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Philoponus, Iohannes

(755 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Wildberg, Christian (Princeton)
(Φιλόπονος/ Philóponos, 'the industrious'; also called Γραμματικός/ Grammatikós, 'the teacher'). [German version] I. Life P. was a Christian polymath who lived in Alexandria [1] around AD 490-575 and was a disciple of Ammonius [12]. His cognomen may have been inspired by his enthusiasm for his work or by his membership in the brotherhood of the philóponoi (φιλόπονοι). He was sharply criticized for his Christian faith by the Neoplatonist scholar Simplicius, a member of the Academy in Athens, after Emperor Justinian [1] had closed that institution in …

Theophylactus

(509 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Θεοφύλακτος; Theophýlaktos). [German version] [1] T. Simocatta Byzantine historian, 7th cent. (Θ. Σιμοκάτης; Th. Simokátēs). Byzantine historian, born in Egypt, jurist and high official in Constantinople under the emperor Heraclius [7] (610-641). The family name Simokates is not recorded prior to the Suda, the spelling with -tt- is modern. Author of a 'General History' (οἰκουμενικὴ ἱστορία/ oikoumenikḕ historía, 8 bks), designed as a continuation of Menander [13] Protector, on the reign of the emperor Mauricius (582-602) with a look back to the time …

Bethania

(273 words)

Author(s): Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Village on the Mount of Olives near Jerusalem (Βηθανία; Bēthanía; Anānyā, Neh 11,32, or Bēt Aniyyā, ‘house of the poor’). Village on the south-eastern slope of the Mount of Olives, 15 stades (John 11,18) or two miles (Eus. On. 58) from Jerusalem (ruins of settlement 5th cent. BC -- 14th cent. AD). Place where Jesus was anointed by the sinner (Mark 14,3; Matt. 26,6; John 12,1), home of Mary and Martha, and place where Lazarus was raised from the dead (John 11,1), hence in late antiquity Lazarion, today al-āzarı̄ya, ‘Lazarus(village)’. A chamber tomb in a cliff s…

Agathangelus

(217 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Gem cutter, 1st cent. BC Gem cutter (1st cent. BC), signed the famous ‘Agathangelus cameo’ with the portrait of a man (carnelian, Berlin, SM) -- it has been debated since the 18th cent. as to whether this is Sextus Pompeius. Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography Zazoff, AG, 12, 281-283, pl. 79,1. [German version] [2] Secretary to the king of the Arsacides,  Tiridates IV Secretary to the king of the Arsacides,  Tiridates IV (AD 239-281). In the ‘History’ attributed to A., he is described as a ‘reliable witness’. The text deals with the Ch…

Athos

(315 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Ἄθως; Áthōs). [German version] I. Classical and Hellenistic era Highest elevation on the largely forested peninsula of the same name, which in antiquity was mostly called Acte; it is almost 50 km long and averages 6-8 km wide. On its south-east tip a Persian fleet was wrecked in 492 BC and then in 411 BC a Spartan one; its isthmus was penetrated before the advance of Xerxes. The inhabitants of the peninsula (origins largely unknown) were rumoured to be especially long-lived (Makrobioi). The mostly small…

Romanos

(779 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ῥωμανός; Rhōmanós). [German version] [1] R. Melodod, the Melodist Byzantine hymnographer, 5th/6th cent. AD (Ῥωμανὸς Μελωδός; Rhōmanòs Melōdós). Byzantine hymnographer of Syrian origin, b. before AD 493 at Emesa (present-day Ḥims in Syria), d. between AD 551 and 565 at Constantinople. Initially deacon at Berytus (Beirut), he took up his post at the Church of the Virgin at Constantinople under the emperor Anastasius [1] I. According to legend, he is said to have decided to become a composer of hymns after receivi…

Boeotia, Boeotians

(1,481 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Βοιωτία, Βοιωτοί; Boiōtía, Boiōtoi). [German version] A. Topography Region and people in south-eastern Central Greece; with c. 2,500 km2 almost as large as  Attica. Bounded in the south-west by the Corinthian Gulf and in the north-east and east by the Euboean Gulf, B. is the only land bridge between northern and southern Greece and was thus a battleground over and over again ( Chaeronea,  Coronea,  Plataeae). In the south the  Parnes and the  Cithaeron formed a natural border with Attica and Megaris, while in t…

Eutherius

(221 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Εὐθήριος; Euthḗrios). [German version] [1] Slave at the court of Constantine I An Armenian pagan eunuch, who had come to the court of Constantine I as a slave, later served under Constans, and under Julian rose to praepositus sacri cubiculi (AD 356-360). In Milan in 356/7, E. appeared before Constantius II to defend Julian against Marcellus' accusations (Amm. Marc. 16,7,2f.); after Julian had been made Augustus in 360, he became his envoy with Constantius (Amm. Marc. 20,8,19; 9,1-4; Zos. 3,9,3f.); In 361, Julian recalled him once ag…

Theodosiopolis

(286 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Θεοδοσιόπολις/ Theodosiópolis, Θεοδοσιούπολις/ Theodosioúpolis). [German version] [1] Modern Ras al-Ain, Syria T. in Osroene (in northern Mesopotamia), according to Procop. BP 2,19,29 (cf. Aed. 2,2,16) on the Ḫabur about 40 miles (= 60 km) from Dara, the village of Resaeina (= Ras al-Ain at the source of the Ḫabur) elevated c. AD 383 by Theodosius [2] I to a city (Malalas 13,40 p. 345 Dindorf). Iustinianus [1] I further increased the fortification of T., which was situated at the end of the Byzantine Limes (VI. C.), with forts (Procop. A…

Gennadius

(167 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] [1] Patriarch of Constantinople 5th cent. AD (Γεννάδιος, Gennádios) Patriarch of  Constantinople AD 458-471. As an advocate at the Council of  Calchedon (451), he opposed acceptance of the Christology of  Cyrillus of Alexandria. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography F. Diekamp, Analecta Patristica, 1938, 54-72 (73-108). [German version] [2] Priest in Marseilles, 5th cent. AD Priest in Marseilles associated with the Semipelagians, who died between 492 and 505. Complementary to  Hieronymus' De viris illustribus, he compiled under the same title a c…

Trapezus

(981 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Pontos Euxeinos | Syria | Byzantium | Urarṭu | Christianity | Xenophon | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Limes | Pompeius | Patricius (Τραπεζοῦς/ Trapezoûs; Lat. Trapezus; the modern Trabzon, Turkey). [German version] I. Geographical Situation A Greek city in the region of Colchis (Xen. An. 4,8,22; 5,3,2) on the southeast coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), situated in a favourable setting with a secure acropolis. T. may have been first founded as early as 756 BC (…

Tychon

(284 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Τύχων/ Týchōn). [German version] [1] Ithyphallic god Ithyphallic god (Str. 13,1,12), associated with Priapus (Diod. Sic. 4,6,4), but primarily with Hermes (Clem. Al. Protreptikos 102,1; Theognostus, Anecdota Oxoniensia 2, p. 33,31 Cramer), as in the only inscriptional record, from Magnesia [2] on the Maeander [2] [2. 136 no. 203]; also with Aphrodite (Herodian. 1,37,15 Lentz; Hesych. s. v. T.; cf. Apollophanes PCG 2 fr. 6). His efficacy was considered limited (Anth. Pal. 9,334,1), but Alexander [II 15…

Andreas

(442 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Ἀνδρέας; Andréas). [German version] [1] Personal physician of Ptolemaeus Philopator Originally from Carystus. Personal physician of Ptolemaeus Philopator, was murdered before the battle of Raphia in the year 215 BC (Pol. 5,81). The son of Chrysareus, he was a Herophilean ( Herophilus), who wrote about medicaments (this was especially so in his writing Narthex), midwifery, poisons, doxography and the history of medicine. He commented on Hippocrates, even if he did not write any actual commentaries. Eratosthenes (EM s. v. Bibliaegisthus) accused h…

Biblical poetry

(1,645 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Roberts, Michael (Middletown, CT)
[German version] I. Greek Biblical poetry (BP) started with the early church poetry of hymns and psalms that were part of devotional service. Extensive biblical quotations or poetic paraphrases mark the origin of BP. Then as later, it is impossible to separate literary from liturgical poetry. Thus the heirmós (εἱρμός) Χριστὸς γεννᾶται, for example, is taken from the beginning of a  homily of  Gregorius of Nyssa (PG 36, 312ff.). The  kontakion, developed in Constantinople around 500, marks the high point of BP. One of the leading figures for t…

Philoponos, Iohannes

(656 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Wildberg, Christian (Princeton)
(Φιλόπονος, “der Fleißige”; auch Γραμματικός/ Grammatikós, “der Lehrer” genannt). [English version] I. Leben Ph. lebte als christl. Universalgelehrter in Alexandreia [1] um 490-575 n.Chr. und war Schüler des Ammonios [12]. Sein Beiname könnte sich auf seinen Arbeitseifer oder auf seine Zugehörigkeit zur Bruderschaft der philóponoi (φιλόπονοι) beziehen. Er wurde wegen seines christl. Glaubens von dem neuplatonischen Gelehrten der Akademie (Akademeia) in Athen Simplikios scharf angegriffen, nachdem Kaiser Iustinianus [1] diese im J. 529 n.C…

Armenia

(628 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] A. Hellenismus und Römische Zeit Das Hochland südl. und südwestl. des Kaukasus. Hauptfluß ist der Araxes (h. Aras). Nördl. Grenzfluß Kyros (h. Kura), desgleichen Oberläufe und Nebenflüsse von Tigris und Euphrat. Seen: Lichnitis (h. Sevan), Thospitis (h. Van) und Matianus (Urmia). Hl. Berg Baris (5165 m, h. Ararat), bewahrt vorant. Namen Urartu eines Staates mit hurrit. Bevölkerung, die unter pers. Herrschaft in den Haikh (= Armeniern) aufging. Die indeurop. Sprache stand dem Phrygischen nahe (Hdt. 7,73; Steph. Byz. p. 1…

Philaretos

(316 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Φιλάρετος). [English version] [1] griech. Medizinschriftsteller Griech. medizinischer Schriftsteller. Eine Schrift, die Ph.' Namen trägt und letztlich auf Galenos' Pulslehre zurückgeht, stellt eine byz. Überarbeitung (aus dem 9. Jh.?) der pneumatisch beeinflußten Schrift De pulsibus ad Antonium (= Gal. 19,629-642 K.) dar (Pneumatiker). Ob Ph. der Verf. der Originalschrift oder der Überarbeitung war, wird kontrovers diskutiert. Ein Zusammenhang mit Philagrios kann nicht ausgeschlossen werden, da dessen Name gelegentlich in Ph. en…

Anthimos

(225 words)

Author(s): Schmitt-Pantel, Pauline (Paris) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] [1] griech. Arzt, lat. Autor über Diätetik nach 511 Griech. Arzt, der bald nach 511 n. Chr. eine kurze lat. Abhandlung in Briefform über Diätetik schrieb, De observatione ciborum ad Theodoricum regem Francorum epistula. Als medizinische Abhandlung und Rezeptbuch zugleich bietet das Werk die Beschreibung der Ernährungsgewohnheiten eines german. Volkes. Verfaßt ist es in einer an die Umgangssprache der Menschen seiner Zeit und seiner Region angelehnten Sprache (vlat.). Schmitt-Pantel, Pauline (Paris) Bibliography Ed.: E. Liechtenhan, 1963 (CML VIII 1). …

Agathangelos

(195 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Steinschneider, 1. Jh. v. Chr. Steinschneider (1. Jh. v. Chr.), signierte die berühmte ›Agathangelos-Gemme‹ mit dem Portrait eines Mannes (Karneol, Berlin, SM) - seit dem 18. Jh. als Sextus Pompeius diskutiert. Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography Zazoff, AG, 12, 281-283, Taf. 79,1. [English version] [2] Sekretär des Arsakiden-Königs Tiridates IV., Autor zur Christianisierung Armeniens, 3. Jh. Sekretär des Arsakiden-Königs Tiridates IV. (239-281 n. Chr.). In der A. zugeschriebenen “Geschichte” wird er als “zuverlässiger Zeuge” b…

Bethania

(223 words)

Author(s): Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Dorf am Ölberg bei Jerusalem (Βηθανία; Anānyā, Neh 11,32, oder Bēt Aniyyā, “Armenhausen”). Dorf am SO-Abhang des Ölberges, 15 Stadien (Joh 11,18) oder 2 Meilen (Eus. On. 58) von Jerusalem (Siedlungsreste 5.Jh. v.- 14.Jh. n.Chr.). Ort der Salbung Jesu durch die Sünderin (Mk 14,3; Mt 26,6; Jo 12,1), Heimat von Maria und Martha und Ort der Auferweckung des Lazarus (Jo 11,1), daher spätant. Lazarion, h. al-āzarı̄ya, “Lazarus(dorf)”. Ein ihm zugeschriebenes Felskammergrab südöstl. des ant. Ortes ist schon vor 331 n.Chr. erwähnt (Eus. On. 58).…
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