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Monarchianism

(2,976 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Simon
The term “Monarchianism” (according to Tert. Prax. 10.1, “ vanissimi isti monarchiani, these most vain Monarchians”) is applied to several doctrines, concepts, and movements, especially from the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE, which have in common that they reject any distinction of persons or ὑποστάσεις/ hypostaseis (hypostases) within the divine essence (e.g. the duality of God and his Logos). Usually Monarchianism is differentiated into two types: 1.  “Adoptionism” declaring Jesus a mere man, and 2.  “Modalism” teaching God the Father and Son (and Holy Spirit) to be identical. The Mon…
Date: 2019-12-17

Proclus the Montanist

(177 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Simon
[German Version] (Proculus), was one of the most important representatives of Western Mon­tanism around 210, along with Tertullian. According to Pseudo-Tertullian, Adversus omnes haereses, 7.2, there was one school of Montanist thought according to Proclus and one according to Aeschines; the latter was said to have taught Monarchianism in Christology. In Rome, where Proclus worked, at least from time to time, the anti-Montanist Gaius wrote a dialogue with Proclus, according to which Proclus placed Montanism in a line …

Theodore of Mopsuestia

(536 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Simon
[German Version] (c. 352, Antioch – 428, Mopsuestia), major exponent of Antiochene theology. In his home town, Theodore studied with Libanius and later in the monastic school of Diodore of Tarsus, where he became a friend of John Chrysostom. In 383 Flavian of Antioch ordained Theodore to the priesthood; in 392 he became bishop of Mopsuestia (Cilicia). During the Pelagian controversy (Pelagius/Pelagians), Theodore gave refuge to the exiled Julian of Eclanum. Having become suspect through the Nestor…

Riga

(738 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter | Gerber, Simon
[German Version] I. City and Bishopric Albert I, bishop of Livonia, founded the city of Riga in 1201 near a Gotland merchants’ trading center on the Daugava river, not far from the Baltic Sea. He immediately made it the seat of the mission diocese founded in 1186 by Bishop Meinhard at Ikšķile (about 25 km up-stream). Immigration from Germany began as early as 1202. Riga also became the seat of the master of the order of warrior knights in Livonia. From 1207, Riga was an imperial fief, and in 1255 it w…