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Pargana

(617 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the Indian name for an aggregate of villages. The first reference to this term in the chronicles of the Sultanate of Delhi appears to be in the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Fīrūz S̲h̲āhī of S̲h̲ams-i Sirād̲j̲ ʿAfīf ( Bibliotheca Indica, 1891, p. 99), for it is not used by Ḥasan al-Niẓāmī in ¶ his Tād̲j̲ al-Maʾāsir or by Minhād̲j̲ al-Dīn in his Ṭabaḳāt-i Nāṣirī. Although it first came into prominence in the xivth century partially superseding the term ḳaṣba, it is, in all probability, based on still more ancient divisions in existence before the Muslim conquest. The exact date of its c…

Pūna

(419 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a city and district of British India in the Central Division of the Bombay Presidency. The district has an area of 5,332 square miles and a population of 1,169,798 of whom 54,997 are Muslims ( Census Report, 1931). It was included in the powerful Āndhra kingdom of the Dakhan which came to an end about the middle of the third century a. d.. The available ¶ evidence also points to the fact that later the Western Čālukyas, the Rās̲h̲trakūtas, and the Deogīrī Yādavas ruled over this area. With the Ḵh̲ald̲j̲ī and Ṭug̲h̲luḳ [see muḥammad ṭug̲h̲luḳ] invasions of the Dakhan it came under Muslim…

Rāwalpindi

(303 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a division, district, taḥṣīl, and town in the north-west of the Pand̲j̲āb. The division has an area of 21,347 square miles and a population of 3,914,849 of whom 3,362,260 are Muḥammadans. The district, which is divided for administrative purposes into four ¶ taḥṣīls, has an area of 2,050 square miles, with a population of 634,357 (524,965 Muḥammadans). The taḥṣīl covers an area of 770 square miles and supports a population of 289,073 (212,256 Muḥammadans). The town and cantonment, situated on the north bank of the river Leh, have a population of 119,2…

Nūr Ḏj̲ahān

(424 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, name given to Mihr al-Nisāʾ, the famous queen of Ḏj̲ahāngīr, the Mug̲h̲al Emperor. She was born at Ḳandahār in 1577 when her father, G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ Beg, was migrating from Persia to Hindustān ( Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-Umarāʾ, i. 129). In the reign of Akbar she was married to ʿAlī Ḳulī Beg, a Persian who had rendered distinguished military service to the Emperor and who, because of his bravery, was known as S̲h̲īr Afgan. The assassination of her first husband will always remain a matter of controversy, some regarding it as a repetition of t…

Oud̲h̲

(1,285 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(Awad̲h̲), a district now forming part of the United Provinces of modern India, has an area of 24,154 square miles and a population of 12,794,979, of which 11,870,266 are to be found in the rural districts (Census of India, 1931). From very early times Oud̲h̲ and the neighbouring countries of the great alluvial plain of northern India have been the peculiar home of Hindu civilization. The ancient Hindu kingdom of Kosala corresponded very nearly to the present province of Oud̲h̲. Its capital, Ayod̲h̲yā, the modern Ad̲j̲od̲h̲yā on the r…

Mahsūd

(860 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the name of a Paṭhān tribe on the north-west frontier of India. The Mahsūds inhabit the heart of Wazīristān around Kāniguram and are shut off from British territory by the Bhittanni country. On all other sides they are flanked by Darwes̲h̲ Ḵh̲ēl Wazīrīs. It is now generally accepted that they left their original home in the Birmal hills of modern Afg̲h̲ānistān sometime towards the close of the fourteenth century and gradually extending eastwards occupied the country in which they now reside. The tribe has three main branches: the Bahlolzai, S̲h̲aman Ḵh̲ēl, and the ʿAlīzai. Ignorant, ill…

Pīs̲h̲wā

(1,215 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the title given to one of the ministers of the Bahmanī sulṭāns of the Deccan; the chief minister of S̲h̲iwad̲j̲ī; the head of the Marāṭhā confederacy. (Persian “leader”; Pahl. pēs̲h̲ōpay; Arm. pēs̲h̲opay. For older forms see Hübschmann, Armenische Grammatik, i. 230). S̲h̲iwad̲j̲ī, the founder of Marāṭhā political power in the Dakhan, was assisted by a council of ministers known as the As̲h̲ta Pradhan, one of whom was the Pīs̲h̲wā or Muk̲h̲ya Pradhan. The office of Pīs̲h̲wā was not hereditary and the nature of S̲h̲iwad̲j̲ī’s autocratic…

Nāgpur

(913 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a city, taḥṣīl, district, and division of the Central Provinces of British India. The modern Central Provinces and Berār, which formed part of the eighteenth century Bhonsla kingdom of Nāgpur, lie between 17° 47′ and 24° 27′ N. and 75° 37′ and 84° 24′ E., with an area of 113,285 square miles, and a total population of 17,951,147. Nāgpur division contains a population of 3,595,578; Nāgpur district 933,168; and the city 215,003 (1931 Census Report). The history of this area, which roughly corresponds to Gondwāna, has been profoundly influenced by the long range of the S…

Pand̲j̲dih

(881 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, (Pend̲j̲deh) a village in the Turkoman republic of the U. S. S. R., situated to the east of the Kus̲h̲k river near its junction with the Murg̲h̲āb at Pul-i Kis̲h̲ti. The fact that the inhabitants of this area, the Sarik Turkomans, were divided into five sections, the Soktis, Harzagis, Ḵh̲urāsānlis, Bairač, and the ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, has been put forward as a possible explanation of the origin of the name Pend̲j̲deh, but it carries no weight as the Sariks were only nineteenth century immigrants whereas the name was in use in the fifteenth century. This obscure oasis owes a somewhat melancholy…

Rangoon

(956 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a city in the Pegu division of Burma lying on both sides of the Hlaing river at its point of junction with the Pegu river and the Pazundaung creek, twenty-one miles from the sea. Legend, not entirely undocumented, relates that the great pagoda at Rangoon (Mon, Kyaik Lagung; Burmese, Shwe Dagon) was founded during the life-time of the Buddha and was repaired by the emperor Açoka ( J. B. R. S., xxiv. 4 and 20). History proper begins with the establishment of Pegu as the capital of a Mon kingdom in 1369. ¶ A convenient port was required for this kingdom. Bassein, which had been the chief…

Riḍīya

(451 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(1236-1240 a. d.), the only woman to succeed to the throne of Dihlī during the period of Muslim rule, and, with the exception of S̲h̲ad̲j̲ar al-Durr [q. v.] of Egypt, the only female sovereign in the history of Islām. After the death of his eldest son, Īltutmis̲h̲ [q. v.], despite the protests of his advisers, nominated his daughter Riḍīya as his successor on the grounds of her fitness to rule. On the death of Īltutmis̲h̲) the courtiers, disregarding the late king’s wishes, raised one of his sons, Rukn al-Dīn Fīrūz, to the throne. Th…

Nāʾib

(711 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H. A. R. | Davies, C. Collin
(a.), literally “substitute, delegate” (nomen agentis from n-w-b “to take the place of another”), the term applied generally to any person appointed as deputy of another in an official position, and more especially, in the Mamlūk and Dihlī Sulṭānates, to designate a. the deputy or lieutenant of the Sulṭān and b. the governors of the chief provinces (see also the article egypt, above, vol. ii., p. 16a). In the Mamlūk system the former, entitled nāʾ ib al-salṭana al-muʿaẓẓama wa-kāfil al-maniālik al-s̲h̲arīfa al-islāmīya, was the Vice-Sulṭān proper, who administered all the te…

Pand̲j̲dih

(1,056 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
( Pend̲j̲deh ), a village now in the Turkmenistan Republic, situated to the east of the Kus̲h̲k river near its junction with the Murg̲h̲āb at Pul-i Kis̲h̲ti. The fact that the inhabitants of this area, the Sarik Turkomans, were divided into five sections, the Soktīs, Harzagīs, K̲h̲urāsānlis, Bayrač, and the ʿAlī S̲h̲āh. has been put forward as a possible explanation of the origin of the name Pend̲j̲deh, but it carries no weight as the Sariks were only 19th-century immigrants, whereas the name was in use in the 15th century. This obscure oasis owes a somewhat melancholy importance to…

Pand̲j̲āb

(2,954 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin | Talbot, I.
(p., “land of the five rivers”), a province of the northwestern part of the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. In pre-Partition British India it comprised all that part of the Indian Empire, with the exceptions of the North West Frontier Province and Kas̲h̲mīr, north of Sindh and Rād̲j̲pūtāna and west of the river D̲j̲amna. Geographically therefore it includes more than its name implies, for, in addition to the country watered by the D̲j̲helum, Čināb, Rāwī, Beās, and Satled̲j̲, it embraces the table-la…

Baladiyya

(9,924 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B. | Hill, R.L. | Samaran, Ch. | Adam, A. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Et al.
, municipality, the term used in Turkish ( belediye ), Arabic, and other Islamic languages, to denote modern municipal institutions of European type, as against earlier Islamic forms of urban organisation [see madīna ]. The term, like so many modern Islamic neologisms and the innovations they express, first appeared in Turkey, where Western-style municipal institutions and services were introduced as part of the general reform programme of the Tanẓīmāt [ q.v.]. (1) turkey. The first approaches towards modern municipal administration seems to have been made by Sultan …

Bāonī

(146 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, formerly a petty Muslim state in the Bundelkhand Agency of Central India, is now administered as part of Madhya Pradesh (area: 122 square miles; population: 25, 256, of which only 12% are Muslims). Its rulers were descended from ʿImād al-Mulk G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn, the grandson of Āṣaf D̲j̲āh, the Niẓām of Ḥaydarābād. About 1784 G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn came to terms with the Marāthās who granted him a d̲j̲āgīr of 52 villages, the name Bāonī being derived from bāwan (fifty-two). This grant was later recognised by the British. Because of his loyalty during the 1857 revolt, the nawāb was granted a sanad

Nūr D̲j̲ahān

(432 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
name given to Mihr al-Nisāʾ the famous queen of D̲j̲ahāngīr, the Mug̲h̲al Emperor. She was born at Ḳandahār in 985/1577 when her father, G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ Beg, was migrating from Persia to Hindustan ( Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ , i, 129). In the reign of Akbar she was married to ʿAlī Ḳulī Beg, a Persian who had rendered distinguished military service to the Emperor and who, because of his bravery, was known as S̲h̲īr Afgan. The assassination of her first husband will always remain a matter of controversy, ¶ some regarding it as a repetition of the story of David and Uriah, others holding t…

Arg̲h̲ūn

(812 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, name of a Mongol dynasty claiming descent from Hulāgū. (Raverty, Notes on Afghanistan , 580, refuses to accept this claim). The Arg̲h̲ūns rose to prominence towards the end of the 15th century when Sulṭān Ḥusayn Bāyḳarā of Harāt appointed Ḏh̲ū ’l-Nūn Beg Arg̲h̲ūn governor of Ḳandahār. He soon began to assume an independent attitude and resisted all attempts of the ruler of Harāt to coerce him. As early as 884/1479 he occupied the highlands of Pis̲h̲īn, S̲h̲āl and Mustang which now form part of Balūčistān. In 890/1…

Nāgpur

(951 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the name of a city, district and division of the state of Maharashtra in the Indian Union, formerly in the Central Provinces of British India; the city lies on the Nāg river in lat. 21° 10’ N. and long. 79° 12’ E. The history of this area, which roughly corresponds to Gondwāna, has been profoundly influenced by the long range of the Sātpura hills through which the Burhānpur-Asīrgaŕh gap provided the chief route from Hindustan to the Dakhan. When the Muslim invaders first came into contact with Gondwāna, it contained four independent Go…

Ayyūb K̲h̲ān

(280 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the fourth son of S̲h̲īr ʿAlī, Amīr of Afg̲h̲ānistān, and brother of Yaʿḳūb Ḵh̲ān. Like all rulers of Afg̲h̲ānistān, S̲h̲īr ʿAlī had trouble with his sons. When, in 1873, he nominated his favourite son ʿAbd Allāh Ḏj̲ān as his heir-apparent, Ayyūb Ḵh̲ān fled to Persia. In 1879, when Yaʿḳūb Ḵh̲ān succeeded S̲h̲īr ʿAlī as amïr, Ayyūb Ḵh̲ān returned to Afg̲h̲ānistān and was appointed governor of Harāt. Towards the end of the Second Afg̲h̲ān War (1878-80) Lord Lytton’s government selected a Sadōzai prince, named S̲h̲īr ʿAlī, as the wālī of Ḳandahār. From this pos…
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