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Claudius

(10,704 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
Name of a Roman lineage (Sabine Clausus, with the vernacular variant of   Clodius , esp. in the 1st cent. BC). The Claudii supposedly immigrated to Rome from the Sabine city of Regillum at the beginning of the republic in 504 BC under their ancestor Att(i)us Clausus ( Appius) and were immediately accepted into the circle of patrician families (Liv. 2,16,4-6), which explains why the early members received the invented epithets of Inregillensis C. [I 5-6] and Sabinus C. [I 31-32], [1. 155f.]. The praenomen Appius came to signify the family. Named after them was the Tribus Claudi…

Aelius

(3,107 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian house (originally Ailius), verifiable from the 4th cent. BC until the late imperial era. The most important families are the Paeti (since the 4th cent. BC), Tuberones (since the 2nd cent. BC), and from the 1st cent. also the Galli and Lamiae. In the imperial era, especially since Hadrian, the most famous bearer of the name, the name Aelius is so widespread that it -- just like Flavius and Aurelius -- loses its character as nomen gentile. I. Republic [German version] [I 1] Ae. Unknown author of a lex Aelia, mid 2nd cent. BC unknown author of a lex Aelia (mostly mentioned t…

Papinianus, Aemilius

(532 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] This jurist, probably born in the mid second century AD in the eastern half of the province of Africa (cf. [7. 118]), seems to have been a student of Cervidius Scaevola (SHA Carac. 8,2). During the reign of Septimius Severus, with whom he was close friends, he became assessor to the Praetorian prefects (Dig. 22,1,3,3), from AD 194 to 202 he first became member and later head of the government department a libellis (Dig. 20,5,12 pr.; see [7. 118, 121]), thereafter from 205 to 211 he was Praetorian prefect (ILS 2187); his assessors were Iulius [IV 16] …

Arulenus

(141 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Caelius Sabinus, Cn. Suffect consul in AD 69. Very influential jurist at the time of Vespasian (Dig. 1,2,2,53); successor to  Cassius Longinus as head of the Sabinian law school, he wrote a commentary Ad edictum aedilium curulium. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography R. A. Bauman, Lawyers and Politics in the Early Roman Empire, 1989, 142ff. 2 PIR I2 1194. [German version] [2] Iunius A. Rusticus, Q. Cos. suff. 92 AD In AD 66 as tribunus plebis he wanted to intercede in the Senate on behalf of Thrasea (Tac. Ann. 16,26,4f.); 70 praetor, 92 suffect consul (AE 1…

Caecilius

(6,633 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Et al.
Name of a plebeian gens (probably derived from Caeculus, older form is Caicilios, Greek Καικίλιος, Κεκίλιος [ Kaikílios, Kekílios]; ThlL, Onom. 12-14), whose existence is documented since the 5th cent. (since C. [I 1]), but who only gained importance in the 2nd cent.; their most famous branch were the C. Metelli (I 10-32). A later explanation related the name back to Caeculus, the legendary founder of Praeneste, or Caecas, a companion of Aeneas (Fest. p. 38). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., Q. Supposedly people's tribune in 439 BC Supposedly people's tribune in 439 BC …

Proculus

(644 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Et al.
Roman praenomen ( P. Iulius, a contemporary of Romulus [1]), and secondarily a cognomen. Depending on the form, a diminutive (older * prokelo-) of the stem * proko- (~ classical procus 'wooer, suitor'), it originally perhaps meant 'the one who demands or claims (the inheritance?)'. Proca (King of Alba Longa) can also be regarded as etymologically connected. The praenomen, which had already become rare at an early time, survived in derivatives, the gentilician names Procilius and Proculeius. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Roman jurist, 1st cent. The jurist fro…

Cratinus

(1,123 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
(Κρατῖνος; Kratînos). [German version] [1] Poet of the Attic Old Comedy, 5th cent. BC Son of Callimedes, important poet of the Attic Old  Comedy. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) [German version] A. Biographical information The first appearance of C. is documented for the late 450s BC [1. test. 4ab; cf. test. 5]; his death probably occurred between 423 ( Terminus post quem: his last piece, the Pytínē/‘The Bottle’; cf. [1. test. 3]) and 421 (in Aristoph. Pax 700-703, he is allegedly dead [1. test. 10]); he allegedly lived to be 94 years old [1. test. 3].…

Rutilius

(2,145 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Et al.
Name of a widely-branched Roman plebeian family who became well known from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC on, but only achieved the consulate for the first time at the end of the cent. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] R. Lupus, P. Consul in 90 BC Praetor no later than 93 BC; consul in 90. During the Social War [3], he received the command of the northern army; against the advice of his legate C. Marius [I 1], he was lured into an ambush by the Marsi and was killed in the valley of the Tolnus (modern Turano; Liv. Per. 73; App. B Civ. 1,191-194; Oros. 5,18,11 f.). MRR 2,25. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig…

Cascellius

(132 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (C. Aulus Cascellius). Jurist, pupil of Volcatius, who in turn was taught by Q.  Mucius Pontifex (Dig. 1,2,2,45; Plin. HN 8,144); evident in documents of 73 BC as a senator, he held no further office after his quaestorship, but dedicated himself to practical jurisprudence [2]. The iudicium Cascellianum (Gai. Inst. 4,166a), which he had drafted, allowed the winner of a sponsio trial to claim for material restitution within the framework of prohibitory interdicts on property (a form of interim order for the protection of property) [1] (  restitutio )…

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Cyrillus

(1,862 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Tosi, Renzo (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Κύριλλος; Kýrillos) [German version] [1] C. of Jerusalem Bishop Born c. AD 313, he was a member of the Jerusalem clergy (Jer. Chron. 2365 [GCS Eus. 7,236,7f. Helm/Treu]), and from 348 to 386 served as bishop of Jerusalem; he came to this office rather as a follower of the Homoeans (cf. Jer. loc. cit., Socr. 2,38,2 and Sozom. Hist. eccl. 4,20,1) than as a Nicaean (cf. Theod. Hist. eccl. 2,26,6). In 358 he was relieved of his office by  Acacius [2] of Caesarea and banished to Tarsus, rehabilitated in 359 a…

II Roman

(108 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[No German version] [II 1] Provincial jurist, beginning of the 3rd cent. AD A provincial jurist of the Greek-speaking area [3], who under Septimius Severus and Caracalla (early 3rd cent. AD) wrote tractates on extraordinary procedural law -- the first in classical jurisprudence ( De cognitionibus: 6 vols.; see [2]) -- and fiscal law ( De iure fisci et populi: 4 vols.), furthermore a commentary on edicts ( Edicti monitorium: 6 vols.; see [1]) as well as Institutiones (3 vols.) and Quaestiones (2 vols.). PIR2 C 231. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography 1 Schulz, 238f. 2 R. Bonini, …

Minicius

(1,595 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] 1st-cent. Roman jurist First-cent. AD Roman jurist, probably a pupil of Sabinus (Dig. 12,1,22), whose tradition he continues in a collection of responses [1] or a commentary [2]. Apart from a citation in Sex. Pomponius (Dig. 19,1,6,4), this work is known only through an extract annotated by Salvius Iulianus [1] ( Ex Minicio). Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography 1 E. Bund, Salvius Iulianus, in: ANRW II 15, 1976, 435f. 2 D. Liebs, in: HLL 4, 103. [German version] [2] M. Acilianus Praetor, AD 97 From Brixia, son of M. [7]. Of equestrian origin, admission…

Laelius

(1,467 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name of a family which probably came from Campania. The military successes of L. [I 1] in the Second Punic War (218-201 BC) and the connection to the elder Scipio probably gained them Roman citizenship and the ascent into the nobility. A younger line ( praenomen D.) became consuls under Augustus (L. [II 1-3]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., C. Consul 190 BC, elder contemporary of Scipio Africanus Born around 235 BC, died around 160; L. owed his political ascent to the close (and what has become a proverbial) connection to P. …

Antistius

(1,814 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] I. Greek Epigrammatic poet Epigrammatic poet; although it is not possible to be certain, because the name is fairly common, A. is usually equated with the Macedonian C. Antistius Vetus, who in AD 11 was sent into exile because of treason (Tac. Ann. 3,38), or with the praetor A. Sosianus, who suffered the same destiny in AD 62 (Reason: factitatis in Neronem carminibus probrosiis... Tac. Ann. 14,48; 16,14; 21; cf. Hist. 4,44). His four epigrams, which derive from the ‘Garland’ of Philippus are balanced, elegant variations of traditional motives…

Fulcinius

(315 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name of a Roman plebeian family (Schulze 169). I. Republican time [German version] [I 1] F., C. Roman envoy 438 BC in Fidenae Roman envoy, killed by the Fidenates in 438 BC (statue on the Rostra, Cic. Phil. 9,5; Liv. 4,17,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) II. Imperial period [German version] [II 1] C.F. Fabius Maximus Optatus Senator from Cartennae, end of 2nd/ beginning of 3rd cent. AD Senator, probably from Cartennae, who certainly attained the praetorship and had a legatio in Baetica, probably at the end of the 2nd/beginning of the 3rd cents. AD. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Le Gl…

Iuris prudentia

(1,209 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] A. Concept and Function Iuris prudentia (IP), ‘astuteness in the law’, is the most succint designation for the legal profession (  iuris consultus ), which in antiquity formed an independent discipline only in Rome. In Rome IP did not denote ‘any professional preoccupation with the law’ [2. 1 f.], but only private jurisprudence. Legal practitioners and magistrates were not iuris prudentes, but were instructed by the latter either from case to case as experts or as permanent assessors. For the relevance of a mistake in a point of law (  ignorantia

Fufidius

(223 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name of a plebeian family (further development of Fufius [1]), prominent in Arpinum, the home town of Cicero. [German version] [1] Rom. eques, 1st cent. BC Roman equestrian, in 57 BC creditor to Apollonia in Illyria (Cic. Pis. 86). Possibly identical with the F. from whom Cicero bought a country estate in Arpinum for his brother in 54 (Ad Q. fr. 3,1,3), who appointed Cicero joint heir in 47 (Att. 11,13,3) and whom Horace attacked as a profiteer (Sat. 1,2,12-22). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Nicolet 2, 882f. [German version] [2] F., L. Propraetor 80 BC Allegedly ex-centurio (O…

Alfen(i)us

(329 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Avitianus, L., governor under the Severi Avitianus, L., praetoric governor of Arabia and consularian governor of Pannonia inferior in the time of the Severi; frater Arvalis (present in the collegium AD 218 and AD 231). PIR2 A 519. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) Bibliography Leunissen, 256, 262. [German version] [2] Senecio, L., governor (beginning of the 3rd cent. AD) Senecio, L., son of a procurator Aug. by the same name, from Cuicul in Numidia, legatus Aug. pro praetore in Coele Syria under Severus, and governor of Britannia between 205 and 207. PIR2 A 521. Birley, A. R.…

Neratius

(839 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
The senatorial family came from Saepinum, where a large number of their inscriptions and buildings have been recovered. It entered the Senate no later than under Emperor Nero; its last members are attested in the 4th cent. [German version] [1] L.N.Marcellus Consul ord. II. AD 129 Senator. His natural father was probably N. [4], and his brother was N. [6]. N. was adopted by M. Hirrius Fronto Neratius [2] Pansa, together with whom he was admitted into the ranks of the patricians by Vespasian in AD  73/4. Until the consulate, he had a career without many offices; in 95, he became cos. suff. as a fo…
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