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Serapion

(769 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Σεραπίων; Serapíōn). [German version] [1] S. of Antioch Mathematical geographer, 1st cent. BC Mathematical geographer to whom Plin. HN 1,2 referred to as gnomonicus ('measurer of shadows'). In 59 BC, Cicero (who was his contemporary) received S.'s geographical treatise from Atticus as the newest source for his planned Geographica but was hardly able to understand the content (Cic. Att. 2,4,1). In the treatise, Cicero encountered S.'s fierce criticism of Eratosthenes [2] (ibid. 2,6,1). S. estimated the circumference of the sun to be 18 times t…

Philo

(5,673 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλων/ Phíl ōn). [German version] [I 1] Athenian politician Athenian from Acharnae who was exiled by the Oligarchic regime in 404 BC (Triakonta). During the civil war, he lived as a metoikos (resident without Attic citizenship) in Oropos awaiting the outcome of events. Following his return, when he applied to join the boulḗ he was accused of cowardice and other misdemeanours at a dokimasia investigation (Dokimasia) (Lys. 31; possibly 398 BC). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass, vol.1, 480f.  Th.Lenschau, A. Raubitschek, s.v. P. (2), RE 19, 2526f. …

Timarchus

(555 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Τίμαρχος/ Tímarchos). [German version] [1] Athenian from Sphettus, politician, 4th cent. BC Son of Arizelus from the demos of Sphettus, Athenian politician in the 4th cent. BC who held several offices from 361/0 on (member of the council and of the financial office, legate). The speech of Aeschines [2] (who was about the same age as T.) of 345 in which he defended against a parapresbeías graphḗ filed by T. was directed against T., who was a follower of Demosthenes [2] and an adherent of pronounced anti-Macedonian politics. The accusatio…

Thraseas

(148 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Θρασέας/ Thraséas). Son of Aëtus [1], father of Ptolemaeus [29] and Apollonius (187-175 probably his brother's successor as Seleucidian governor, cf. 2 Macc 3:5), citizen of Aspendus, Alexandria [1] and Athens (after 224; T. is honoured for obtaining copious gifts [1. 46 f. no. 17 E]); like his father strategos of Cilicia under Ptolemaeus [6] III (after 238), strategos of Syria and Phoenicia under Ptolemaeus [7] IV (between 217 and 204). His homonymous son (PP VI 14977) worked as a high official from Cyprus and hosted Delphic theōroí (Theoria) in Tamassus [4. 12328]…

Xanthippus

(704 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ξάνθιππος/ Xánthippos). [German version] [1] Athenian from the Cholargos deme, father of Pericles, around 500 BC Athenian from the Cholargos deme, father of Ariphron, Pericles [1] and a daughter, born c. 520 BC, married to Agariste [2], a niece of the Alcmeonid Cleisthenes [2]. In 489 BC X. argued as plaintiff for Miltiades' [2] conviction. In Aristoteles [6] X. therefore appears not only as a leading demagogue but also as an adversary of Miltiades ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 28,2). In the spring of 484 X. was banished by ostrakismos from Athens, perhaps as an o…

Philammon

(224 words)

Author(s): Knorr, Thorsten (Hamburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Φιλάμμων; Philámmōn). [German version] [1] Singer and lyrist Mythical singer and lyrist of Delphi, a son of Apollo (Pherecydes of Athens FGrH 3 F 120); his mother is variously given as Philonis (ibid.), Chione [2] (Ov. Met. 11,316f.) and Leuconoe [1] (Hyg. Fab. 161). His sons - for whom there are also other genealogical backgrounds - were Thamyris (Eur. Rhes. 916; 925) and Eumolpus (Theoc. 24,108). At Delphi, P. is said to have introduced choirs of virgins (Pherecydes loc. cit.) and choirs within the t…

Tryphe

(133 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (τρυφή; tryph ). A specifically Ptolemaic ruler ideal (cf. the epithet Trýphōn, Trýphaina), arising out of the cult of the victorious Dionysus and his celebrations. Thryphe meant rule providing splendour and brilliance, wealth and fortune. Since it also included the fertility of the land, it could be linked to perceptions of the activities of the pharaoh. On the other hand, as a Greek term for luxus with negative connotations, thryphe was connected, e.g. under the influence of Stoicism, with (particularly 'oriental') softness and effeminacy (Latin luxuria, effemi…

Philometor

(201 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Φιλομήτωρ/ Philomḗtōr, lit. 'the mother-lover'). [German version] [1] Cultic sobriquet of Greek rulers Cultic sobriquet of Greek rulers, firstly of Ptolemaeus VI, whose reign began under the regency of his mother. For many of the subsequent kings (e.g. Ptolemaeus VIII, X, XV, Cleopatra [II 12] VII, Antiochus [10] VIII, Demetrius [9] III), the statement of Gutschmid [1. 112] is valid, namely that they ruled at first under the guardianship of their mothers. There are also Egyptian connotations to the name ( Kamutef, 'the bull of his mother' [sc. Isis]), intended to show tha…

Phoenix

(1,747 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Nünlist, René (Basle) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Φοῖνιξ/ Phoînix, Latin Phoenix). Persons P. [1-4], the mythical P. bird [5], the date palm P. [6], geographical locations P. [7-9]. [German version] [1] Mythical king of Sidon or Tyrus Mythical king of Sidon or Tyrus, son of Agenor [1] and Telephassa (Apollod. 3,2-4), brother of Europe [2],  Cadmus [1] and Cilix, according to others also their father (Hom. Il. 14, 321); other children: Phineus (Apoll. Rhod. 2, 178), Carne (Antoninus Liberalis 40). Eponym of the Phoenicians and the Poeni ( Poeni; cf. Phoenicians, Poeni). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Amyntor Son of Amyn…

Hephaestion

(1,281 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Ἡφαιστίων; Hēphaistíōn). [German version] [1] Commander under Alexander the Great, 4th cent. BC H. of Pella, friend and probably lover of  Alexander [4]. Their relationship was soon likened to that of  Patroclus and  Achilles [1] and correspondingly embellished. It is doubtful whether he was a childhood friend of Alexander (Curt. 3,12,16), as he was not banished by  Philippus II in 337 BC. The wreath offered to Patroclus at Troy and the scene described in the vulgate version ( Alexander historians) of the c…

Nesysti

(222 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] [1] N. I High priest of Ptah, at the turn of the 4th to the 3rd cent. BC Also called Anemher I. Father of N. [2] II, high priest of Ptah (Phthas) in Memphis at the turn of the 4th to the 3rd cent. BC. PP III/IX 5365. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] N. II High priest of Ptah, 1st half of the 3rd cent. BC Also called Petobastis I, high priest of Ptah in Memphis in the 1st half of the 3rd cent. BC, in addition prophet  of Arsinoë [II 3] II and prophet of Philotera; son of N. [1] I, father of Anemher [2] II, ancestor of Petobastis III. PP III/IX 5361; 5362; 5364 (cf. [1]). Ame…

Ganymede

(531 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Γανυμήδης; Ganymḗdēs, Etruscan Catmite, Latin apart from G. also Catamitus). [German version] [1] Cupbearer to Zeus In Greek mythology (main source: Hom. Il 20,231-235) the son of the Dardanian king Tros (Iliad parva 29,4 PEG I: son of Laomedon), who as the most beautiful human was abducted to the Olympus to serve Zeus as cupbearer in eternal youth and to delight the gods with his beauty. He is either abducted in a windstorm (H. Hom. 5,202), by  Iris (in art, possibly already in Ibycus PMG Fr. 289), by  Hermes…

Amenothes

(28 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Aristobulus

(1,172 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἀριστόβουλος; Aristóboulos). [German version] [1] Judas A. I., High Priest 104-103 BC Judas A. I, son and successor of John  Hyrcanus, High Priest in 104-103 BC, had his mother and brother incarcerated or killed to secure his rule. This and his philhellenic leanings determined his negative image in Jewish tradition. The claim of Jos…

Peteharsemtheus

(102 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Egyptian, born in c. 139 BC, owner of a family archive stretching back over five generations. The family is an example of the occasional integration of Greeks into Egyptian families. Several brothers of P. served in the army, as did members of earlier generations; P. himself appears to have managed the family's affairs; documents concerning him come from the years 114-88 BC. …

Crocus, [1]

(42 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Κρόκος). Stratēgós ( autokrátōr;  Lochos) of Cyprus during the Egyptian civil war 131-124/3 BC. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography R. Bagnall, The Administration of the Ptolemaic Possessions outside Egypt, 1976, 259 L. Mooren, The Aulic Titulature in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1975, 191f. no. 0354.

Agathoclea

(178 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Ἀγαθόκλεια; Agathókleia). [German version] [1] Mistress of Ptolemy II Mistress of Ptolemy II; her historicity is uncertain. PP 6, 14713; [1]. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Mistress of Ptolemy IV …

Herodes

(2,828 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἡρῴδης; Hērṓidēs). [German version] [1] H. I.; Herod the Great. Born in c. 73 BC, son of  Antipater [4] and the Arabian woman Cyprus. In 47 appointed strategos of Galilaea, he came into conflict with the Sanhedrin of Jerusalem because of the execution on his own authority of persons involved in a revolt. The Roman governor of Syria Sex.  Iulius [I 11] Caesar made him the

Archias

(769 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Ἀρχίας; Archías). [German version] [1] Corinthian, founder of Syracuse 733 BC Son of Euagetes of Corinth, probably belonging to the family of the  Bacchiadae. He left Corinth following a serious dispute, and, on the instruction of the Delphian oracle, led colonists to lower Italy. In about 733 BC, he founded  Syracusae in Sicily (Thuc. 6,3,2; Str. 6,2,4; Plut. Mor. 772e-773b).  Colonization Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography W. Leschhorn, Gründer der Stadt, 1984, 13-16 H.-P. Drögemüller, s. v. Syrakus, RE Suppl. 13, 817-819. …
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