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Daedalus

(1,013 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Δαίδαλος; Daídalos). [German version] [1] Mythical craftsman, sculptor and inventor Mythical craftsman, sculptor and inventor, his very name belonging to a semantic field indicating objects created by astuteness and skill. In stories he is associated with Athens, Crete and Sicily. Judging from the development of artistic techniques, it is not impossible that the origins of the tradition lie at least partly in Crete, although whether D.'s name can be attested in the Linear B texts is a matter of dispute […

Architectural sculpture

(2,087 words)

Author(s): Kose, Arno (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East Architectural sculpture (AS), i.e. figural sculpture integrated into architecture, was in use in the ancient Near East from at least the 15th cent. BC. In northern Mesopotamia and its neighbouring regions to the west, from the 14th cent. on, orthostatic reliefs and guardian figures were worked into entrance gates and archways, and from the 9th cent., sculpted columns and columnar bases as well as human-figure columns or caryatids appeared, generally worked in ston…

Mnasitimus

(230 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μνασίτιμος/ Mnasítimos). [German version] [1] Greek painter from Rhodes, later 3rd cent. BC Greek painter from Rhodes (?) of the later 3rd cent. BC (?), mentioned by Plin. HN 35,146 as a rather second-rate painter. Provenance and date can only be inferred by genealogical conclusions from other artists of this name; nothing is known of his work. Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) Bibliography G. Lippold, s.v. Mnasitimos (1), RE 15, 2256f. [German version] [2] Various sculptors from one Rhodes family, 4th to 2nd cents. BC Various sculptors from one Rhodian family. The reconstructed famil…

Mys

(177 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μῦς; Mỹs). [German version] [1] Karian from Euromos, around 480 BC Carian from Euromus, who visited several oracle shrines in Boeotia and Phocis in 480/479 BC on behalf of Mardonius [1]. In the Ptoion mountains the oracle replied to him in the Carian language (Hdt. 8,133-135; Paus. 9,23,6; cf. Plut. Mor. 412b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Toreutic sculptor and and fellow artist of Phidias Toreutic sculptor in metal and fellow artist of Phidias. M. executed the shield reliefs on Phidias’s ‘Athena Promachos with a representation of the fight betwe…

Terracottas

(1,788 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | E.K.-B.
[German version] I. Introduction Terra cotta (an Italian term meaning 'burnt clay') was the commonest material used for many kinds of ancient utensils, vessels and art objects. In archaeological terminology, it refers to artistically formed objects. As well as free moulding by hand, mass production was also usual, in the Near East (from the 3rd millennium BC) and the Mediterranean (from the 6th cent. BC). A matrix was derived from the patrix (original) to serve as a mould. If the object was made hol…

Aristion

(181 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀριστίων; Aristíōn). [German version] [1] Epicurean philosopher, ' Tyrant' of Athens (88-86 BC) Epicurean philosopher, who, in 88 BC, became very influential in Athens with the help of  Mithridates VI (‘Tyrant’). In order to win the Greeks over to Mithridates, A. supported  Archelaus, e.g. in the battle against the proquaestor Q. Braetius Sura at  Chaeronea. In the spring of 87 BC, he retreated from  Sulla back to Athens. The city fell on 1 March 86 BC; A. managed to hold out on the Acropolis for a short w…

Colotes

(673 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Erler, Michael (Würzburg)
(Κωλώτης; Kōlṓtēs). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Heraclea in Elis Sculptor from Heraclea in Elis. C. was a pupil of  Phidias, and worked together with him, e.g. on the Zeus at Olympia. He worked principally in gold and ivory. In gold-ivory C. created an Asclepius in Kyllene and, according to Pliny (Plin. HN 35,54), an Athena in Elis, which according to Pausanias (Paus. 6,26,3), however, was attributed to Phidias; as this Athena's shield is said to have been painted by  Panaenus, a collective effort …

Hermocles

(155 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἑρμοκλῆς; Hermoklês). [German version] [1] From Cyzicus, poet of paeans (amongst other things), c. 300 BC From Cyzicus. Around 300 BC author of  paeans on  Antigonus I and  Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes [4] (lost) and an ithyphallos on the latter [1; 2] (fully extant). Addressing traditional religious poetry no longer only to gods but also to rulers was in keeping with the general common practice of the Hellenistic ruler cult [3]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography Editions: 1 CollAlex 173-175 2 D. Ebener, Griech. Lyrik, 21980, 426 (Ger. trans.). Bibliography: 3 C. Habicht, Gottmensc…

Butes

(335 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Βούτης; Boútēs). [German version] [1] Attic hero Attic hero about whom several traditions exist. There was an altar of B. in the  Erechtheion, in the vicinity of the altars of Poseidon, Erechtheus and Hephaestus (Paus. 1,26,5), and this establishes a clear link to the traditions of the  Eteoboutadai who were the priests for Athena Polias and Poseidon Erechtheus. B. could indeed have been the title of Poseidon Erechtheus' priest [1]. In this context, the genealogies which claim the hero to be Poseidon'…

Agasias

(235 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀγασίας; Agasías) [German version] [1] Lochagos in the mercenary army of the younger Cyrus From Stymphalus. Lochagos in the mercenary army of the younger Cyrus, friend of Xenophon, who praises A. for his courageous demeanour, bravery in battle and resolute advocacy for his own soldiers (cf. especially Xen. An. 6,6,7 ff.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Sculptor from Ephesus, 1st cent. BC Son of Menophilus, sculptor from Ephesus. In the early 1st cent. BC, created portrait statues for Romans in Delos and in Tenos, according to base inscript…

Cossutius

(314 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
Roman family name, attested since the 2nd cent. BC [1. 189-203]. Several artists belonged to this gens. [German version] [1] Architect mentioned by Vitruvius The  architect C., whom Vitruvius (7, praef. 15ff.) called a civis romanus, probably under  Antiochus [6] IV Epiphanes (ruled 176/5-164 BC) in  Athens ‘took over the construction of the Olympieion using a large measure according to Corinthian symmetries and proportions ’(Vitr. De arch. 7, praef. 17). The late archaic new construction of the Zeus temple, which was begun unde…

Lysippus

(811 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Λύσιππος; Lýsippos). [German version] [1] Writer of the Old Comedy, c. 400 BC Poet of the Old Comedy who perhaps as early as the 430s BC won at the Dionysia [1. test. *2] and about whom further victories are attested in 409 and later [1. test. 3]. Only three titles of plays are extant; fragments (apart from three without a title) are only attributed to the ‘Bacchae’ (Βάκχαι): In fragment 1 a man by the name of Hermon (who had been thrown into a well by his father) talks to his brother. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1PCG V, 1986, 618-622. [German version] [2] Bronze sculptor…

Menodorus

(302 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μηνόδωρος; Mēnódōros). [German version] [1] Legate of C. Calvisius Sabinus, died 35 BC M. (according to Appian, elsewhere Mena(s), Μηνᾶς; Mēnâs), a freedman, previously perhaps a Cilician pirate, in about 40 BC S. Pompeius' admiral in the Tyrrhenian Sea. As an opponent of a settlement with the Triumviri (Plut. Antonius 32,6f.), M. defended Sardinia and Corsica. When Pompey threatened to strip him of his power at the instigation of his rival Menecrates [11], M. delivered the islands into the hands of Octavian in 38…

Calliades

(227 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Καλλιάδης; Kalliádēs). [German version] [1] Writer of New Comedy Writer of New Comedy, appearing on the inscription of Lenaea winners in 6th place after Menander, 5th after Philemon and 3rd after Diphilus [5], and thus to be dated to the end of the 4th cent. BC [1]. Ath. 9,401a quotes ‘Diphilus or C.’, as author of an Ágnoia, but at another point (15,700c) he talks only of Diphilus as author of this play. Even the barb against the orator Aristophon [2] that Ath. 13,577b attributes to C. is dubious [1. 53]. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 1983, 37. [German version] [2] Sculptor Scul…

Damophilus

(178 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δαμόφιλος; Damóphilos). [German version] [1] Coroplast and painter, c. 493 BC Coroplast and painter, probably from Magna Graecia. Together with Gorgasos he decorated the Temple of Ceres in Rome (493 BC) with murals and terracotta pediment figures and added artist's epigrams. Later renovations preserved both of these. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 427, 440 Overbeck, no. 616, 1647 (sources) I. Scheibler, Griech. Malerei der Ant., 1994. [German version] [2] Rich property owner from Enna 136 BC Rich property owner from Enna, who treated the slaves i…

Deinomenes

(391 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Δεινομένης; Deinoménēs). [German version] [1] Founder of a dynasty from Gela D. from Gela, founder of the Deinomenid dynasty; father of the tyrants Gelon, Hieron, Polyzalus and Thrasybulus (cf. Simonides, fr. 141 Bergk = PLG 3,1166; Pind. Pyth. 1,79; 2,18; Hdt. 7,145; Timaeus FGrH 566 F 97; Diod. Sic. 11,67,2; Paus. 6,12,1ff.; 8,42,8). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] Son of Hieron the tyrant, 5th cent. BC Son of Hieron by his first marriage with the daughter of the Syracusan Nicocles (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 97); as a boy he was installed under the gua…

Paeonius

(269 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Παιώνιος; Paiṓnios). [German version] [1] Greek sculptor from Mende, 5th cent. BC Sculptor from Mende. The only known surviving original work by P. is a statue of Nike on a triangular pillar in front of the Temple of Zeus in Olympia, which according to its inscription and a statement by Pausanias (5,26,1) was dedicated by the Messenians. Pausanias suggests that the occasion of the dedication was a victory in 455 BC, whereas the inscription points to the victory of Sphacteria (425 BC); on stylistic grounds …

Lyson

(152 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
Greek family name. [German version] [1] In 72 BC host of Verres, friend of Cicero L. of Lilybaeum. In 72 BC friend of Cicero, host of Verres who created a statue for him (Cic. Verr. 2,4,37). Cic. Fam. 13,34 is a letter of recommendation for L.'s son. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [2] Host of Cicero, Pompeian L. of Patrae. Host of Cicero, in 50 BC looked after his sick secretary Tiro (Cic. Fam. 16,4,1f.). L. was a Pompeian in the Civil War and in 46 or 45, after Caesar's victory, he asked for his pardon (13,19; 24). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [3] Greek bronze sculptor Greek bronze…

Relief

(3,221 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
I. Egypt and Ancient Near East [German version] A. Egypt Egypt had a long tradition of the two-dimensional portrayal of individual scenes and substantial compositions, initially as paintings on pottery, later as wall paintings and reliefs ( e.g. Narmer Palette, Proto-dynastic Period, c. 3100 BC). At the latest from the time of the Old Kingdom onwards, stone steles could be added to these, erected in association with the cult of the dead (dead, cult of), while the deeds of rulers were depicted in longer scenes on the walls of major build…

Anaxagoras

(670 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Pietsch, Christian (Mainz)
[German version] [1] Bronze sculptor of Aegina, 5th cent. BC Bronze sculptor of Aegina. After the victory of Plataeae (479 BC), he created a 4.5 m high statue of Zeus in Olympia. Of a further votive gift, ordered by Praxagoras, only the inscription survived (Anth. Gr. VI 139). Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography F. Adler, Topographie und Gesch. von Olympia, 1897, 86 F. Eckstein, Ἀναθήματα, 1969, 23-26 Overbeck, no. 433-436 (sources). [German version] [2] Natural philosopher, 5th cent. BC Born in 500 BC in Clazomenae, A. lived in Athens from about 461 BC, where he, in…
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