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Lochus

(181 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Son of Callimedes; syngenḗs of Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra [II 6] III. in 127 BC ( Court titles B. 2.). L. acted as a benefactor for Roman merchants in the conquest of Alexandria by Ptolemy (IDélos 1526; cf. IDélos 1536?) and was perhaps even the commanding general on this occasion (then in Diod. Sic. 34/5,20 L. should likewise be read instead of Hegelochus [2]). Between 128/7 and 118 L. was the stratēgòs autokrátōr (‘Commander in chief’) of the Thebaid, an office that cannot have differed very greatly from that of epistrátēgos (UPZ II 187; [1. 19]; [2. 51f.]); between …

Sibling Marriage

(189 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] There had been sibling marriage among the pharaohs in Egypt since ancient times, albeit not between full siblings; it was an imitation of marriage between gods. Outside the royal house marriage between half-siblings was unusual. Marriage between full siblings was later practiced by a number of Ptolemies (Ptolemaeus II, IV, VI, VIII, IX, XII, XIII?, XIV). Zeus and Hera, Isis and Osiris were invoked as parallels for their subjects, thus seeking sacred reinforcement so as to reduce f…

Cilles

(45 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Κίλλης; Kíllēs). Macedonian, phílos and stratēgós of Ptolemy I, C. was able to drive Demetrius [2] from Syria after the battle of Gaza in 311 BC but was captured by him and sent back to Ptolemy. PP II/VIII 2164. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Philotera

(125 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Φιλωτέρα; Philōtérā). Daughter of Ptolemy I and Berenice [1]; the year of her birth is unknown; d. after 276 BC and shortly before her sister Arsinoe [II 3] II. Not long afterwards she received a Greek cult (cf. Callim. fr. 228,40-58) and was probably worshipped with her sister in the Arsinoeion (for their Egyptian cult see Nesysti [2]). Two villages in Arsinoitis, a deme in Ptolemais and towns on the Red Sea, in Lycia and Israel are named after her. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography P. Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria, 1972, vol. 1, 668f.; Bd. 2, 373 n. 282; 377 n. 314  G. Webe…

Pasicrates

(234 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Πασικράτης/ Pasikrátēs). [German version] [1] King of Curium on Cyprus Son of Aristocrates, king of the city of Curium on Cyprus who is mentioned, together with other Cyprian kings (SEG 36, 331), on a Nemaean list of thearodochs (Theoria). The text confirms C. H. Dörner's emendation of Arr. Anab. 2,22,2: P. took part with a fleet in the siege of Tyre on the side of Alexander [4] the Great. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography Berve 2, Nr. 609. [German version] [2] King of Soli on Cyprus (P. according to literary sources; Στασικράτης/ Stasikrátēs: SEG 36, 331 A10). King of Soli on Cypr…

Sosibius

(613 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(Σωσίβιος/ Sōsíbios). [German version] [1] Egyptian statesman, 3rd cent. BC Son of Dioscurides, father of Ptolemaeus [32], Sosibius [2] and Arsinoe [II 5]; from Alexandria; still under Ptolemaeus [6] III he won victories in the diaulos at the Ptolemaia, in the agéneioi ('beardless') wrestling at the Panathenaea and in chariot racing at the Isthmia and Nemea (Callim. fr. 384 Pfeiffer; [1. 144-149; 2. 79-81]). At the time there was already talk of endowments for Zeus Kasios in Pelusium and the Heraeum (of Argos?). S., who was honoured on Delos c. 240 BC (IG XI 4, 649), was probably…

Nomos

(2,285 words)

Author(s): Siewert, Peter (Vienna) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] [1] Nomos, nomoi (ὁ νόμος/ ho nómos, pl. οἱ νόμοι/ hoi nómoi). Siewert, Peter (Vienna) [German version] A. General In Greek, nómos (pl. nómoi) refers to customary conduct or a behavioural norm observed by members of a community; depending on the context it can be translated with ‘custom’, ‘habit’, ‘practice’, ‘rule’, ‘order’, ‘institution’, ‘constitution’, ‘law’ etc. (cf. [1. 20-54; 2. 14-19]). The size of the communities where a nómos applied could vary considerably: from married couples and families to cult and settlement communities, from cit…

Arabarches

(420 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Ἀραβάρχης; Arabárchēs) [German version] [1] Office in roman Egypt Office in Roman Egypt, attested as from 2nd cent. AD (OGIS 202), but it may have had Ptolemaic models. A college of arabarchai was responsible for levying the import tax in Coptus in the mid 2nd cent. (SB 18,13167, vers. 2,11 ff.). The distribution of tasks is unclear with the παραλήμπτης τῆς Ἐρύθρας θαλάσσης ( paralḗmptēs tês Erýthras thalássēs), however, OGIS 202 indicates the offices were operating in parallel. The arabarches was also responsible for collecting the road taxes on the road from Coptus to …

Scopas

(1,000 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Σκόπας/ Skópas). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Paros, mid 4th cent. BC Sculptor from Paros, active in the mid 4th cent. BC, working mostly in marble and very occasionally in bronze. In the opinion of the ancient world, S. was one of the most important masters of Greek sculpture. Written records ascribe to him approximately 25-30 individual works and major projects, which should probably be allotted to several sculptors with the same name of different generations. The extant pediment sculptures from th…

Stolus

(232 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] [1] From Cyrene, c. 100 BC (Στόλος; Stólos). Son of Theon, probably from Cyrene, later honoured with Athenian citizenship; archedéatros in Cyrene in 108 BC, later admiral of Ptolemaeus [15] IX on Cyprus between 107 and 104. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography R. S. Bagnall, S. the Admiral, in: Phoenix 26, 1972, 358-368  H. Hauben, Was S. a Cyrenaean?, in: ZPE 25, 1977, 221-226  J. Pouilloux, Salaminiens de Chypre à Delos, in: BCH Suppl. 1, 1973, 406-411. [German version] [2] City This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Στῶλος; Stōlos). Inland cit…

Meleager

(1,931 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Richard L. (Ilmmünster) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Μελέαγρος/ Meléagros, Lat. Meleager). [German version] [1] Hero from the pre-Trojan period, Argonaut, [1] Hero from the pre-Trojan period, Argonaut Mythological hero. Hero from the generation before the Trojan War, from Calydon [3], the capital city of the Aetolians. As one the Argonauts ( Argonautae) M. participated in the funereal games for Pelias (Stesich. PMG 179; Diod. 4,48,4). As the brother of Deianeira he is also linked with the Hercules cycle (Bacchyl. 5,170-175; Pind. fr. 70b). First and foremost, however, he is associated with the local legend of Calydon. In the archaic …

Neoptolemus

(2,308 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Νεοπτόλεμος; Neoptólemos). [German version] [1] Son of Achilles and Deidamia The son of Achilles [1] and Deidamia, the daughter of king Lycomedes [1] of Scyros. Rare but explainable variants of the mother's name are Pyrrha (Heliodorus 3,2 = Anth. Pal. 9,485,8) and Iphigenia (Duris of Samos FGrH 76 F 88; on this FGrH 2 C 130). Homer only knows the name N., and Pyrrhus probably only becomes more common in the 4th cent. (first Theopompus FGrH 115 F 355) because of dynastic considerations of the Epirote king…

Monimus

(373 words)

Author(s): Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μόνιμος/ Mónimos). [German version] [1] From Syracuse, pupil of Diogenes M. from Syracuse, slave of a Corinthian banker, heard Xeniades, a rich citizen of Corinth, extol the virtue of Diogenes [14] of Sinope, who lived with him. In order to be able to leave his master and follow Diogenes, M. made out that he was insane; he was dismissed and so became Diogenes' pupil. He also stayed with Crates [4] for a long time and imitated his way of life (Diog. Laert. 6,82). M. must have been famous, as he appears in…

Herm( )

(82 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Perhaps a dioiketes in Alexandria, at any rate a high ranking official; on 5 March 112 BC, he sent a letter to his subordinate Asclepiades, ho epì tôn prosódōn (ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν προσόδων) in Fayoum, regarding the preparations for the reception of the Roman senator L. Memmius (cf. [1], who also rejects the extension of the name to Herm(ias)). Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography 1 Mitteis/Wilcken I 3. E. Olshausen, Rom und Ägypten von 116 bis 51 v.Chr., Diss. 1963, 6f.

Charmion

(30 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Χάρμιον; Chármion). Maid to  Cleopatra VII; ascribed decisive political influence by the propaganda of Octavian; she died with the queen. PP 6, 14736. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Anemher

(122 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] [1] see Nesysti  Nesysti. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] High priest of Ptah at Memphis (3rd cent. BC) 289-217 BC; under Ptolemy III high priest of Ptah at Memphis; son of the high priest Nesysti, brother of the high priest Petoubastis, father of the high priests Teos and Harmachis. In addition to other priestly duties, he was priest of the Theoi Euergetai and Philopatores, had numerous positions in the royal administration, especially related to financial control of other temples. PP 3/9, 5352; 5442. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography D. Devauchelle, i…

Psenobastis

(102 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Father of Petimuthes, high official in Semabehdet (17th district of lower Egypt). P.' son was one of Cleopatra [II 6] III's generals at the capture of Ptolemais/Akko in 103/2 BC and may later have been deployed to Thebes. The list of the numerous political, military and religious functions [1] performed by Petimuthes and, equally, by P. is a model of the self-confidence, considerably augmented in the 2nd cent. BC, of Egyptian officials in the service of the Ptolemies. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography 1 J. Quaegebeur, Inscriptions in: E. van't Dack et al. (ed.), T…

Bilistiche

(70 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Βιλιστίχη; Bilistíchē). Daughter of Philo, from a Macedonian family that originated in Argos; won Olympic contests in 268 and 264 BC with young horses, in 251/50 kanephoros to  Arsinoe II 3 Philadelphus, (deified?) mistress of Ptolemy II. Mother of Ptolemy Andromachou (?). Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography A. Cameron, Two Mistresses of Ptolemy Philadelphus, in: GRBS 31, 1990, 287-311 HM 3, 589 O. Masson, Onomastica Graeca Selecta 2, 1990, 467ff.

Pausanias

(3,302 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Et al.
(Παυσανίας; Pausanías). [German version] [1] Spartiate from the house of the Agiads Spartiate from the house of the Agiads, son of Cleombrotus [1], after whose death (480/479 BC) he became guardian for his cousin Pleistarchus [1] and 'regent' (Hdt. 9,10; Thuc. 1,132,1; Paus. 3,4,9), father of the later king Pleistoanax (Thuc. 1,107,2). In 479, P. led the contingent of the Hellenic confederacy of 481 to victory over the Persians at Plataeae (Persian Wars), where at first the Greeks almost suffered a catastro…

Helenus

(636 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Ἕλενος; Hélenos). [German version] [1] One of the great early seers One of the great early seers, more important in the epic kyklos than in Homer; son of  Priamus and  Hecabe (Hom. Il. 6,76; 7,44; Soph. Phil. 605f.; Apollod. 3,151; P Oxy. 56,3829), twin brother of  Cassandra (Anticlides FGrH 140 F 17; P Oxy. 56,3830). According to a probably archaic tradition, H. received his gift of prophecy when he was still a child in the temple of Apollo Thymbraeus, where he and Cassandra had fallen asleep. When their parents re…
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