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Peloponnesian War

(1,544 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] A. Definition The term PW is primarily used to describe the military confrontation between Athens and its allies on the one hand (Delian League) and Sparta and its confederates on the other (Peloponnesian League) between 431 and 404 BC. The term PW ( Peloponnēsiakòs pólemos) occurs first in Diodorus Siculus [18] (12,37,2; 13,107,5 etc.); it was already familiar to Cicero (Cic. Rep. 3,44: magnum illud Peloponnesiacum bellum), but probably dates back to Ephorus or a Hellenistic chronicler [3. 60 n. 65; 5. 294f.]. Thucydides speaks of the 'War of t…

Apotimema

(178 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἀποτίμημα; apotímēma). In cases of wardship the archont transferred the orphan's wealth after an evaluation to the guardian or tenant, who provided a collateral-like surety, the apotimema, for it. The procedure secured the ward's direct access to the mortgaged items at a later time and by granting the apotimema permitted the guardian or tenant to free himself from further demands by the ward. Likewise, the husband provided an apotimema for the dowry received in endowments, so that he was freed from the obligation of reversal in case of a marriage…

Phratria

(502 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(φρατρία/ phratría, 'brotherhood'). [German version] A. Origin and definition In older research the Greek phratries were thought to be associations of kin dating from the migration period (Doric migration Colonisation II). According to more recent research they supposedly derive from neighbourly organizations, which first took on increasing significance in the Archaic period (after the 8th cent. BC). Yet the fact that the term phrátēr already no longer means 'natural brother' in the epics of the 8th cent. BC suggests that phratries as fictional associatio…

Macartatus

(282 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Μακάρτατος; Makártatos). [German version] [1] Athenian, fell in battle in 458/7 or Athenian, fell in battle in 458/7 or c. 410 BC as a cavalryman against the Lacedaemonians The Athenians M. and Melanopus fell in battle in 458/7 or c. 410 BC as cavalrymen in the battle against the Lacedaemonians and Boeotians in the border territory between Tanagra and Eleon. Pausanias (1,29,6) saw a stele dedicated to the two of them in the Kerameikos. A remnant of the base of this stele appears to have been found (IG I3 1288). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9658 Traill, PAA 631475. …

Argyrologoi nees

(92 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἀργυρολόγοι νῆες; argyrológoi nêes). With the onset of the Peloponnesian War the Athenians sent out special ships to collect overdue tribute (φόροι; phóroi) and additional renders from members of the Athenian League. The ships were commanded by generals (Thuc. 2,69,1; 3,19,1; 4,50,1; 4,75,1; Aristoph. Equ. 1070 f.; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 24,3; Xen. Hell. 1,1,8; 1,1,12). The word ἀργυρολογεῖν ( argyrologeîn) is also in general use for the collection of monies (Xen. Hell. 4,8,30; Aeschin. Ctes. 159).  Athenian League Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 S. …

Nautikon daneion

(465 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ναυτικὸν δάνειον/ nautikòn dáneion; sea loan). The ND was a loan ( dáneion) granted to a long-distance merchant ( émporos) or ship's owner ( naúklēros) at interest (ναυτικὸς τόκος, nautikós tókos) for the duration of a commercial voyage - either for a one-way voyage (ἑτερόπλουν δάνειον, heteróploun dáneion) or for a round trip (ἀμφοτερόπλουν δάνειον, amphoteróploun dáneion) - for which the ship or its freight was the bond ( hypothḗkē [1]). Egyptian documents show that guarantors assumed liability for the fulfilment of the agreement. The loan agreement ( syngraphḗ

Naukleros

(290 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ναύκληρος; naúklēros). A naúklēros was a ship-owner or also a captain conducting internal or overseas trade with his own or a leased ship (cf. Hdt. 1,5,2; 4,152,1; Xen. Oec. 8,12). He also offered other traders cargo space for sea transport; the naúklēros was thus not always distinct from the émporos . From the end of the 4th cent. BC, the naúklēroi, who were predominantly foreigners, often formed their own associations, often cultic (Associations); trading societies with their own capital separate from the private wealth of participants …

Phares

(225 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Φάραξ/ Phárax). [German version] [1] Spartan military officer (end of the 5th/beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Spartan, in 405 BC second in command at Aigos potamos (Paus. 6,3,15). As a naúarchos (naval commander) he took part in operations with Dercylidas in Caria in the early summer of 397 (Xen. Hell. 3,2,12-14) and intercepted the Athenian legates to Persia who were executed in Sparta (Hell. Oxyrh. 10,1 Chambers). In 396 he besieged Conon [1] in Caunus with 120 ships (Diod. 14,79,4f.) [1]. In 390 as próxenos ( Proxenía ) of the Thebans he supported the Boeot…

Misthos

(883 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(μισθός; misthós). [German version] I. Definition The word misthós was used in Greece in the meaning of ‘price’ or ‘payment’ for a service performed (wage, salary). Misthós also meant the remuneration for granting the use of movable and unmovable goods (cf. μίσθωσις, místhōsis ). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] II. Archaic and Classical Period Members of the sub-peasant class (thetes, pelátai ), who hired themselves out as agricultural servants to nobles or farmers, lived on the estate, received provisions and after th…

Kapelos

(298 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (κάπηλος; kápēlos). The kapelos was a Greek merchant at the local market, selling various goods including foods; he also served wine, vinegar, or other beverages. The specifications added to the word kapelos (e.g. ἐλαιο-, οἰνο-, σιτο-κάπηλος; oil, wine, grain kapelos) show how diverse retail in Athens was in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. Specialized kápēloi were concentrated in specific areas of the market or in specific streets. Female vendors (καπηλίς, kapēlís) are attested as well (cf. Dem. Or. 57,30ff.). The καπηλεῖον ( kapēleîon) was a permanent booth or store…

Androclidas

(156 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀνδροκλείδας; Androkleídas). Prominent politician in Thebes. Belonged to the group around  Ismenias, who in 395 BC with Persian money was supposed to involve Sparta in a war, in order to force  Agesilaus [2] to pull out of Asia Minor and to weaken the friends of Sparta around  Leontiades in Thebes. On the advice of A., Thebes helped the Locrians in the war against the Phocians, which caused Sparta to become involved (Hell. Oxy. 20,1-2; 21 Chambers; Xen. Hell. 3,5,1-5; Plut. Lys. 27). When Sparta occupied the Cadmea in 382 and Leontiades had Ismenias taken prisoner, c. 300 …

Hekatoste

(358 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἑκατοστή; hekatostḗ). In antiquity  taxes of 1% were called hekatoste: 1. There were numerous forms of hekatoste in Athens (Aristoph. Vesp. 658), like the ἑκατοστὴ ἡ ἐν Πειραιεῖ ( hekatostḗ hē en Peiraieí) mentioned in Ps.-Xen. Ath. pol. 1,17, and the port customs duty documented in IG I3 182 l.15. According to Theophrast (F 650 Fortenbaugh; Stob. 44,20 Wachsmuth-Hense) the buyer of a piece of land had to pay a 1% sales tax. Ancient and Byzantine lexica mention ‘certain hekatoste’ among the sales taxes (ἐπώνια; epṓnia) (Anecd. Bekk. I 255,1). Three fragmentary in…

Leogoras

(330 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Λεωγόρας). [English version] [1] Vater des Redners Andokides [1], 5. Jh. v. Chr. Vater des Redners Andokides [1], Mitglied einer altadeligen athen. Familie, die sich auf Telemachos und Hermes zurückführte und mit den Alkmaionidai in Heiratsverbindungen stand (Hellanikos FGrH 323a F 24a-c; schol. Aristoph. Nub. 109). L. wurde von Aristophanes [3] wegen seines ausschweifenden und bes. verschwenderischen Lebenswandels verspottet. 426/5 v.Chr. leitete er eine Gesandtschaft zum Makedonenkönig Perdikkas II. (IG I3 61, Z. 51; [1. 30; 2. 1f.]). Von dem Vorwurf, an der P…

Meletos

(266 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Μέλητος). [English version] [1] Athener, ca. 415 v.Chr. Athener. Im J. 415 v.Chr. als Beteiligter an der Mysterien-Profanation und Hermenverstümmelung denunziert (Hermokopidenfrevel), floh M. aus Attika und wurde in Abwesenheit zum Tode verurteilt (And. 1,12f.; 35; 63). Vielleicht identisch mit M., dem Urenkel des Alkmaioniden Megakles [4] (IG II2 1579,19). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9825  Traill, PAA 639290. [English version] [2] Ankläger des Andokides, 400 v.Chr. Athener, erhielt mit Sokrates und anderen im J. 404 v.Chr. von den 30 Tyrannen ( triákonta

Drakontides

(146 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Δρακοντίδης). [English version] [1] Athener, Kommandant im Peloponn. Krieg Athener, Sohn des Leogoras aus dem Demos Thorai; 446/5 v.Chr. epistátēs, 433/2 stratēgós und in dieser Eigenschaft einer der Kommandanten einer Hilfsflotte für Kerkyra im Herbst 433 (vgl. Thuk. 1,51,4; zur dortigen Textverderbnis [1. 95]). D. war entschiedener Gegner des Perikles und trug 430 zu dessen Absetzung bei (Plut. Perikles 32,3) [2]. Davies 4551. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography 1 S. Hornblower, Commentary 1, 1991 2 F.J. Frost, Pericles and Dracontides, in: JHS 84, 1964, 69-72. …

Metaneira

(166 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Μετάνειρα). [English version] [1] Gattin des eleusinischen Königs Keleos Gattin des eleusinischen Königs Keleos (nach schol. Eur. Or. 964 des Hippothoon), Mutter des Demophon [1] und mehrerer Töchter. M. nimmt die nach Persephone suchende Demeter in ihrem Haus auf und vertraut ihr den kleinen Demophon an. Sie stört aber unwissentlich die Göttin bei dem Versuch, das Kind im Feuer unsterblich zu machen, worauf sich Demeter von ihm zurückzieht (Hom. h. 2,185-291; Ov. fast. 4,507ff., wo M. und Keleos einfac…

Darlehen

(1,473 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[English version] I. Alter Orient Als vertragliche Leistung, bei der der Empfänger von Geld oder anderen vertretbaren Sachen zur Rückgabe bzw. Gegenleistung verpflichtet wird, ist das D. in Mesopotamien von der Mitte des 3. Jt.v.Chr. [1. 141-145] bis in hell. Zeit [2. 43-45; 3. 119] bezeugt [4. 189-203]. Als Gläubiger traten sowohl Privatpersonen als auch (Vertreter von) Institutionen (Tempel, Palast) in Erscheinung. Gegenstand des D. waren vor allem Silber und Gerste, daneben auch andere Metalle bzw…

Eukrates

(113 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Εὐκράτης). [English version] [1] Athenischer Stratege 432/1 v.Chr. Athenischer Stratege im J. 432/1 v.Chr. (IG I3 365.5), beteiligt an einem Feldzug nach Makedonien. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [English version] [2] Chorege und Stratege in Athen um 415 v. Chr. Chorege und Stratege in Athen. Bruder des Nikias. 415 v.Chr. wegen des Hermenfrevels angezeigt, aber wieder freigelassen (And. 1,47; 66). 412/1 als Stratege in Thrakien. 405/4 erneut Stratege, widersetzte er sich während der Blockade Athens mit anderen Strategen den von Theramenes …

Pasion

(358 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Köln) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Πασίων). [English version] [1] Griech. Söldneranführer (Ende 5. Jh. v. Chr.) P. aus Megara führte eine Söldnereinheit zu Kyros [3] nach Sardeis (Xen. an. 1,2,3), setzte sich dann aber zusammen mit dem Söldnerführer Xenias in Myriandos unter ungeklärten Umständen vom Heer des Kyros ab (ebd. 1,4,6-9). Beck, Hans (Köln) [English version] [2] Freigelassener aus Athen, 4. Jh. In der Person des P. ist die geschäftliche Tätigkeit eines trapezítēs in Athen gut faßbar; ursprünglich war P. Sklave von Antisthenes und Archestratos; nach seiner Freil…

Dikaiogenes

(114 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Δικαιογένης). [English version] [1] Athener, Trierarch von Paralos, fiel 412 / 1 v. Chr. Athener aus reicher und angesehener Familie (Davies, 145-149 Taf. II). Als Trierarch der Staatstriere Paralos fiel er 412/11 v.Chr. bei Knidos. Um sein testamentarisch vermachtes Vermögen wurde 389 ein Rechtsstreit ausgetragen (Isaios, or. 5). Traill, PAA 324245. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [English version] [2] aus Athen Tragödien- und Dithyrambendichter, 4. Jh. v. Chr. (?), Tragödien- und Dithyrambendichter. Im 4. Jh.v.Chr. Sieg an den ländlichen Dionysien im Demos Ac…
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