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Gannys

(128 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] (Γάννυς). Wurde im Haus der Iulia Maesa erzogen und hatte ein Verhältnis mit ihrer Tochter Iulia Soaemias, die ihn zum Erzieher ihres Sohnes Elagabalus [2] machte (Cass. Dio 79,6,1f. Boissevain). G. und Valerius Comazon ließen Elagabal im Mai 218 n.Chr. von den Truppen in Emesa zum Kaiser ausrufen (Cass. Dio 78,31,2-4). Trotz fehlender mil. Erfahrung besiegte G. im Juni Macrinus, wurde aber im Winter 218/9 von Elagabal, der mit dem Gedanken gespielt hatte, G. mit Soaemias zu verh…

Demaratus

(514 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Et al.
(Δημάρατος; Dēmáratos). [German version] [1] Corinthian aristocrat 7th cent. BC Corinthian aristocrat, member of the  Bacchiadae family. D. made his fortune as a merchant around the middle of the 7th cent. BC, mainly through trade with Etruria. When he had to leave Corinth during the rule of  Cypselus he settled in Tarquinii with his followers and married an Etruscan aristocrat. According to ancient tradition the marriage produced two sons, one of whom became the first Etruscan king of Rome,  Tarquinius P…

Anaxibius

(75 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Spartan nauarchos in Byzantium, when in 400 BC the remains of the army of the younger Cyrus entered Bithynia. Recalled from there in 400/399, A. was sent as harmost to Abydus in 389 to secure the Spartan position in the northern Aegean against Athens, but he fell in 388 in a battle against the Athenians under Iphicrates (Xen. An. 5,1,4; 6,1,16; 7,1.2; Diod. Sic. 14,30,4; Xen. Hell. 4,8,32 ff.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Epigraphy

(47 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Epigraphy, from Greek ἐπιγράφειν ( epigráphein, ‘to write on something’). The term refers to ancient texts that were documented on various, mostly permanent materials (stone, bronze, etc.), as well as to the respective sub-discipline of archaeology.  Inscriptions; Epigraphy Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Chirisophus

(237 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Χειρίσοφος; Cheirísophos). [German version] [1] Spartan commander under Cyrus Spartiate; on the instructions of his polis, at Issus in 401 BC he joined the army of the younger  Cyrus with 700 hoplites (Xen. An. 1,4,3; Diod. Sic. 14,19,4f.); after Cyrus' death at Cunaxa C. was sent by  Clearchus to Ariaeus, to offer him the Persian throne (Xen. An. 2,1,4f.). After Clearchus had been imprisoned and put to death, C. received supreme command of the entire remaining army (Diod. Sic. 14,27,1), and led the ret…

Sparta

(5,406 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Theatre | Christianity | Doric Migration | Dark Ages | Hellenistic states | Achaeans, Achaea | Colonization | Apollo | Macedonia, Macedones | Natural catastrophes | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Athletes | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Σπάρτη/ Spártē, Doric Σπάρτα/ Spárta). I. Political history [German version] A. Archaic period City in Laconica on the middle reaches of the Eurotas; originally four villages (Cynosura [3], Limnae, Pitana/Pitane, Mesoa), which developed from settlements of D…

Gildilas

(57 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Eastern Goth, comes Syracusanae civitatis in AD 526/7, commander of the province of Sicilia, known from two letters of  Athalaric (Cassiod. Var. 9,11; 14) who threatened the comes Gotharum G. with dismissal from office because of serious irregularities in the levying of taxes and in legal decisions. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Hippocles

(56 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἱπποκλῆς; Hippoklês). H. of Cyme on the island of Euboea, oikist (‘founder’) of the Italian Cyme together with Megasthenes of Chalcis. According to Strabo (5,4,4), the colony was named by mutual agreement after H.' hometown, but must be considered as a Chalcidian foundation. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. Bérard, La colonisation grecque, 1957, 38f.

Eurylochus

(228 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Εὐρύλοχος; Eurýlochos). [German version] [1] Relative and companion of Odysseus Close relation and ambivalent companion of  Odysseus. He is the only one not to accept the invitation of  Circe, and so escapes being transformed into a pig (Hom. Od. 10,205-274; Apollod. Epit. 7,14-15; Ov. Met. 14,287). When E. later incites the companions against Odysseus, he is threatened with punishment by death (Hom. Od. 10,429-448). Together with  Perimedes he takes part in the sacrifice to the dead before Odysseus ente…

Ecdicius

(201 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(Ĕκδίκιος; Ekdíkios) [German version] [2] Son of the Emperor Avitus, 5th cent. AD Arvernian from a senator's family, son of the emperor  Avitus [1], brother-in-law of Sidonius Apollinaris, received an excellent education (in Clermont). Around AD 469, he was probably at the court of  Anthemius [2]; probably in 471 he organized the defence of Clermont against the Visigoths using his own means. During a famine in Burgundy in 473, he supplied the (suffering) population with food. In 474, Iulius Nepos awarded the patricius title to him for his achievements and probably made him a magister utr…

Agathocles

(1,543 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Ἀγαθοκλῆς; Agathoklês) [German version] [1] of Athens Archon 357/56 BC Archon 357/56 BC (Dem. Or. 47,44; Diod. Sic. 16,9). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Tyrant King of Syracuse (316-288 BC) Later king of Syracuse, born 361/0 BC in Thermae in Sicily. Son of Carcinus, who had been banned from Rhegium, and who under  Timoleon had received citizenship in Syracuse and had a pottery manufactory. A. had an adventurous youth, participated in several martial undertakings and early on fostered broad-reaching politica…

Cannutius

(170 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] [1] P. Orator, 1st cent. BC C. is mentioned in Cic. Brut. 205 as copyist (ed.?) of the speeches of P. Sulpicius and as an extremely eloquent orator (positive, in Cic. Clu. 29, 50, 73f.), whereas Aper in Tac. Dial. 21,1 regards him as too old. He was not a senator, but appeared in the trial of Oppianicus (Clu. 58). The passive use of admirari in the only quote in Prisc. Gramm. 2,381,12f. leads to the conclusion that C. was an analogist.  Histrio Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) Bibliography Edition: ORF4, 371f. Literature: Münzer, s.v. C. 2, RE 3, 1485 A. E. Douglas, Comm. in Cicero…

Evagon

(118 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὐάγων / Euágōn, in MSS also as Εὐγαίων / Eugaíōn, Εὐγέων / Eugéōn). Of Samos, hailed by Dionysius of Halicarnassus as one of the earliest of the Greek historiographers (De Thucydide 5) and the first Samian historian (last third of the 5th cent. BC), the author of Hôroi Samíōn, which was still referred to by Aristotle; Thucydides, too, used it. In the course of a 2nd cent. BC territorial dispute with Priene, the Samians cited an old border agreement (early 7th cent.), mentioned by E. ─ who thus is one of the earliest local …

Dekadarchia

(482 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(δεκαδαρχία; dekadarchía). [German version] [1] Rule by ten c. 400 BC ‘Rule by ten’; commissions of ten men, used in 405/04 BC by the oligarchically inclined Spartan Lysander, especially in the former Athenian sphere of influence; according to Diodorus (14,13,1), besides dekadarchia he also set up oligarchies, but according to Xenophon (Hell. 3,5,13; 6,3,8), Plutarch (Lys. 13) and Nepos (Lys. 1,4-2,1) dekadarchia persisted ‘everywhere’. This is improbable, as Sparta had proclaimed freedom and autonomy as its goal in the war against Athens, and in Greek constitutional conceptions d…

Echestratus

(52 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐχέστρατος; Echéstratos). Legendary Spartan king, son of Agis I, father of Labotas and thus the third king from the house of the Agiads (Hdt. 7,204). According to Paus. 3,2,2, the Cynureans are said to have been expelled from the Argolis in the reign of E. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Dexippus

(719 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Chase, Michael (Victoria, BC)
(Δέξιππος; Déxippos). [German version] [1] Spartan, mercenary leader c. 400 BC Lacedaemonian, 406 BC mercenary leader of Acragas in the war against Carthage in which he played an obscure role. The Syracusans appointed him as the commander in Gela where he refused to support Dionysius I and was then sent back to his homeland (Diod. Sic. 13,85,3f.; 87,4f.; 88,7f.; 93; 96,1). D. is perhaps identical with a perioecus who drew attention to himself in the army of Cyrus the Younger through his wicked machinations and was finally executed by Nicander (Xen. An. 5,1,15; 6,1,32; 6,5ff.). Meier, Misc…

Glaucon

(411 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Et al.
(Γλαύκων; Glaúkōn). [German version] [1] Athen. strategós about 440 BC Son of Leagoras, Athenian   stratēgós at Samos in 441-440 BC (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38 with comm.); in 439-438 and 435-434 stratēgós, in 433-432 commander of the fleet sent to Corcyra (Thuc. 1,51; Syll.3 72). Often mentioned on Attic   kalos-inscriptions in 480-450 BC. Traill, PAA 277035. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Critias, father of Plato's mother Perictione Son of  Critias, father of Charmides and of Plato's mother Perictione (Pl. Prt. 315a; Charm. 154ab; Symp. 222b; T…

Procles

(448 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Προκλῆς/ Proklês). [German version] [1] Legendary Spartan king The legendary Spartan king. P. was considered to be a son of Aristodemus [1] - and hence a direct descendant of Heracles [1] - and the ancestor of the Eurypontids, named after Eurypon, his son (Hdt. 8,131) or grandson (Plut. Lycurgus 1). As late as the 5th cent. BC, P. and his twin brother Eurysthenes [1] and not, e.g., Lycurgus [4], appear in Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 116) as the framers of the Spartan constitution. Ephorus (FGrH 70 F 117) also…

Theopompus

(1,730 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Et al.
(Θεόπομπος/ Theópompos). [German version] [1] Spartan king, around 700 BC Among the early Spartan kings, the Eurypontid T. (Eurypontids), son of Nicander [1] (Hdt. 8,131), is the only one securely identified in a contemporary source: Tyrtaeus (fr. 2 Gentili/Prato) names him as a victorious king in the 1st Messenian War ( c. 700/690-680/70 BC). He was probably the colleague of the Agiad Polydorus [6] (Paus. 4,7,7), appears to have played a role in Spartan-Argive conflicts around Cynuria [1] (Paus. 3,7,5) and in disputes between Spartans and Arcad…

Amphidamus

(71 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀμφίδαμος, Ἀμφιδάμας; Amphídamos, Amphidámas) Captain of the Eleans. In 218 BC A. was imprisoned by Philip V, but was released without payment of ransom after he promised to press the Eleans to form an alliance with Philip. His efforts failed, however; suspected of betrayal, A. had to flee Elis and returned to Philip (Pol. 4,75,6; 84-86).  Philippus Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography F. W. Walbank, Philip V of Macedon, 1967, 48 f.

Epeunaktai

(148 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐπευνακταί; Epeunaktaí). Literally ‘bedfellows’. According to Theopomp (FGrH 115 F 171 in Ath. 6,271c-d), Helots who during the 1st Messenian War were set free by the Spartans and received citizenship; they were supposed to unite with the widows of those who had fallen (cf. also Just. Epit. 3,5,6, who however dates the events in the second Messenian War). According to this, the E. would have been the fathers of the so-called  Partheniai, who appear in tradition as the founders of …

Gesalicus

(147 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Gesalech; also Gesalecus, Gisaleicus). Illegitimate son of  Alaricus [3] II; after the latter's death at Vouillé in AD 507 he was elected king of the Visigoths, as his legitimate half-brother  Amalaricus, grandson of the Ostrogothic king Theoderic, was still a minor (Procop. Goth. 5,12,43). G. was soon forced to retreat to Spain by the Burgundians and Franks (Chron. min. 1,665f. Mommsen). When Theoderic contested his leadership on behalf of Amalaricus (Procop. Goth. 5,12,46), G. …

Fritigern

(180 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Dux ( reiks) of the  Tervingi; in AD 376, with the permission of  Valens and under threat from the Huns, he led his tribe as dediticiideditio ) across the Danube to Thrace (Amm. Marc. 31,4,8; Iord. Get. 134), where the Arian won over parts of the indigenous population. After conflicts with the Romans the Goths defeated the Romans on 9 Sept. 378 in the battle of Hadrianople (Amm. Marc. 31,6,3-5; 11,5; 12,8 [1. 133-139]). F., who was not able to take advantage of the victory because his …

Aneristus

(100 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀνήριστος; Anḗristos). [German version] [1] Spartan (beginning of 5th cent. BC) Spartan. After the murder of the Persian envoy in Sparta, his son  Sperthias went willingly to atone for this debt to the great king, but was let go there (Hdt. 7,134 ff.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Spartan, died 430 BC Spartan, son of Sperthias. According to Hdt. 7,137 A. conquered Halieis. In 430 BC he fell into the hands of the Athenians as a member of a Peloponnesian delegation on the way to the great king and was killed (Hdt. 7,137; Thuc. 2,67). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Canuleius

(321 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Name of a plebeian gens, attested from the 5th cent. BC (variant Canoleius; Greek Κανουλήϊος; Kanoulḗïos); from the 1st cent. AD, the name becomes rare (ThlL, Onom. 2,148f.). [German version] [1] C., C. Tribunus plebis 445 BC tribunus plebis of 445 BC, who is said to have introduced a plebiscitum Canuleium de conubio, repealing the bar to marriage between patricians and plebeians (Cic. Rep. 2,63; Liv. 4,1,1-6). As it is hard to imagine that a people's tribune of the 5th cent. BC could so decisively intervene in the legislative process, the reliab…

Duenos inscription

(465 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] An inscription in archaic Latin on the so-called ‘Vasculum Dresselianum’, a ceramic vessel discovered in Rome, south-east of the Quirinal, in 1880 by H. Dressel. The triangular object with rounded tips and concave sides (length of sides: 10,3-10,5 cm; max. height: 4,5 cm; cf. [1. 55]) has a round opening at each tip. The inscription is on the outer side, written in three lines to be read from right to left (see fig.; other fig. in [1; 2. 134f., 140]; a version of transcription in [3. 70]). The dating of the text ranges from the 7th to the late 3rd cent. BC; ar…

Eteonicus

(121 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐτεόνικος; Eteónikos). Spartan, campaigned under Astyochus against Lesbos in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,23); as  harmost of Thasos he was forced out by an anti-Spartan faction in 410 (Xen. Hell. 1,1,32). After the Spartan defeat at Arginusae in 406, E. took his ship and troops safely to Chios and stationed them there until Lysander's arrival (Xen. Hell.1,6,26; 35-38; 2,1,1-6; 10; Diod. Sic. 13,97,3; 100,5). He held a command at Aigospotamoi (405) (Diod. Sic. 13,106,5; Paus. 10,9,10). E. late…

Chaeron

(334 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Χαίρων; Chaírōn). [German version] [1] Mythical son of Apollo and Thero Mythical son of Apollo and Thero (in Plut. Sulla 17: Thuro); founder of the city named after him,  Chaeronea (Hes. Cat. fr. 252 M-W = Paus. 9,40,5f.; Hellanicus FGrH 379 F3). Plutarch names a son dead in childhood after him (Consolatio ad uxorem 5 p. 609d). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Spartan polemarch, late 5th cent. BC Spartan polemarch who died in 403 BC in  Pausanias' assault on Piraeus. He was buried on the Cerameicus (Xen. Hell. 2,4,33; Lys. epit. 63). His grave has been p…

Kalokagathia

(309 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (καλοκἀγαθία; kalokagathía). ‘Excellence’, a combination of kalós k(aì) (‘and’) agathós, where kalós means ‘beautiful’, and agathós ‘good’. Because since Homeric times Greek aristocrats had been defining themselves with these two adjectives [1. 8f.], kalokagathia was thought to be an expression of aristocratic self-representation in the Homeric tradition (cf. e.g. [2]). However, this has proven to be false [3. vol. 1, 611ff.]: kalokagathia is not recorded as a set expression until the 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC (evidence: [4. 1054ff.; 107…

Archinus

(89 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀρχῖνος; Archînos). Athenian, around 404 BC initially an adherent of the political group around  Theramenes (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 34,3). Together with  Thrasyboulus in 404/3 he launched the struggle against the 30 Tyrants ( Triakonta) from  Phyle (Dem. Or. 24,135). After the victory he was a proponent of preserving the general amnesty and opposed to expanding Athenian citizenship (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 40,1 f.). The Ionian alphabet was introduced in Athens at his suggestion in 403/2 (Theop. FGrH 115 F 155; PA, 2526; Traill PAA, 213880. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Lucius [I]

(732 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Et al.
(Λούκιος; Loúkios) [German version] [1] L. Kathegetes Author of pharmacological texts, 1st cent. AD Author of pharmacological texts, active in the middle to the end of the 1st cent. AD. Galen (De compositione medicamentum secundum genera 13,295 K.), quoting from Andromachus [5] the Younger, records a remedy against diarrhoea by L. of Tarsus, a city with a long pharmacological tradition (cf. also 13,292 K., where the name of the city is not mentioned). He is almost certainly to be identified with the more fa…

Dorylaus

(227 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Δορύλαος; Dorýlaos). [German version] [1] Great-great-grandfather of Strabo, friend of Mithridates V From Amisus, great-great-grandfather of the geographer Strabo, recruited mercenaries in Thrace, Greece and Crete as anḕr taktikós and friend of Mithridates V of Pontus. In Knossos he was chosen as stratēgós and defeated the Gortynians. After the assassination of Mithridates in 120 BC he remained in Knossos (Str. 10,4,10). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Philetaerus, participated in the 1st Mithridatic War Son of Philetaerus, nephew of D. [1]. Raise…

Axiochus

(75 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀξίοχος; Axíochos). Uncle of  Alcibiades (Pl. Euthd. 275a), and accused together with him in 415 BC of the profanation of the Mysteries in the house of Charmenides, after which he fled from Athens (And. 1,16); his possessions were auctioned. On his alleged amorous adventures: cf. Ath. 12,534F-535A; 13,574E and [1. 20]. He appears in the pseudo-Platonic dialogue that is named after him. Traill, PAA 139755. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 W. M. Ellis, Alcibiades, 1989.

Gesimund

(87 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Son of Hunimund the Elder, first Gothic king under Hunnish rule. In AD 376 he helped the Hunnish king Balamber to victory over the Amalian Vinitharius (Iord. Get. 248). Perhaps identical to Gensimund, who, although the kingship was offered to him as Amalian magister militum, declined in favour of the legitimate successors (Cassiod. Var. 8,9). PLRE 2,510 and [1. 26f.] consider the two to be identical; contrary [2. 254f.]. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. Heather, Goths and Romans 332-489, 1991 2 H. Wolfram, Die Goten, 31990.

Aristarchus

(2,018 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀρίσταρχος; Arístarchos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (end of the 5th cent. BC) Athenian politician, in 411 BC the most embittered opponent of the demos among the 400 Oligarchs in Athens (Thuc. 8,90,1). A. participated in the fortification of  Eetioneia when he was strategos (Xen. Hell. 2,3,46). After the regime was toppled, he betrayed the border fortification Oenoe to the Boeotians (Thuc. 8,98), for which he was executed in 406 (?) (Lycurg. Leocr. 115; PA, 1663; Traill PAA, 164155). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] of Tegea Tragedian, 5th cent. BC Tragedi…

Daochus

(157 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Δάοχος; Dáochos). [German version] [1] D.I. Tagos of the Thessalian koinon 431-404 BC from Pharsalus, son of Agias, was the   tagos of the Thessalian koinon for 27 years ( c. 431-404 BC?); his tageia was reputedly a time of peace and prosperity (Syll.3 273) [1. 110f.]. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] D. II. Thessalian, envoy of Philip II 338 BC high-ranking Thessalian, grandson of D. [1]. In 338 BC, Philip II sent him together with others to the Thebans to procure support against Athens (Pol. 18,4,4; Dem. Or. 18,211…

Column/Monumental column

(1,889 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meier, Hans-Rudolf
Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] A. Interpretatio Christiana ofIillustrated Columns (CT) Whether in architectural contexts or isolated as monumental columns, scarcely any building element in post-classical times is linked so closely with reference to Antiquity as the column. This is true both positively, in the sense of a conscious renovatio of Classical or Christian Antiquity, and negatively, in connexion with idols as the embodiment of vanquished paganism. Columns with standing ‘idols’, mostly nude, became almost a topos in the art of the later Midd…

Rhetra

(758 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(ῥήτρα/ rhḗtra, Ionian ῥήτρη/ rhḗtrē, Elean ράτρα/ wrátra; related to εἴρειν/ eírein ('speak')). [German version] [1] Contract (general) Generally 'ceremonial utterance, something said with a claim to authority', figuratively also 'agreement, contract' (e.g., Hom. Il. 14,393; Syll.3 9, Elis, 6th cent. BC), later 'resolution, law' [1. 17-22; 2. 431; 3. 120283]. The phrase εὐθεῖαι ῥῆτραι/ eutheîai rhêtrai ('legal covenants') attested in Tyrtaeus fr. 1b,6 = °14,6 Gentili/Prato (2nd half of 7th cent. BC) expresses an ideal of a consensus extending to all po…

Maldras

(92 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Son of Massilia, was elevated to king of the Suebi by the king of the West Goths Theodericus II in AD 456 after the murder of Rechiarius, although he had to defend himself against other pretenders [1. 124]. In 457 he plundered Olisipo (Lisbon) and laid waste to Gallaecia, in 459 to Lusitania and Portumcale Castrum (Oporto). In the same year, he murdered his brother, was then killed himself in 460 (Chron. min. 2,29-31 Mommsen). PLRE 2, 704. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 D. Claude, Geschichte der Westgoten, 1970.

Endius

(106 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἔνδιος; Éndios). Spartan, son of Alcibiades. In 420 BC, E. attempted in vain as a delegate in Athens to prevent a symmachia between the Athenians and Argos, Mantineia and Elis (Thuc. 5,44-47). As ephor he voted in 413/2 on the advice of Alcibiades [3], who was banned from Athens and with whose family he was associated by proxenia, for a rapid shift of the war theatre to the territory of Athens' allies in Asia Minor (Thuc. 8,6; 17). After the Spartan defeat at Cyzicus (410 BC) E. attempted in vain to broker a peace in Athens (Diod. Sic. 13,52f.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Aristomenes

(638 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἀριστομένης; Aristoménēs). [German version] [1] Messenian hero and freedom fighter (2nd half of 7th cent. BC) Messenian hero and freedom fighter, seen as a descendant of the Aepytids. With the support of Arcadians and Argives, A. was the supposed leader of a Messenian revolt against Sparta which lasted for many years. Paus. 4,14,6-24,3 reports that on his defeat, after initial successes, in the so-called battle of the ‘Great Trench’ because of the treachery of the Arcadian king  Aristocrates [1], A. retreated…

Gundiok

(112 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Gundovech). King of the Burgundians in AD 457-470, from the family of  Athanaric [1. 44], married a sister of Ricimer (Malalas 374-75; Johannes Antiochenus fr. 209), his sons are Gundobad, Godigisclus, Chilperic and Godomer (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,28). As an ally of Theoderic II he attacked in 455 with his brother Chilperic I the Suebians in Gaul and settled there after the victory of Theoderic in 457. In 463 he was magister utriusque militiae (per Gallias); in the same year he informed Pope Hilarius about the irregular administration of the bishop of  Vienna (Hilarius Ep…

Flaccus

(255 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
Roman cognomen (‘floppy-eared’), probably originally an individual cognomen, in the Republican period especially widespread in the senatorial families of the Fulvii, Norbani and Valerii, and in the Imperial period also among numerous other families. Nickname of the poet Q.  Horatius F. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Statilius F. Writer of epigrams Writer of epigrams. The cognomen F. is often mentioned in combination with the nomen Statilius (Στατύλλιος Φλάκκος; Statýllios Phlákkos). He lived at the beginning of the 1st cent. AD, if the Latin ver…

Euricus, Euric

(323 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (also Eurichus, Euarix). King of the Visigoths in AD 466-484, son of Theoderic I, succeeded to the throne after the murder of his brother Theoderic II (Iord. Get. 190; Hydatius Lemiensis 237). E.'s reign was marked by the constant endeavour to expand the area of his kingdom (originally Aquitania II, Novempopulana and parts of Narbonensis I) and to weaken the dependence on Rome, which is clear from the termination of the   foedus with the Romans. From 468 he advanced against the Suebi and in the following years conquered almost the e…

Timomachus

(495 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Τιμόμαχος/ Timómachos). [German version] [1] From Thebes, commander in the Peloponnesian War commander of the Theban Aegidae, claimed to have supported the Spartans with his army in the conflict against Amyclae [1] and to have instructed them in the art of warfare. His bronze armour was displayed at the Hyacinthia (Hyacinthus) and T. himself was always highly honoured in Sparta (Aristot. fr. 532 Rose). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography M. Nafissi, La nascita del kosmos, 1991, 324-326. [German version] [2] Athenian strategist from Acharnae, 4th cent. BC Athenian strategist …

Herpyllis

(120 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἑρπυλλίς; Herpyllís). Life companion (first as slave, then freed, but probably not second wife) of Aristotle [6] (died 322 BC), in whose will she was lavished with money, servants, and the right of residence in the philosopher's estates in Chalcis and Stageira because of her excellent care of him (ὅτι σπουδαία περὶ ἐμὲ ἐγένετο). In case of a future marriage, the executors were to take care that she would not be given to someone unworthy of her (Diog. Laert. 5,13). It is impossible…

Epicydias

(97 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐπικυδίδας; Epikydídas). Spartiate, who, in 394 BC, delivered to King Agesilaus the order of the Ephoroi to return to Sparta from Asia Minor (Xen. Hell. 4,2,2; Plut. Agesilaus 15,2). He was probably a troop commander in the battle of Aigospotamoi (405) for which he was honoured in Delphi with a memorial (Paus. 10,9,10, although the name was transmitted in a corrupt form). He fell in 378 in Boeotia under Agesilaus (Xen. Hell. 5,4,39). He is probably not identical with a troop commander of the same name mentioned in Thuc. 5,12f. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Demochares

(472 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δημοχάρης; Dēmochárēs). [German version] [1] Athenian delegate to Philip II, mocked by Seneca Mentioned by Seneca as an Athenian delegate to Philip II and compared to the Homeric  Thersites because of his open and bold style of speech (cf. Il. 2,212ff.) (Sen. De ira 3,23,2f.). Possibly identical with D. [3] PA 3716. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Relative of Demosthenes the orator The son of Demon of the Paeania deme, a relative of  Demosthenes, possibly as commander of the cavalry, he was Athenian delegate and witness of the oath of symmachia with Amyntas (IG II2 102,19?…

Godigiselus

(102 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] King of the Vandal Hasdingians around AD 400, father of  Gundericus and  Geisericus. Under G. the Hasdingians moved from Pannonia via Vindelicia and Noricum to the Rhine-Neckar area where G. fell in battle in 406 fighting the Franks, who were defending the Roman Rhine border (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9); Procop. (Vand. 3,3,2; 22f.) and Theophanes (5931; 6026) erroneously report that G. led the Hasdingians to Spain. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography PLRE 2, 515f. F. Clover, The Late Roman West and the Vandals, 1993 Chr. Courtois, Les vanda…

Abrote

(49 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀβρώτη; Abrṓtē). According to Plut. Mor. 295a, the canny wife of  Ninus, the king of Megara. In her memory, he is supposed to have introduced her official dress ἀφάβρωμα ( aphábrōma) to the Megarean women; its abolition was supposedly forbidden by an oracle. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Aristodemus

(1,166 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστόδημος; Aristódēmos). [German version] [1] Great-grandson of Heracles Great-grandson of Hercules, one of the three Heraclids who led the Dorians into the Peloponnese. According to the widely known version of the myth (Pl. Leg. 3,692 bk.; Apollod. 2,173; Paus. 3,1,6), A. died before reaching the Peloponnese, leaving twin sons, Eurysthenes and Procles, who then received Laconia and became the founding fathers of both the royal houses of Sparta. According to Spartan tradition, A. himself led the Spar…

Cerrinius

(94 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
Roman gentilicium (also Cerinius) of Oscan origin, derived from Ceres; frequently attested in Pompeii and the surrounding area [1. 467f.]. [German version] [1] Initiates in the Bacchic mysteries, 2nd cent. BC According to Liv. 39,13,9, Minnius and Herennius Cerrinii were the first men to be initiated into the Bacchic mysteries, by their mother, a priestess of Dionysus. After the Senate, seeing the cult as a conspiracy, had banned the so-called  Bacchanalia in 186 BC (CIL I2 581), Minnius, as its leading figure, was arrested in Ardea (Liv. 39,17,6; 19,2). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibl…

Cornelianus

(163 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Addressee of Pliny Ep. 6,31 Addressee of Pliny Ep. 6,31, cf. [1]. PIR2 C 1301. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. N. Sherwin-White, Comm. ad loc. [German version] [2] Ab epistulis Graecis under Marcus Aurelius and Commodus Ab epistulis Graecis in the imperial chancellery under Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. Phrynichus dedicated his eclogues to C., and acclaimed him as reviving classical rhetoric (pp. 55, 306, 474-75, 482, 492-93 Rutherford). He can probably not be identified with the C. named in Fronto (ad Am. 1,1; 1,2, cf. [1.…

Hipponicus

(147 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἱππόνικος; Hippónikos). Son of  Callias and  Elpinice, the (half)sister of  Cimon, rich Athenian (And. 1,130; Lys. 19,48) from the family of the Kerykes, in the office of dadoûchos in Eleusis like his father ( Mysteria). As stratēgós in 427/6 BC, he led the successful campaign against the Tanagraeans alongside Eurymedon [4] (Thuc. 3,91,4f.; And. 1,115; Diod. Sic. 12,65,3ff.). He died shortly before 422. In her first marriage, his wife was married to  Pericles (Plut. Pericles 24,8, where it is falsely assumed that …

Adeimantus

(325 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀδείμαντος; Adeímantos). [German version] [1] Corinthian (5 cent. BC) Corinthian, son of Ocytus, fled in a cowardly manner, according to Herodotus (8,94), in the war against Xerxes with the Corinthian contingent before the naval battle at  Salamis in 480 BC. In fact, he was probably supposed to guard an area apart from the scene of the battle, namely the western entrance to the gulf, and then became involved in the battle (cf. ML 24; Dio Chrys. 37,18; Plut. Mor. 870b-871a). His son Aristeas (Aristeus) c…

Hellanodikai

(252 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἑλλανοδίκαι; Hellanodíkai, also Ἑλληνοδίκαι; Hellēnodíkai), the supervisors and judges at the competitions of Olympia, Nemea (IG IV 587) and the Asclepiea in Epidaurus (IG IV 946; 1508). The hellanodikai of the Olympic Games were chosen in Elis from the local aristocracy for one festival in each case. The office (official oath: Paus. 5,24,10), the sacred components of which are still reflected in a cleansing ritual of the hellenodikai (Paus. 5,16,8), probably involved large financial outlays. The number of hellenodikai was initially restricted to one or tw…

Eclectus

(133 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἔκλεκτος; Éklektos, also Electus, Eiectus). E. from Egypt, freedman of Verus, later lived in the palace of Marcus Aurelius (SHA Ver. 9,5f.) after whose death he became cubicularius of that emperor's nephew M. Ummidius Quadratus. When the latter was executed in AD 182, Commodus took on E. (Herodian. 1,16,5; Cass. Dio 72,4,6) with whom he appeared in gladiator games (SHA Comm. 15,2; Cass. Dio 72,19,4). In 193, together with the praetorian prefect Aemilius Laetus and Marcia, the concubina of Commodus, he instigated the murder of the Emperor (Hdn. 1,17,6; 2,1…

Eutherius

(221 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Εὐθήριος; Euthḗrios). [German version] [1] Slave at the court of Constantine I An Armenian pagan eunuch, who had come to the court of Constantine I as a slave, later served under Constans, and under Julian rose to praepositus sacri cubiculi (AD 356-360). In Milan in 356/7, E. appeared before Constantius II to defend Julian against Marcellus' accusations (Amm. Marc. 16,7,2f.); after Julian had been made Augustus in 360, he became his envoy with Constantius (Amm. Marc. 20,8,19; 9,1-4; Zos. 3,9,3f.); In 361, Julian recalled him once ag…

Canidius

(126 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] C. Crassus, P., of unknown descent. In 43 BC, he served as legate of  Lepidus in Gaul (Cic. Fam. 10,21,4). Probably holder of a command position under M.  Antonius [I 9] in the Perusine War (App. B Civ. 5,50; MRR 2,373). Cos. suff. at the end of 40 BC; from 36 BC, he fought successfully in Armenia and in the Caucasus, and took part in Antony's Parthian campaigns. In the winter 33/32 BC, he returned to Antony from a command in Armenia, was in charge of the land forces at Actium; after the defeat, he fled to join Antony in …

Aristoteles

(5,596 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Frede, Dorothea (Hamburg) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Et al.
(Ἀριστοτέλης; Aristotélēs). [German version] [1] Athenian oligarch Athenian oligarch who, in 404 BC, was banned from Athens and sent to Sparta by  Lysander (Xen. Hell. 2,2,118). Later, he was one of the 30 Tyrants in Athens (Xen. Hell. 2,3,2;  Triakonta), who sent him to Sparta with the request for a Spartan occupational force (Xen. Hell. 2,3,13). Traill, PAA, 174765. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Rhodian envoy, 166/5 BC Rhodian envoy to Rome who, in 166/5 BC, failed in his request for a renewal of the amicitia by the Senate (Pol. 30,23,2-4) [1. 167,2; 2. 208]. Günther, …

Polydorus

(886 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Πολύδωρος/ Polýdōros, Lat. Polydorus). [German version] [1] King of Thebes, son of Cadmus King of Thebes, son of Cadmus [1] and Harmonia (Hes. Theog. 978; Eur. Phoen. 8; Hyg. Fab. 179), husband of Nyctis who was one of Nycteus' daughters (Apollod. 3,40). According to Pausanias, P. succeeded Cadmus to the Theban throne (Paus. 9,5,3). In Euripides, on the other hand, P. is not the heir apparent - there, an aged Cadmus hands the Theban throne to his grandson Pentheus (Eur. Bacch. 43 f. and 213). Although early…

Euclidas

(205 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Mlasowsky, Alexander (Hannover)
(Εὐκλείδας; Eukleídas; Paus. 2,9,1; 3: Epicleidas). [German version] [1] Spartan king about 227-222 BC Spartan king c. 227-222 BC, son of Leonidas II, Agiad. His brother Cleomenes III elevated him as king after the murder of the Eurypontid Archidamus III to formally preserve the double monarchy. Tradition attributes the Spartan catastrophe against Antigonus [3] Doson (222) at Sellasia to his tactical incompetence. E. was killed in this battle (Plut. Cleom. 11,5; 28,3; 6f.; Phil. 6; Paus. 2,9,1; 3; Pol. 2,65-68). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Syracusan die cutter…

Lamis

(131 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Λάμις; Lámis). From Megara, leader of a party of Megarian colonists who, probably together with settlers from Chalcis [1], went to Sicily around 730 BC. There the Megarians separated from the Chalcidians, and, the latter already having occupied the most favourable locations (Naxos, Catana, Leontini), founded Trotilum. They accepted an invitation from Leontini to drive out the Sicels ( Siculi) and live in the polis, but they were soon driven out themselves, founding Thapsus (moder…

Hegesilochus

(145 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἡγεσίλοχος; Hēgesílochos). [German version] [1] Rhodian, middle of 4th cent. BC Rhodian, exploited the conflict between Rhodes and Athens ( Social Wars [1]) in 356/5 BC, in order to take over power in Rhodes at the head of an oligarchical clique with the support of  Maussollos of Caria. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography R. M. Berthold, Rhodes in the Hellenistic Age, 1984, 31, with n. 41 (sources and bibliography). [German version] [2] Rhodian prytanis and envoy, 2nd cent. BC (also: Ἀγησίλοχος; Agēsílochos). Son of Hagesias, Rhodian, moderate friend of Rome, who as prytanis (17…

Gundobad

(229 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Son of Gundiok, king of the Burgundians in AD 474-516, Arian. On the side of  Ricimer he, as magister utriusque militiae in 472, killed Anthemius [2] (Chron. min. 1,306 Mommsen), administered the western empire and in 473 elevated Glycerius to the status of Augustus (Chron. min. 1,664). In 474 he ─ in the meantime comes and patricius ─ returned to Gaul and succeeded Ricimer in Vienna. He defeated the Alemanni and around 490 invaded Liguria (Ennod. 80). In 496 he married his son Sigismundus to Areagni, a daughter of Theoderic. In 501 he defeated…

Aristophon

(303 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀριστοφῶν; Aristophôn). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (end of the 5th cent. BC) Member of the Athenian regime of 400 oligarchs in 411 BC. Sent by them as an emissary to Sparta, he was abducted to Samos by Athenian democrats and Argives (Thuc. 8,86,9; PA, 2102; Traill PAA, 175995. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Athenian politician (end of the 5th-middle of the 4th cent. BC) Athens. Politician, who was honoured in 403 BC for his resistance against the 30 Tyrants ( Triakonta) by   ateleia (ἀτέλεια) (Dem. Or. 20,148). Until his deat…

Gorgidas

(139 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Γοργίδας/ Gorgídas, or Γοργίας/ Gorgías in Diodorus). The most important Theban politician and commander of the 4th cent. BC (cf. Diod. Sic. 15,39,2) alongside  Epaminondas and  Pelopidas, Hipparchus in c. 383. After the Spartan seizure of the Cadmeia, G. remained in contact with Theban fugitives in Athens (Plut. Mor. 578BC; 576A). He is said to have organized the resistance against Sparta by forming the ‘holy throng’ ( hieròs lóchos, ἱερὸς λόχος) (Plut. Mor. 594AB; Plut. Pel. 12; 18f.; Polyaenus, Strat. 2,5,1; in Ath. 13,602a attributed to Epami…

Archedemus

(200 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Hülser, Karl-Heinz (Constance)
(Ἀρχέδημος; Archédēmos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician of c. 400 BC Athenian politician of c. 400 BC. Archedemus was close to  Socrates and  Criton (Xen. Mem. 2,9). As administrator of the diobelia, after the battle of the Arginusae in 406 BC he accused the strategos  Erasinides of misappropriation of funds and faults in the performance of his official duties (Xen. Hell. 1,7,2), thus initiating the so-called trials of the generals at Arginusae. As a demagogue, he was mocked in comedies (cf. Aristoph. Ran. 416 ff. with schol.; PA, 2326; Traill PAA, 208855. Meier, Mischa (Bie…

Gastaldi

(91 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Administrators of goods and representatives of the king's interests in the Lombardic kingdom, first attested under Authari (AD 584-590). Since the 7th cent. they watched over the dukes (cf. Edictus Rothari 23); in the 8th cent. they could preside over courts of law. They were directly subject to the king in their non-inheritable office. In the Duchies of Spoleto and Benevent they administered the most important towns for the dukes. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography C. G. Mor, Lo stato longobardo nel VII secolo, 1969, 1, 271ff.

Gunthamundus

(60 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Son of Gentunis, king of the Vandals in AD 484-496 (Iord. Get. 170; Procop. Vand. 1,8,6f.), fought successfully against the Moors. In 491 his attempt to reconquer Sicily failed (Ennod. Panegyricus 70). He showed tolerance to the Catholics after initially persecuting them. PLRE 2, 525f. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography H.-J. Diesner, Das Vandalenreich, 1966, 84-88.

Callias

(1,877 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Καλλίας; Kallías, Ion. Καλλίης; Kallíēs). Common Attic name from the 6th -- 4th cent. BC, especially in the rich priestly family (several dadouchoi) of the Ceryces, which was associated with the cult of Eleusis. C. appears there in alternation with  Hipponicus. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Mythical son of the Heraclid Temenos Mythical son of the Heraclid  Temenus, king of Argos, and the brother of Agelaus, Eurypylus and  Hyrnetho. Since the king preferred Hyrnetho and her husband  Deiphontes to his sons, they had Temenus murder…

Athenaeus

(2,425 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Baatz, Dietwulf (Bad Homburg) | Et al.
(Ἀθηναῖος; Athēnaîos). [German version] [1] Lacedaemonian, contributed in 423 BC to the truce with Athens Lacedaemonian, son of Periclidas, contributed in 423 BC to the truce with Athens (Thuc. 4,119), which he officially announced to  Brasidas a little later together with the Athenian Aristonymus (Thuc. 4,122). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Attalus I of Pergamum, member of the 'Royal Council' A. was, as the youngest son of Attalus I of Pergamum, a member of the ‘Royal Council’; he is also documented as an agonothete (Alt. Perg. 8,3,…

Diadochi, wars of the

(935 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] The term refers to the wars between the former companions and generals of king Alexander [4] ( Diadochi and Epigoni) for his inheritance, lasting from his death in 323 BC to the formation of the Hellenistic state system. The period of the D. can be roughly divided into two periods: the wars leading up to the death of  Antigonos [1] Monophthalmos (301 BC), who championed most forcefully the unity of the empire, and the subsequent phase, beginning as early as c. 305, in which the Hellenistic successor states of Alexander's empire slowly took on the characteris…

Byrebista(s)

(164 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Βυρεβίστας; Byrebístas, Βοιρεβίστας; Boirebístas). King of the Dacians, c. 60 BC founded a coherent kingdom, which at times extended from the Hungarian low plain to the Julian Alps. His conquests included Scordisci, Taurisci and Boii; his attacks on Thracian territories in the western Pontus region also led to heavy plundering of Greek colonies (i.a. Apollonia). Pompey negotiated with him in 48 for military support (Syll.3 762,22-42). In 44 Caesar planned a campaign against B. (Str. 7.3.5), but almost simultaneously with his assassination the …

Eudocia

(467 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Εὐδοκία; Eudokía). [German version] [1] Aelia Eudocia. Original name Athenais. Came from a traditional background in Athens (her father was the rhetor Leontius) and had an excellent education. Allegedly at the instigation of  Pulcheria, she married  Theodosius II on 7 June 421; she was baptized for this purpose and given the name Aelia E. She was considered pious and increasingly exerted an influence on her husband, pushing aside Pulcheria. In 422 she gave birth to  Eudoxia [2] and before 431 to Flacc…

Papianilla

(55 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Daughter of the West Roman emperor Avitus [1], sister of Ecdicius, married the poet Sidonius Apollinaris before AD 455. She brought great wealth to the marriage and was supposedly opposed to her husband's charitableness (Sidon. Epist. 2,2,3; 2,12,1f.; 5,16; Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,21f.). PLRE 2, 830 (P. 2) with stemma 14. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Agias

(130 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] [1] Elean, brother of the seer Teisamenus (5th cent. BC) Elean, son of Antiochus, received as a result of the activity of his brother, the seer Teisamenus, together with him Spartan citizenship (Hdt. 9,33; 35). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Elean, seer in Sparta (5th cent. BC) Elean, son of Agelochus, grandson of Teisamenus. As a seer, A. is supposed to have predicted for  Lysander the victory at Aegospotami (in 405) (Paus. 3,11,5 f.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [3] Companion of  Aristomachus [4] II (3rd cent. BC) Companion of  Aristo…

Dagisthaeus

(121 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Δαγισθαῖος; Dagisthaîos). As a young Roman commander D., who probably was of Gothic origin, unsuccessfully besieged Persian-occupied Petra in the area of the Lazi in AD 548/9 (Procop. Pers. 2,29 especially 33-43). On account of this he was later taken to court under Justinian on the charge of pro-Persian sentiments and arrested by the emperor (Procop. Goth. 4,9,1-4). For the Narses campaign to Italy he was released from custody and took part in the decisive battle against Totila a…

Ereleuva

(111 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Erelieva, Hereleuva). Concubina of the Amal Thiudimer, mother of  Theoderic the Great (Iord. Get. 269); for the legal position of marriage [1. 262]; for her origins, Anon. Val. 58: Gothic lady; but differing [1. 263]: possibly of provincial Roman origin. E. accompanied her son on his military campaigns (Malchus fr. 18, FHG 4, 130) and was honoured for that by Ennodius (Ennod. MGH (AA) 7,208). At a Catholic baptism, she was given the name Eusebia (Anon. Val. 58) and maintained conta…

Mesotes

(494 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (μεσότης, mesótēs: ‘middle’, ‘mean’, understood in the positive sense). Key concept of a Greek ethical (and resulting political) maxim, which - according to the classical definition of Aristotle (see below) - postulates an orientation toward the mean between ‘too much’ ( hyperbolḗ) and ‘too little’ ( élleipsis). A diffuse mesótēs ideal is perceptible since the Archaic period, and was already propagated by Hesiodus (Op. 694) and ascribed primarily to the Delphic oracle or the Seven Sages ( mēdén ágan: ‘nothing too much’, supporting documents in [1. 11f.]). A…

Cethegus

(145 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
Roman cognomen of a branch of the patrician  Cornelii (ThlL, Onom. 356-59). Attested from the 3rd cent. BC onwards; also Cetegus (Cic. Or. 160); Greek Κέθηγος ( Kéthēgos), supposedly because the family refused to wear the tunica (Porph. Hor. Ars P. 50). Also attested in inscriptions as a family name [1. 293]. There is perhaps no connection between the imperial and republican bearers of the name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Rufius Petronius Nicomachus C. Cos. 504 AD Cos. AD 504, patricius from c. 512, mag. officiorum, princeps senatus. During the siege of Rome …

Hypomeiones

(120 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (οἱ ὑπομείονες/ hoi hypomeíones, literally: the ‘lesser ones’). In the context of the conspiracy of  Kinadon in 398 BC, the hypomeiones are named along with the  helots, the   neodamṓdeis and the   períoikoi as a group of Spartans with limited rights (Xen. Hell. 3,3,6). This was probably not a technical term but rather a collective designation for former   Spartiátai , who for various reasons and in different ways had fewer rights than the   hómoioi : cowardice in battle (cf.   trésantes ) caused the hypomeiones to be socially stigmatized, and loss of wealth or failure in the   a…

Gemellus

(150 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Friend of king Herod I, entrusted with political and diplomatic commisions Friend of King Herod I. Entrusted with political and diplomatic commissions and with the education of Alexander, the eldest son of the king of Mariamme, he accompanied him in 23 BC to Rome for five years. When in 14 BC Herod began to distrust his son, G. fell from grace (Jos. Ant. Iud. 16,241-243). Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Accompanied his father Anatolius, the governor, AD 361 to Phoenicia Son of Anatolius, Cilician, brother of Apolinarius, with whom he …

Nauarchos

(183 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ναύαρχος; naúarchos). Title of a Spartan naval commander, first evidence of use during the Persian Wars in 480 BC, when Sparta commanded the Greek forces, including the fleet, and the establishment of military offices became necessary. The first naúarchos was Eurybiades (Hdt. 8,2; 8,42). The office of nauarchía then only became significant again in the Peloponnesian War, where it appeared as a one-year office, which any Spartiate could hold only once; this stipulation could be evaded, however, by appointing a competent military commander, e.g. Lysander [1], as epis…

Anaxidamus

(122 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἀναξίδαμος; Anaxídamos). [German version] [1] Spartan king at the time of the second Messenian war According to Paus. 3,7,6 and 4,15,3 Spartan king, Eurypontid, whose reign together with the Agiad Anaxander fell in the time of the second Messenian War. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Achaean, subcommander in 207 BC Achaean, subcommander of  Philopoemen in 207 BC at Mantinea against  Machanidas (Pol. 11,18,1). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [3] Achaean (middle of 2nd cent. BC) A. from Megalopolis, Achaean envoy to Rome in 164 and 155/4 (Po…

Gundericus

(183 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Gunderic). In AD 406 G. was chosen as king of the Vandal Hasdingians after the death of his father  Godigiselus; he united his troops with the Alani under Respendial (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9), defeated the Franks and by the end of 406 crossed the Rhine. Without facing organized resistance, he plundered Gaul (Oros. 7,40,3; Chron. min. 1,299; 465 Mommsen; Zos. 6,3), crossed the Pyrenees in 409 (Chron. min. 2,17; Soz. 9,12; Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,2) and secured for himself the east of th…

Geisericus (Geiseric)

(718 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Regarding the name [5. 394]. King of the Vandals and Alani AD 428-477, successor to his half-brother  Gundericus. In 429 G. crossed from the south of Spain to north Africa with 80,000 others (Victor Vitensis 1,2), possibly called in by the Comes Africae  Bonifatius [1], who fell from grace in 427, but ultimately he went because the wealth of the country. Neither Boniface nor an eastern Roman auxiliary corps commanded by Aspar ( Ardabur [2]) were able to stop the Vandals' advance; in 431 G. conquered H…

Eudamidas

(170 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Εὐδαμίδας; Eudamídas). [German version] [1] Spartan, general about 380 BC Spartan, the brother of Phoebidas. E. was supposed to lead a campaign in 382 BC together with Amyntas of Macedonia against Olynthus, but was defeated because of his weak forces and probably killed (Xen. Hell. 5,2,24f.; Diod. Sic. 15,20f.; Dem. Or. 19,264). Maybe he is identical with the early 4th-cent. ephor mentioned in IG V 1, 1232. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Spartan king about 330 BC E. I, Spartan king, Eurypontid, the son of Archidamus III, since 331 or 330 successor of his …

Pantaleon

(501 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Πανταλέων/ Pantaléōn). [German version] [1] King of the Pisates, middle of the 7th cent. BC Son of Omphalion, king of the Pisates (middle of the 7th cent. BC); P.'s rule may have been perceived as tyranny already in his own lifetime (cf. Paus. 6,21,1). He temporarily wrested the organisation of the Olympic Games from the Eleians (Olympia IV.; Paus. 6,22,2) [1. 220f.]. His support of the Messenians in the second of the Messenian Wars (Str. 8,4,10) is a later invention [2. 153f.]. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 L. de Libero, Die archaische Tyrannis, 1996 2 K. Tausend, Amphikty…

Godomarus

(106 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Gundomarus, Gundomar). Son of  Gundobad, after the death of his brother Sigismundus (Greg. Tur. Franc. 3,6) in AD 524 he was elevated to the position of king of the Burgundians (Chron. min. 2,235 Mommsen). He defeated the Franks under Chlodomer at Vienne on 25 June 524, entered in 530 into an alliance with  Amalasuntha and bought the freedom of prisoners of war (CIL XII 2584). In 533 the Franks under Chlothachar and Childebert defeated G. at Autun and in 534 divided up the Burgundian kingdom amongst themselves (Greg. Tur. Franc. 3,11). PLRE 2, 517 G. (2). Meier, Mischa (Bie…

Gundicharius

(146 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Gundahar, Gundihar, Guntiar). Traditionally the son of Gibica; king of the Burgundians. In AD 411 with the king of the Alanians Goar, G. elevated the Gaulish senator  Jovinus in Mainz to the status of emperor (Olympiodorus FHG 4, 61 fr. 17). After the latter's death in 417, he entered into a   foedus with  Honorius (Chron. min. 1,467; 2,155 Mommsen), but in 435 invaded the province of Belgica I where  Aetius [2] defeated him (Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,234f.). In 436 G., allegedly with 20,000 Burgundians, was killed in…

Dynasteia

(593 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (δυναστεία; dynasteía, cf. also δυνάστης; dynástēs, ‘Ruler’). Derived from δύνασθαι; dýnasthai, ‘to be capable’, ‘to be able’; ‘to have influence’, ‘to be wealthy’ [1. 116]. Dynasteia was primarily the rule ( rulership) of a small, influential group, within which high offices were inherited. Two basic levels of meaning are to be distinguished for dynasteia: in the first of them, its character as the term for a group of rulers or an individual ruler expresses more the original sense of the word; in the second the inheritance of lea…

Anaxander

(132 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀνάξανδρος; Anáxandros). [German version] [1] Spartan king at the time of the second Messenian war According to Paus. 3,3,4 and 4,15,3 Spartan king at the time of the second Messenian war, Agiad, son of Eurycrates (Hdt. 7,204). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Leader of the Thebans at  Thermopylae (480) According to Aristophanes of Boeotia (FGrH 379 F 6) leader of the Thebans at  Thermopylae (480). Cf. Hdt. 7,233, who names Leontiades in this position. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [3] Theban, mercenary commander in the Peloponnesian War Theban, 411 BC m…

Anaxandridas

(126 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀναξανδρίδας; Anaxandrídas). [German version] [1] Son of the Spartan king Theopompus According to Hdt. 8,131 son of the Spartan king Theopompus, Eurypontid; his historicity is doubtful. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Spartan king around the middle of the 6th cent. BC Spartan king around the middle of the 6th cent. BC, Agiad. Under the reign of A. and of Ariston Tegea formed an alliance with Sparta. A report, according to which Aeschines, the tyrant of Sicyon, was expelled by A. and  Chilon when the latter was ephor (556…

Petronius

(3,217 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Habermehl, Peter (Berlin) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] High official of the late 4th/early 5th cents. AD Vicarius Hispaniarum AD 395-397, at the court of Mediolanium [1] (Milan) from 398; addressee, with his brother Patroinus, of numerous letters from Symmachus. He gained an unknown office in 401 ( comes rerum privatarum?). From 402-408, P. was praef. praet. per Gallias; while there, he introduced a convocation of the seven provinces, which met annually at Arelate (Arles) (Zos. Epist. 8 = MGH Epp 3, p. 14). He may have been recalled in connection with the usurpation of Constantine…

Chersicrates

(50 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Χερσικράτης; Chersikrátēs). Corinthian; descendant of the Bacchiads (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 80). According to Str. 6,2,4 C. was left behind by  Archias, founder of Syracuse, on the way to Sicily, and settled Corcyra. The credibility of these inherently contradictory statements must be doubted. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Agasicles

(97 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀγασικλῆς; Agasiklês), Ion. Hegesicles. [German version] [1] Spartan king (1st half of 6th cent. BC) Spartan king, Eurypontid, father of Ariston. During the basileia of A. and of Leon (first half of the 6th cent. BC) the Spartans suffered a defeat against Tegea (Hdt. 1,65; otherwise Paus. 3,7,6, who claims that A. did not wage any wars). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Scythes (4th cent. BC) Son of Scythes, achieved Attic citizenship through bribery.  Dinarchus directed a speech against him (Dion. Hal. Dein. 10; cf. also Hyp. Eux. 3). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Othryadas

(169 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ὀθρυάδας/ Othryádas, Ὀθρυάδης/ Othryadēs). When, during their conflict over the territory of Thyreatis around 550 BC, the Argives and Spartans had agreed to hold a decisive battle with 300 selected warriors on either side, O. was the only Spartiate to survive. While the two Argive survivors were reporting the outcome in their homeland, O. robbed his fallen enemies of their weapons. Both sides claimed victory, so that a great battle did nonetheless take place, in which Sparta was vic…

Gannascus

(97 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] A Canninefate, who deserted from Roman service and together with the Chauci laid waste to Lower Germania and the Gallic bank of the Rhine after the death of  Sanquinius Maximus, the governor of Lower Germania, in AD 47. The new governor  Domitius [II 11] Corbulo drove G. away and restored order. When he had G. murdered by a ruse, unrest again broke out among the Chauci, causing Claudius to pull the advance troops back to the west bank of the Rhine (Tac. Ann. 11,18f.). PIR2 G 73. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Dengizich

(96 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Dintzic, Greek Δεγγιζίχ, Δινζίριχος; Dengizích, Dinzírichos). Son of Attila, king of the Huns; after the latter's death D. assembled an army from the elements of the Hun empire that were still under his control, to fight the Goths. He was, however, defeated at Bassianae (Pannonia) by the Goths (probably after AD 456/57, Iord. Get. 272f.). He later conducted several wars against the Romans but was killed in 469 by the mag. mil. per Thracias Anagestes (Prisc. fr. 36 [FHG 4,107f.]; Chron. pasch. 323d Dindorf). PLRE 354f. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Boch…
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