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Acta Alexandrinorum

(135 words)

Author(s): Redies, Michael (Berlin)
[German version] Compilation of Egyptian papyrus collections, also misleadingly called martyr records, which document the relationship of the Alexandrians to Rome in the form of court reports, speeches, addresses, legation reports and letters. Today it is as good as proven that the papers were created shortly after the described events, that is, in the time from the first half of the 1st cent. to the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD. They are not, however, copies of official documents as they purport…


(92 words)

Author(s): Redies, Michael (Berlin)
[German version] A Tyrian (Lib. Ep. 336), a friend of  Libanius, also not a Christian (Lib. Ep. 1364); he is only known from Libanius' letters. G. was a lawyer (Lib. Ep. 119; 336); in 360, he became assessor to a magistrate in Antioch (Lib. Ep. 780; 799), and in 362 he was promoted to the office of consularis Phoenices (Lib. Ep. 780; 799; 800 et al.), from which he resigned in 363 (Lib. Ep. 1218). He died after 388 (Lib. Ep. 881). PLRE 1, 378f. (G. 6). Redies, Michael (Berlin)

Acta Maximiliana

(86 words)

Author(s): Redies, Michael (Berlin)
[German version] The martyr records of Maximilianus of Tebessa, who in AD 295 refused military service because he was a Christian ( quia Christianus sum ... nonmilito saeculo, sed milito Deo meo). The Acta Maximiliana describe the mustering by the proconsul Dion, when Maximilianus unwaveringly refused service ( non possum malefacere), and his subsequent execution. They are significant for our understanding of the Christian position on military service in the time of  Diocletianus.  Martyrs Redies, Michael (Berlin) Bibliography E. Pucciarelli, I cristiani e il servizio mil…

Historia acephala

(219 words)

Author(s): Redies, Michael (Berlin)
[German version] The Historia acephala (HA), also called Historia Athanasii, is one of the most important chronological sources for the life of the Alexandrian bishop  Athanasius. First edited in 1738 by F. S. Maffei, who gave it the name because of the poor condition of the surviving text, it is based on a single Latin manuscript of the 8th cent. The HA was probably written in AD 386 in celebration of the 40th anniversary of Athanasius' consecration as bishop. It offers a chronological history of the Al…

Abinnaeus Archive

(128 words)

Author(s): Redies, Michael (Berlin)
[German version] Papyrus collection of Flavius Abinnaeus, who was praefectus alae in Dionysia (Egypt) between AD 342 and 351. This collection contains letters, contracts, invoices, and tax and other rolls, which are, at least in part, well-preserved and provide excellent insight into daily life in Egypt in the fourth century. The papyri are collected in Bell [1] (additions in [2; 3] and [4]). Redies, Michael (Berlin) Bibliography 1 H. I. Bell et al., The Abinnaeus Archive, 1962 2 R. Rémondon, Militaires et civils dans une campagne Égyptienne au temps de Constance II,…


(63 words)

Author(s): Redies, Michael (Berlin)
[German version] Comes and magister officiorum AD 414-427. The effect of his work is attested by numerous laws in the Codex Theodosianus. In 422, on the orders of Theodosius II, he made a peace treaty with the Persians (Socr. 7,20) and in 425 he brought Valentinian III the news of his elevation to Caesar (Olympiodorus fr. 43 Blockley). Redies, Michael (Berlin)


(482 words)

Author(s): Redies, Michael (Berlin)
[German version] Son of the Moorish king Nubel and brother of Firmus (Amm. Marc. 29,5,6), born before AD 330, executed on 31 July 398. In the rebellion of his brother Firmus, G. supported the magister militum Theodosius in 373-375 and distinguished himself by arresting the vicarius of Romanus, Vincentius, and two rebellious leaders, Belles and Fericius (Amm. Marc. 29,5,6; 21; 24). In about 386 G. was elevated to the position of comes Africae (Oros. 7,36). He was initially on friendly terms with the usurper Maximus, with whom he had served in the battle against Firmu…


(5,353 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Redies, Michael (Berlin) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστοφάνης; Aristophánēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Son of  Nicophemus, a confidant of  Conon. Repeatedly chorēgós and trierarch. In 393 BC he was supposed to win  Dionysius I of Syracuse on Conon's order as an ally for Athens using a marriage alliance with  Evagoras of Salamis. When Athens sent Evagoras 10 triremes against the Persians in 390/89, A. helped in financing them and participated as a delegate. Returning from this unsuccessful campaign, A. and his father were executed by means of the apagoge and their fortune was confisc…


(2,256 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἑρμογένης; Hermogénēs). [German version] [1] Companion of Socrates Athenian, son of Hipponicus, brother of Callias, appears on many occasions in the Socratic writings of Plato and Xenophon as the companion of  Socrates. Together with the eponymous character, H. is the dialogue partner of Socrates in Plato's Cratylus. Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 SSR VI B 71-77 2 Davies, 269-270. [German version] [2] From Aspendus, assistant commander of Antiocus I H. from Aspendus. In the struggle of Antiochus [2] I (died in 261 BC) to regain territories in Asia Minor…


(7,268 words)

Author(s): Frey, Jörg (Stuttgart) | Domhardt, Yvonne (Zürich) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Redies, Michael (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἰωάννης; Iōánnēs). Well-known persons i.a.: I. [1] the Evangelist, I. [4] Chrysostomos, bishop of Constantinople and Homilet, I. [18] Malalas, author of the world chronicle, I. [25] of Gaza, rhetor and poet, I. [33] of Damascus, the theologian, I. [39] Baptistes. [1] I. the Evangelist [German version] A. Tradition and criticism According to the inscriptions, the author of a  Gospel (Jo), of three letters and the Apocalypse in the NT is called I. (= J.; the name appears only in Apc. 1:1; 1:4; 1:9; 22:8). Since the end of the 2nd cent. (Iren. adv…