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(669 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Sharples, Robert (London) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Λύκων; Lýkōn). [German version] [1] Athenian, late 5th cent. BC Athenian, supported the rebellion of Pissuthnes against the Great King around 420 BC. Bribed by Tissaphernes, L. fell away from Pissuthnes and received several cities as territory under his rule in recompense (Ctesias FGrH 688 F 15,53). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Prosecutor of Socrates Prosecutor of Socrates (Pl. Ap. 23e; 36a); satirized by comedians (Eupolis fr. 61; 232; Metagenes fr. 10 PCG; schol. Aristoph. Vesp. 1169) because of his poverty, foreign origin, …


(86 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἑρμοδάμας; Hermodámas). Descendant of the Homerid Creophylus of Samos (cf. [1]), probably 6th cent. BC. Is said to have been the teacher of Pythagoras in old age (Neanthes FGrH 84 F 29 = Porph. vita Pythagorae 1; Antonius Diogenes p. 136 Stephens-Winkler = Porph. ibid. 15; Diog. Laert. 8,2; cf. Apul. Flor. 15; Iambl. VP 9 and 11; [2]).  Homerids;  Creophylus;  Pythagoras Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) Bibliography 1 W. Burkert, Die Leistung eines Kreophylos, in: MH 29, 1972, 77f. 2 M. Detienne, Homère, Hésiode et Pythagore, 1962, 13f.


(1,133 words)

Author(s): Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Φιλόλαος; Philólaos). [German version] [1] P. of Corinth is said to have belonged to the group of nobles called the Bacchiadae, to have gone into exile in Thebes with his lover Diocles, and to have been buried there in a clearly visible tomb (Aristot. Pol. 1274a 31-b5). P. gave the Thebans laws on the procreation of children, which were referred to as νόμοι θετικοί ( nómoi thetikoí), apparently aimed at preserving the number of plots of land (Aristot. Pol. 1274b 2-5), perhaps through adoption of an heir by childless landowners. Such measures, which were also …


(1,790 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Et al.
(Ἵππαρχος; Hípparchos). [German version] [1] Second son of Peisistratus, around 530 BC Second son of  Peisistratus and an Athenian woman. Together with his older brother  Hippias [1] and the younger Thessalus, H. assumed his inheritance (528/527 BC) after his father's death (Thuc. 6,55; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 18,1). In contrast to Hippias, H. exhibited no political profile. He dedicated himself to aristocratic social life and culture and invited, among others,  Anacreon [1] of Teos and  Simonides of Ceos to A…


(519 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Ἱκέτας; Hikétas). [German version] [1] Syracusan nobleman, tyrant of Leontini, around 350 BC Syracusan nobleman, friend of  Dion [I 1]. In the troubles after Dion's death in 353 BC he won the tyranny of Leontini. He initially supported the Syracusans in their struggle against  Dionysius [2] II. However, during his campaign against Syracuse in 346 he reached an understanding with Dionysius because of the approaching Carthaginians and supported his plea to the Corinthians for help. The superiority of the Cart…


(81 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Λαμίσκος; Lamískos). A Tarantine, member of the circle around Archytas [1]; he led the legation that the friends of Plato in Tarentum sent to Syracuse in 360 BC after the latter's break with Dionysius [2] II. L. succeeded in getting Dionysius to let Plato leave Syracuse (Pl. Ep. 7, 350a 7-b 4; derived from this are the mentions of L. in the two forged Archytas letters in Diog. Laert. 3,22 and 8,80). Pythagorean School Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)


(5,221 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | I.A. | Folkerts | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Crubellier, Michel (Villeneuve d'Ascq) | Et al.
I. Mesopotamia [German version] A. Numerical systems Before systems for representing numbers in writing were (further) developed, counting stones, known as calculi or tokens, were used in arithmetic. As first-order representations they enabled operations such as increasing, decreasing, combining, separating, and distributing. Their relationship to the numerical notations recorded in the oldest ‘texts’ ( c. 3300 BC; Uruk) is still discussed [2]. The numerical signs in these texts do not represent absolute numbers but context-dependent units of count…


(117 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Πέτρων; Pétrōn) of Himera. Considered by Diels/Kranz to be one of the older Pythagoreans (No. 16). In the only testimony, the authenticity of which is disputed (Hippys FGrH 554 F 5 = Phaenias fr. 12 Wehrli = Plut. De def. or. 23, 422de; cf. [1; 2]), the hypothesis that there are 183 worlds connected in a row with each other is attributed to him. Cosmology; Pythagoras; Pythagorean School Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) Bibliography 1 W. Burkert, Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism, 1972, 114 n. 35 2 L. Zhmud, Wissenschaft, Philosophie und Religion im frühen Pyt…


(198 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Λύσις; Lýsis). Pythagorean of Tarentum, who according to Aristoxenus fr. 18 Wehrli, at a young age escaped together with Archippus [2] the arson attack on the Pythagoreans in Croton dated at around 450 and 440 or 415; he is said to have then migrated to Greece and to have become the teacher of Epaminondas in Thebes (cf. Aristox. ibid.; Dion Chrys. or. 49,5 etc.; [1]). L.'s pseudepigraphic letter to Hipparchus [3], in which the latter is urged to adhere to Pythagoras' instructions …


(336 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Κύλων; Kýlon). [German version] [1] Athenian aristocrat, victor in Olympia in 640 BC, attempted to establish tyrannical rule in 632 BC Athenian aristocrat, son-in-law of  Theagenes of Megara, became Olympic victor in 640 BC. C. and his hetaireíahetairía  [2]) occupied the Acropolis in Athens around 632 in order to establish  tyrannical rule there -- possibly with support from Megara. C. did not manage to mobilize the population to support him. The rebels initially were besieged by a contingent of citizens, b…


(70 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Τιμύχα; Timýcha). Spartan, 4th or end of the 6th cent. BC, wife of Myllias in a horror story told by Neanthes (FGrH 84 F 31). T. is mentioned in first place in the catalogue (perhaps dependent on Philochorus? [1]) of "most significant Pythagorean women" in Iambl. v.P. 267. Woman philosophers; Pythagoras [2]; Pythagorean School Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) Bibliography 1 W. Burkert, Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism, 1972, 10540.


(2,937 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Et al.
(Πυθαγόρας/ Pythagóras). [German version] [1] Fictitious Spartan and adviser to Numa Pompilius Fictitious person, supposedly from Sparta, victor at the Olympic Games in 716 BC, emigrated to Italy where he became an adviser to king Numa Pompilius. It seems this person was constructed to establish a connection between P. [2] and Roman religion (Plut. Numa 1,2-3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography F. Ollier, Pythagore de Sparta, REG 59/60, 1946/7, 139-149. [German version] [2] Philosopher, c. 600 BC Natural philosopher and charismatic teacher from the 6th and early 5th cent…


(141 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Μυλλίας/ Myllías). Pythagorean from Croton. It is said that he was reminded by Pythagoras of an earlier incarnation as Midas, son of the Phrygian king Gordius [1], and then went to Asia Minor to carry out rituals at Gordius's grave as ordered by Pythagoras (Aristot. fr. 191 Rose = 174 Gigon = Ael. VH 4,17 and Iambl. v.P. 143). The name M. is also found in a horror story by Neanthes FGrH 84 F 31 (= Iambl. VP 192-194), in which Dionysius [2] II (or I according to [1]) uses torture i…


(145 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Φίντυς; Phíntys). Pseudonymous female author of a work in Pythagorean spirit, Περὶ γυναικὸς σωφροσύνας ( Perì gynaikòs sōphrosýnas, 'On the self-control of women'; two relatively long fragments in Doric dialect are preserved in Stob. 4,23,61): a woman's characteristic virtue is self-control; some particular traits and abilities are common to both men and women, others are either male or female; philosophizing is common to both. A woman attains the good specific to her by means of five things: cha…


(469 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Κλεινίας; Kleinías). [German version] [1] Friend of Solon, heard of the seisáchtheia in advance and was able to unjustly enrich himself One of  Solon's, friends, who heard of the   seisáchtheia in advance and, therefore, was able to unjustly enrich himself (Plut. Solon 15,6-9; cf. [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 6,2). The story was probably invented in the late 5th cent. BC to discredit the descendants of these men (e.g., Alcibiades [3]). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 600 III Rhodes, 128f. Traill, PAA 575270. [German version] [2] Born c. 510 BC, son of Alcibiade…


(239 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Ἐχεκράτης; Echekrátēs). [German version] [1] Thessalian condottierre of Ptolemy IV, c. 217 BC Thessalian condottiere of Ptolemy IV, whose training of the army and especially the cavalry significantly contributed to the victory at Raphia in 217 BC. In that battle, he commanded the right wing of the cavalry. An anecdotally coloured representation of the battle is recorded in Diod. Sic. 16,26,6. PP 2, 2161. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Pythagorean from Phleius Pythagorean from Phleius, who together with Phanton, Polymnastos and Diocles, who also came fro…


(125 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[English version] (Φίντυς). Pseudonyme Verfasserin einer pythagoreisierenden Schrift Περὶ γυναικὸς σωφροσύνας (‘Über die Selbstbeherrschung/ sōphrosýnē der Frau; zwei längere Fr. auf Dorisch daraus bei Stob. 4,23,61 erh.): Die für die Frau charakteristische Tugend ist die Selbstbeherrschung; Mann und Frau teilen bestimmte Vorzüge und Fähigkeiten, andere sind eher männlich oder weiblich; das Philosophieren teilen sie sich. Die Frau erreicht das ihr spezifische Gut durch fünf Dinge: Keuschheit, körperliche Zier…


(604 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Sharples, Robert (London) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Λύκων). [English version] [1] Athener Ende 5. Jh. v. Chr. Athener, unterstützte um 420 v.Chr. den Aufstand des Pissuthnes gegen den Großkönig. Von Tissaphernes bestochen, fiel L. von Pissuthnes ab und erhielt zur Belohnung einige Städte als Herrschaftsgebiet (Ktesias FGrH 688 F 15,53). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [English version] [2] Ankläger des Sokrates Ankläger des Sokrates (Plat. apol. 23e; 36a); wegen Armut, fremder Herkunft, der Promiskuität seiner Frau und des Verrats von Naupaktos durch Annahme von Bestechungsgeldern von Komödiendicht…


(101 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[English version] (Μυῖα). Tochter des Pythagoras und der Theano laut Porph. vita Pythagorica 4 (vgl. Anon. Photii p. 237,16 Thesleff = Phot. bibl. 249, VII p. 126,31 Henry; Suda s.v. M.), nach Iambl. v.P. 267 Gattin des Milon [2] von Kroton. Auf sie bezieht sich vielleicht die Nachricht des Timaios (FGrH 566 F 131 = Porph. ebd.), Pythagoras' Tochter habe in Kroton als Jungfrau die Jungfrauen und als Frau die Frauen angeführt. Pseudepigraphischer Brief an Phyllis über die richtige Wahl einer Amme bei [1]. Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) Bibliography 1 A. Städele, Die Briefe des Pythagor…


(975 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Harmon, Roger (Basle)
(Δάμων; Dámōn) [German version] [1] Prince of the Telchines Prince of the  Telchines. Father-in-law of Minos and ancestor of Miletus. When the Telchines were struck dead by lightning by Jupiter because they poisoned crops, D. and his family were spared in gratitude for hospitality provided. Only his daughter Macelo and her husband were among the victims (Nic. in the schol. Ov. Ib. 475). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Pythagorean from Syracuse A Pythagorean from Syracuse, friend of Phintias, for whom he stood surety with his life. According to Aristoxenus (…
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