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Holiday Law

(363 words)

Author(s): Grube, Andreas
[German Version] The German Basic Law contains (art. 140, 139 Weimar Constitution), along with an institutional guarantee of Sunday and holidays recognized by the state, a charge for legislators sufficiently to assure their purpose as “days of rest from work and spiritual uplifting.” No guarantee of specific, individual, state-recognized holidays or of a certain number of them, however, can be derived from this provision, so that the legislator can deny individual holidays t…

Person

(5,668 words)

Author(s): Cancik, Hubert | Schütt, Hans-Peter | Grube, Andreas | Herms, Eilert | Schmidt, Heinz
[German Version] I. Concept 1. The origin of the Latin word persona (“mask, role, status”) is unkno…

Conscientious Objection

(1,284 words)

Author(s): Grube, Andreas | Reuter, Hans-Richard | Hennig, Martin
[German Version] I. Law – II. Ethics – III. Practical Theology I. Law The right to conscientious objection in Germany, which long existed only as a special privilege granted to the members of the historic peace churches (e.g. the Mennonites in Prussia; see II below), today enjoys special constitutional protection through art. 4 III of German Basic Law (“No one may be forced into armed military service against his conscience”) as the most common example of freedom of conscience (Freedom of belief). The constitution thus grants priority to individual value judgments over compulsory military service (Conscription/National service). The right to conscientious objection is meant to protect the individual from being forced to kill another human being in an act of war if his conscience absolutely and categorically prohibits killing. It also affords protection from serving in the military during peacetime, since military training is a preparation for armed service in war. For reasons of social equity, art. 12a II of German Basic Law permits induction into a substitute community service in cases of genuine conscientious objection. There is no justification for refusing to perform this community service (“total refusal”), though an informal employment situation may under certain conditions be justified for recognized conscientious objectors (§15a Civil Service Law). The conscientious objection laws standardize an acceptance procedure in which the objector must plausibly state the grounds for his consc…

Political Activity of Church Employees (Germany)

(303 words)

Author(s): Grube, Andreas
[German Version] The political dimension of the church’s mission (Public Disclosure Mandate of the German Protestant Church) continually raises the q…

Person

(4,890 words)

Author(s): Cancik, Hubert | Schütt, Hans-Peter | Grube, Andreas | Herms, Eilert | Schmidt, Heinz
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff 1. Die Herkunft des lat. Wortes persona – »Maske, Rolle, Status« – ist unbekannt, evtl. etruskisch. Der Philologe Gavius Bassus (1.Jh. v.Chr.) führte den »Ursprung« des Wortes auf die Funktion der antiken Theatermaske als Schalltrichter zurück, der die Stimme konzentriert und sie klangvoller »hindurchtönen« läßt (per-sonare; bei Gellius, Noctes Atticae 5,7). Griech. entspricht ihm das Wort προ´σωποn̆/pro´sōpon, »Angesicht, Maske, Vorderseite«. Das Wort persona wird in Grammatik, Rhetorik, Recht und Philos. gebraucht; wa…

Treu und Glauben

(198 words)

Author(s): Grube, Andreas
[English Version] . Die hist. gewachsene Paarformel bez. das rechtliche Gebot, in redlicher Weise auf berechtigte Interessen anderer Rücksicht zu nehmen. Im Zivilrecht beschreibt der Grundsatz eine Auslegung…

Politische Betätigung von Kirchenbediensteten

(273 words)

Author(s): Grube, Andreas
[English Version] . Da der Auftrag der Kirche auch eine polit. Dimension besitzt (Öffentlichkeitsauftrag der Evangelischen Kirche), stellt sich die Frage nach der Zulässigkeit der polit. Betätigung von Kirchenbediensteten für jede Staats- und Gesellschaftsordnung immer wieder neu. Im frei…