ q.v.], who maltreated and killed him before being destroyed themselves. The formation of the legend apparently began in the 3rd/9th century (cf. al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, Tarbīʿ , ed. Pellat, index) but Ibn Ḳutayba does not mention Ḥanẓala among the prophets of the fatra, and al-Maṣʿūdī, in the Murūd̲j̲ (i, 125, iii, 105), devotes only a few lines to him. Later on, the necessity felt by the exegetists to explain the Ḳurʾānic expression Aṣḥāb al-Rass …

Nis̲h̲ān

(5,193 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M. | Pellat, Ch.
(p.), means a sign, banner, seal (and hence letter of a prince), or order/decoration. As a loanword in Ottoman Turkish, it basically denoted a sign or mark and also designated the sultan’s signature, or ṭug̲h̲ra [ q.v.] and, by extension, a document bearing it (its scribe was a nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ [ q.v.]); the standards of the Janissaries or Yeñi Čeri [ q.v.]; the insignia on military, naval and other uniforms; and, ¶ later, decorations bestowed by the sultan. In 19th and 20th century literary Arabic, nis̲h̲ān ( also nīs̲h̲ān ), similarly a loanword, had essential…

Ibn Muḳbil

(995 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Kaʿb (Abu ’l-Ḥurra in Ibn Durayd’s Is̲h̲tiḳāḳ , 12) Tamīm b. Ubayy b. Muḳbil b. al-ʿAd̲j̲lān al-ʿĀmirī (i.e. the ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa; see Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, Tab. 101), Bedouin poet of the muk̲h̲aḍram , who is said, like many other people of his age, to have lived 120 years (although al-Sid̲j̲istānī does not cite him in his K. al-Muʿammarīn ). He died after the battle of Ṣiffīn (37/657), to which he alludes in one of his poems ( Dīwān , 345), probably in Muʿāwiya’s reign and in any case, at a time when al-Ak̲h̲ṭal [ q.v.] had already made himself known to him. Ibn Muḳbil …

ʿĀʾis̲h̲a Bint Ṭalḥa

(287 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, one of the most famous of Arab women. Daughter of a Companion of the Prophet, Ṭalḥa b. ʿUbayd Allāh al-Taymī [ q.v.], who had already won great renown, grand-daughter of Abū Bakr through her mother Umm Kult̲h̲ūm, and niece of ʿĀʾis̲h̲a, the Prophet’s favourite wife, she combined nobility of birth with an imperious spirit and a rare beauty, which she was anxious should not go unnoticed. By nature a coquette, she courted the praises of the g̲h̲azal poets (ʿUmar b. Abī Rabīʿa, i, 80; Kut̲h̲ayyir ʿAzza, Ibn Kutayba, S̲h̲iʿr , 322; ʿUrwa b. al-Zubayr, Ag̲h̲ānī , x, 60), …
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