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Pyrene

(485 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] City in the easternmost Pyrenees near Rhode (Πυρήνη; Pyrḗnē). City of Iberian or Phocaean origin in the region between the Sordi and the Ceretes peoples (Avien. 559), therefore in the easternmost Pyrenees (P. [2]) near Rhode. Here, according to Hdt. 2,33, was the source of the Istrus [2] (Danube); P. was a rich city, seven days' journey from Pylae [1] Gadeirides (Avien. 562-565) and often visited by merchants from Massalia. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 460. [German version] [2] Mountains, modern Pyrenees (Πυρήνη/ Pyrḗnē, Πυρηναῖα/ Pyrēnaîa, Πυρ…

Cerretani

(69 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe of the southern Pyrenees, province of Cerona (Str. 3,4,11). Earliest mention in Avien. Or. mar. 550 ( Ceretes). Steph. Byz. knows of a city called Brachyle in the land of the C. They were famous for the quality of their ham (Mart. 13,54). In the imperial age, the tribe divided into Iuliani and Augustani (Plin. HN 3,23). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 44f., 447.

Maesesses

(63 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Tribe of the Bastetani (Liv. 28,3,3) in eastern Andalusia in a fertile region with silver mines. In 207 BC their region was conquered by P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio [1]. Orongis (probably identical with Aurgi, modern Jaén [2]) was situated here. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 131 2 Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 84.

Calagurris

(168 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Fibularia This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity A settlement of the  Vascones, probably the modern Loarre in the Spanish province of Huesca in Spain. Bishop Ianuarius, one of the participants in the Council of Iliberis, may have come from C. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 381-382. [German version] [2] Nasica This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Iberian town on the Iberus in the Spanish province of Zaragoza, modern Calahorra. It played a part in the Celtiberian Wars (181-133 BC) and i…

Sicoris

(49 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Left-hand tributary of the Iberus [2] (Ebro) in Hispania Tarraconensis (Caes. Civ. 1,40,1; 48,3; 61,1; 63,1; Plin.  HN 3,24), modern Segre. It rises in the territory of the Cerretani and in its course passes through Ilerda (Lérida). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K/J 31 Tarraco 146 f.

Lauro

(211 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] City between Saguntum and Valentia Iberian [1] city between Saguntum and Valentia on the hill of La Pedrera [2; 3]; the settlement from the Roman period lies somewhat to its west on the site of modern Puig. L. was destroyed in the battles between Pompey and Sertorius (Plut. Sertorius 18, Plut. Pompey 18; App. B Civ. 1,109; Frontin. Str. 2,5,31; Oros. 5,23,6f.). Mentioned by Plin. HN 14,71 because of its excellent wine. Coins [4], inscription CIL II 3875, XV 4577f. Viticulture Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 2, 163 2 C. Konrad, Plutarch's Sertorius. A H…

Munigua

(173 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town in southern Spain (Sierra Morena) near modern Villanueva de las Minas in the province of Seville (the form of the name has been deduced from municipium [ Flavium] Muniguense, CIL II 1049-1051 [2]), modern Castillo de Mulva. Probably an Iberian [1] place name. Under Vespasian (AD 69-79) municipium; M. had a special official to apply municipal rights, known as the promotor (?) iuris Latini (CIL II 1052). In the 2nd cent., M. became a prosperous mining town with a large terraced sanctuary (emperor cult?) [3; 4]. Around AD 300, M. was abandon…

Arbucale

(106 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Described in Pol. 3,14,1 (cf. Liv. 21,5,6) as a city of the  Vaccaei (in the provinces of Segovia and Salamanca) [1. 98]. Further references in [2]. Its location is unknown: Toro and Alba de Tormes are considered as possibilities [1. 323]. In 220 BC, after putting up a strong resistance, the city had to surrender to  Hannibal. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Tovar 3, 1989 2 E. Hübner, s. v. A., RE 2,1, 420-421. R. Martin Valls, G. Delibes de Castro, Toro ciudad celtibérica, in: Boletín del Seminario de Estudios de Arte y Arqueologia 43, 1977, 306 ff. F. Wattemb…

Segobriga

(102 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Ibero-Roman city Ibero-Roman city (Str. 3,4,13: Σεγοβρίγα/ Segobríga; Ptol. 2,6,56: Σεγουβία/ Segoubía; Plin. HN 3,25), Ruins - including an amphitheatre - on the Cabeza del Griego hill, 2 Roman miles to the south of Saelices (province of Cuenca). S. was a member of the  conventus of Carthago Nova (CIL II 4252). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Bishopric at Castellón Bishopric at Castellón, suffragan to Tarragona, later to Cartagena, modern Segorbe [1]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 M. Almagro, Historía de Albarracín y su sierra…

Complutum

(106 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Celtiberian town, whose location near Alcalá de Henares was determined from ruins and inscriptions (CIL II p. 410; Suppl. p. 941). The name of C. is probably Iberian according to Holder [1. 1087] but Roman according to Hübner [2. 795] (‘City of Rain’). Its inhabitants belonged to the  Carpetani (Ptol. Geog. 2,6,56). C. only became important in the Christian period (Paul. Nol. 31,607; Prudent 4,41ff.; Chron. min. 3,648), especially as a diocesan town [3. 444]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1 2…

Durius

(178 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The modern river Duero (Span.; Portug. Douro). The pre-Celtic name is D. (Sil. Pun. 1,438; 5,323; [1. 1380]), possibly with variant Duris (CIL II 2370). All references (Str. 3,3,2; 4; 6; 3,4,12; 20; Mela 3,8; 10; Plin. HN 4,112f.; 115) indicate that its course was the same in antiquity as it is today. That it was navigable by large vessels for 800 stadia upstream (Str. 3,3,4) is still true today: from its mouth to Barca d'Alva; sailing even small boats on its upper course is today not possible, where…

Oretani

(147 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtic Iberian tribe in the area of the middle and upper Guadiana and on the northern slope of the Sierra Morena ( Oretana iuga, Plin. HN 3,6), with their centre in Oretum, 33 km west of Valdepeñas on the Jabalón [1; 2]. They were first mentioned as troops sent to Africa by Hannibal [4] in 219 BC to secure Metagonia and Carthage (Ὀρῆτες Ἴβηρες/ Orêtes Íbēres, Pol. 3,33,9, possibly to differentiate them from the Ωρητανοί/ Ōrētanoí, Ptol. 2,6,58, or O. Germani, Plin. HN 3,25 [3. 29721]) who lived in the same region. In the Visigothic period (6th/7th cent. AD) the bishopric of Oret…

Limia

(125 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Coastal river south of Miño, modern Lima. According to [1], the name is Celtic. Ancient references: ‘Millia and Oblivio’, Mela 3,10; ‘Lethe’, Sil. Pun. 1,236; 16,476; ‘Oblivio’, Flor. Epit. 1,33,48; ‘L., Limaea and Aeminius’, Plin. HN 4,112; 115; Λίμιος, Ptol. 2,6,1; Λιμαία, Λήθης and Βελιών, Str. 3,3,4f.; Λήθης, App. Hisp. 301; 304. Explanations of the diversity of names are given by [2]; suppositions of a city L. and the residents of the river, the Lusitanian Limici, in [4]; on the sources in [3]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. L. 2 Schulten, Land…

Hispania Baetica, Hispania Ulterior

(134 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The beginnings of the province Hispania Baetica (HB) are linked to Augustus' restructuring of the provinces in 27 BC (Cass. Dio 80,2). The earliest document naming HB is an inscription in the Forum Augustum in Rome (ILS 103). From the 2nd cent. AD, HB was named Baetica Provincia or Hispania Baetica (ILS 269). The borders of HB are the Anas (Guadiana) in the west, the Sierra Morena in the north, and the Atlantic and the Mediterranean in the south. The capital of this senatorial province was  Corduba.  Lusitania Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography C. Castillo Garcia, Städ…

Boletum

(45 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] City known to us only through inscriptions (CIL II 5843; 5845), probably located near Barbastro/Hispania Tarraconensis. The place name Boletania lasted beyond the Middle Ages; Arab geographers wrote Bortana, which has survived as today's Boltaña. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 384f.

Rubricatum flumen

(50 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] River flowing into the Mare Tyrrhenum  to the south of Barcino(na) in the territory of the Laietani (Mela 2,90; Plin. HN 3,21; Ptol. 2,6,18), modern Llobregat. Upstream is the city of Rhoubrikata (Ῥουβρικάτα; Ptol. 2,6,74), modern Rubí. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K/J 31 Tarraco, 1997, 134.

Complega

(55 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian town, only mentioned in App. Hisp. 42f. in association with the Roman campaigns of 181-179 BC. A. Schulten [2. 136] identified C. with  Contrebia (C. a Celtic variant, not identical with  Complutum, as [1. 795]) still has. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 E. Hübner, s.v. C., RE IV, 794f. 2 A. Schulten, Numantia 1, 1914. Tovar 3, 340.

Lutia

(124 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Possibly modern Cantalucia near Osma in the Spanish province of Soria [1]. The name is presumably Iberian [2]. When in 134/3 BC the position of the fortress Numantia was besieged by the Romans and became untenable, the youth of L. was inclined to provide help to the Numantians who were in dire straits. But the elders betrayed this to Scipio, who hurried there and as punishment had the hands of 400 young men cut off (App. Hisp. 409-411). L. is mentioned on the bronze tablet of Luzaga as a member of an Arevacian league of cities and on coins ( lutaqs). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliog…

Pompaelo

(95 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] City in the lands of the Vascones, modern Pamplona in Navarre, founded by Pompeius [I 3] (Str. 3,4,10: Πομπέλων ὡς ἂν Πομπηιόπολις/ Pompélōn hōs àn Pompēiópolis, 'Pompelon as if Pompeiopolis') in the winter of 75/4 BC during a war with Sertorius where the Tarraco-Oiasso (Str. l.c.) and Astorga-Roncevalles (It. Ant. 455,5) roads cross. Roman remains: street and drainage system, city wall, a macellum, building sites with mosaics, small finds. Inscriptions: CIL III 2958-2961. Episcopal see since the 6th cent. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 2,3, 1989, …

Althia

(69 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] According to Pol. 3,13,5, the mightiest city of the  Olcades in the upper Guadiana valley, conquered by  Hannibal in 220 BC. Liv. 21,5,4 calls the city Cartala. Its location remains unknown. There is little likelihood that the proposed [1. 216] identification with today's Altea (Alicante province) is valid. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 G. V. Sumner, Roman Policy in Spain before the Hannibalic War, in: HSPh 72,1968,205-246. Tovar 3, 1989,185.

Mentesa

(111 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
Name, possibly Iberian [1. 549], of two towns. [German version] [1] M. Bastitanorum (CIL II 3377f.; 3380), modern La Guardia, south east of Castulo (Plin. HN 3,9; 19; 25; It. Ant. 402,4). Mint and bishopric in the Visigothic period. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Town beside modern Villanueva de la Fuente (Μέντισα; Méntisa). Probably near the modern Villanueva de la Fuente, close to the source of the Guadiana Menor, in the conventus of Carthago Nova (CIL II p. 434f.; Plin. HN 3,25; Ptol. 2,6,59; CIL XI 3281-3284). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 2. A. Schulte…

Palma

(82 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia City in Maiorica (modern Majorca), the largest of the Baliares Islands, founded in 122 BC after a victory over the local inhabitants by the consul Caecilius [I 19], subsequently Baliaricus, and named after the palm of victory (Str. 3,5,1; Mela 2,124; Plin. HN 3,77f.; Ptol. 2,6,78). It has the same name today. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 2,3, 1989, 277  TIR K/J 31 Tarraco, 1997, 117.

Cartima

(82 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Modern Cártama, province of Málaga. Iberian, according to [1. 1126] Celtiberian town; mainly epigraphically verified (CIL II 1949-1962; identical with Certima in Liv. 40,47,2?). In AD 53/54, it became a civitas libera (CIL II 1953: decemviri), under Vespasian a municipium civium Latinorum (CIL II 1956 and Suppl. 5488). According to inscriptions and extant remains (CIL II p. 248; Suppl. p. 876), C. also seems to have enjoyed prosperity later on. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 3. Tovar 1, 132.

Ilurcavones

(54 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Ilercavones). An Iberian tribe around Dertosa, on the lower Ebro. They submitted to the Romans in 218 BC (Liv. 21,60,3; for later times cf. also Liv. 22,21,6; Caes. B Civ. 1,60,2; Ptol. 2,6,16; Plin. HN 3,21). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 4-8, 1925ff. (Index) Tovar 3, 34f.

Murgis

(82 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: City in southern Spain, since the Augustan provincial reform on the border between Hispania Baetica and Hispania Tarraconensis. The city's name, according to [2], is Iberian. Its location on the Campo de Dalias, 31 km to the west of Almería, is documented in inscriptions (CIL II Suppl. 5489f.; cf. Plin. HN 3,8; 17, Baeticae finis; Itin. Anton. 405,2; Ptol. 2,4,9; [2. 84f.]). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Tovar 2, 1974 2 Holder, s.v. M.

Ercavica

(165 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian settlement. The origin of the name is uncertain: it may be Celtiberian ([1. 1485] or Basque [2. 72]). Despite being attested in several sources, the precise location of E. cannot be established ([3]: on the Cabeza del Griego west of Cuenca? A contrary view is [2. 331,5]; cf. also CIL II p. 419, 425). It belonged to the conventus of Caesaraugusta (Plin. HN 3,24; CIL II 4203). The nobilis et potens civitas (‘noble and mighty city’) surrendered in 179 BC without resistance to the propraetor Tib. Gracchus (Liv. 40,50,1). It was a municipium (coins: [4. 109]) an…

Centobriga

(68 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town mentioned only in the context of the anecdote about  Metellus' mild treatment of the besieged population of C. (142 BC; Val. Max. 5,1,5; Liv. POxy. 161-163). C. -- the name is Celtic [1. 989] -- was probably situated in the valley of the Jalón [3. 354]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1 2 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 4, 1937, 33f. 3 Id., Numantia 1, 1914 4 Tovar 3, 369-370.

Lusitani, Lusitania

(554 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Name Iberian [1], similarly the people with a marked Celtic element which is evaluated in various ways [2]. Originally the L. settled between the Durius and the Tagus (cf. [3]) and advanced to the Anas (App. Hisp. 239). The later Roman province of L. set up by Augustus corresponds approximately to modern Portugal and therefore comprises a much bigger region than the original settlement area. The country encompasses only a few towns [4] which presumably, as with the Celtiberi, originally served as refuges. Especially in the north there are numerous castros, i.e. ring wa…

Accis

(177 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae Town of the  Bastetani (Ptol. 2,6,60), on the crossing of the road from  Tarraco via  Carthago Nova to  Castulo and  Malaca. The ancient settlement was built along the slopes of the western Guadix (province of Granada). Its Roman name of Colonia Iulia Gemella or Gemellensis (CIL II 3391; 3393 f.) points to its origins as a military colony, founded either by Caesar in 45 BC or later by Augustus. A. was under the jurisdiction of the conventus Carthaginiensis. Its inhabitants had the ius Italiae (Plin. HN 3,25); CIL II…

Lyco

(60 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] City of the Bastetani, name probably Iberian. A more precise location cannot be determined and identification with Ilugo, Ilucia, Ἴλουνον/ Ílounon remains problematical [1]. At L. the Lusitani inflicted heavy losses on L. Aemilius [I 32] Paullus in 190 (Liv. 37,46,7). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 199ff. Tovar 3, 157.

Saguntia

(31 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town in western Hispania Baetica (Liv. 34,19,10; Plin. HN 3,15) on the Guadalete; modern Baños de Gigonza (Paterna de Rivera). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 1, 54 f.

Ilipa

(146 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Punic Wars Modern Alcalá del Río (from the Arabic for ‘river fortification’) on the right bank of the  Baetis. The name and town are Iberian [1. 1221]. I. was important for navigation (Str. 3,2,3; CIL II 1085), but also because of nearby silver mines (Str. l.c.), agriculture and fishing (coins), which earned it the epithet Magna (Ptol. 2,4,10; Plin. HN 3,11?). P. Cornelius Scipio defeated the Carthaginians near I. in 206 BC. I. was mentioned as a diocese in the Visigothic period [2. 216]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 …

Ilici

(182 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula Ancient Iberian town, in late antiquity Elece, modern Elche. It is assumed that Hamilcar [3] Barka died here in 228 BC; however, this must be corrected in favour of Helice (Elche de la Sierra) [2. 11f.]. In the Roman era, I. was colonia immunis (Plin. HN 3,19). In its harbour the fleet of Maiorianus was destroyed by Vandali in AD 460 [3. 81f.]. In the Visigothic period, I. is often mentioned as a diocese [3. 449]. The ancient site lay somewhat close…

M(a)enaca

(288 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni (Μαινάκη/ Mainákē, Lat. Menace), city in southern Spain. The name is probably derived from μαίνη/ maínē or Lat. maena, a salted fish (Avien. 426-431 confused M. with Malaca [1. 80]; Scymn. 147; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ., where M. is called Celtic). According to Str. 3,4,2 M. was a colony of Phocaea, which no longer existed at that time. Schulten [2. 35-38] assumed it was located west of the mouth of the Vélez on the hill Cerro del Peñón. This hypothes…

Carthago Nova

(350 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Coloniae | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula | Rome | Rome Carthago Nova (CN) was founded by  Hasdrubal in c. 225 BC as his new centre of power in the location of Mastia (with the best harbour of the entire Spanish Mediterranean coast; modern Cartagena). The Carthaginian town was adorned with many representative buildings: a temple to the Punic deities  Baal and  Eshmun, palaces, docks, as well as a massi…

Iuliobriga

(109 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia (Celtic for ‘castle of Iulius’; [1. 87]). Probably a foundation by Augustus dating from the Cantabrian campaign [2. 195]. Remains near the village of Retortillo, 3 km south of Reinosa, not far from the source of the Ebro. References: Plin. HN 3,21; 27; 4,111; Ptol. 2,6,50; Not. Dign. Occ. 42,30; CIL II Suppl. p. 1148. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 2, 1919 2 A. Schulten, Los Cántabros y Astures, 1943. A. García y Bellido, Excavaciones en Iuliobriga, in: Archivio español de arqueo…

Cortona

(282 words)

Author(s): Cataudella, Michele (Florence) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Κρότων; Krótōn, (ἡ) Κυρτώνιος; (hē) Kyrtṓnios, Κόρτωνα; Kórtōna, Γορτυναία; Gortynaia; Corythos, Etruscan curthute). [German version] [1] Etruscan city This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Umbri, Umbria | Etrusci, Etruria | Etrusci, Etruria Etruscan city on a hill north of the lacus Trasumenus, modern Cortona. In connection with the legend of  Dardanus, the son of Corythus, C. aroused particular interest among Hellenistic scholars (cf. Verg. Aen. 3,167ff.; 7,206ff.; Serv. Aen. 1,380; Plin. HN 3,63). Its origin is recorded…

Castulo

(287 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Blech, Michael (Madrid)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Pyrenean peninsula Iberian settlement 7 km south of Linares (possibly the modern Cazlona, province of Jaén) above the right bank of the Guadalimar. Lead and silver mines, communication links with the Iberian east coast and the Atlantic ( via Augusta and Guadalquivir) and the fertile surrounding countryside governed the history of C. The first settlement (La Muela) is i.a. verified by a metallurgical workshop (8th cent. BC), as well as a sanctuary, which was later built on top. Nec…

Baliares

(399 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] A. General The modern B. were named Gymnḗsiai by the Greeks, because their inhabitants went naked during the summer. The two main islands were referred to respectively as insula maior and insula minor; the names of Maiorica and Menorica (modern Mallorca and Minorca) are only found from the 3rd cent. AD (Georgius Cyprianus, p. 108, 673 Gelzer). Apart from those two islands, Plin. HN 3,78 also lists Capraria, Triquada and parva (sc. insula) Hannibalis, also Menariae. They can undoubtedly be identified with the islands of Cabrera, Porrasa, Sech and the Las …

Calpe

(257 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [1] Rock of Gibraltar The rock of Gibraltar ( Pylae Gadeirides). The derivation of the name from the Greek κάλπη ( kálpē) = κάλπις/ kálpis ‘jug’ (already found in Avien. 348) is founded on popular etymology, based on the cavity in the eastern face of the rock (Mela 2,95), which nowadays is largely taken up by fill and the town of Gibraltar itself [1]. Maybe the Greeks transferred this name -- of unknown origin -- from the Bithynian C. (modern Kirpe) to the Spanish peninsula [2]. C. was one of the two ‘P…

Baria

(161 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni | Pyrenean peninsula Today Vera near Villaricos (province of Almeria), city of the  Bastetani with strong Punic influences, at the mouth of the Almanzora. Possibly allied with the Carthaginians. Since the 6th cent. BC Punic main centre for the development of the important mining area (silver, copper, lead) of the Sierra Almagrera. More than 2,000 graves have been uncovered from the time between the 6th and 1st cent. BC, the typology and grave contents of which are stamped by Carthaginian-Punic influence. Sc…

Gades

(981 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Wine | | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula (oldest Phoenician form of the name Gdr, ‘wall’, ‘citadel’, ‘fortress’, cf. Avien. 85, 267, 269, and [1. I 119; 3. 101f.], Greek Γάδειρα ( Gádeira), Latin Gades, modern Cádiz). The date of its foundation is linked to the foundations of Utica and Carthage; according to literary sources, it is estimated for c. 1100 BC (Vell. Pat. 1,2; Iust. 44,5,2; Mela 3,46; Plin. HN 16,216; cf. [3. 5-12;…

Ocelum

(181 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Celtic place name from Spain to Britain Celtic place name from Spain to Britain, such as the station on the Turin - Mont Genèvre pass (Alpes Cottiae), located by [1] near Chiusa di San Michele on the Dora Riparia (cf. [2]). In the spring of 58 BC, Caesar passed through O., as a border point of Gallia Cisalpina, with five legions (Caes. B. Gall. 1,10). On the alleged battles with the Ceutrones [2] cf. [3. 57]. Walser, Gerold (Basle) Bibliography 1 TIR Mediolanum, 1966 2 L. Banti, s.v. O., in: RE 17, 1766 3 G. Walser, Bellum Helveticum, 1998. [German version] [2] City of th…

Norba

(197 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Latin colony in the territory of the Volsci This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Coloniae | Latini, Latium Latin colony in the territory of the Volsci, modern Norma. Possibly founded in 492 BC (Liv. 2,34,6; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 7,13,5), but more likely in the 4th cent.; laid waste by the Privernates in 327 (Liv. 7,42,8). Loyal to Rome through the Punic Wars, destroyed by Sullan forces in 82/1 BC (App. B Civ. 1,94). Archaeology: Ring walls, adapted to the topography ( opus polygonale) from the 4th cent. BC, 2,662 m long, three gates; two acropoleis, rectangu…

Corbio

(179 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Ancient city in Latium Ancient city in Latium on the north-eastern foothills of mons Albanus, perhaps today's Roccapriora. It became involved in the Roman wars with the  Aequi: conquered by Cincinnatus in 458 BC (victory at mons Algidus), taken back by the Aequi, then destroyed by consul C. Horatius Pulvillus in 457 (Liv. 3,30). Near C., T. Quinctius Capitolinus defeated the Aequi in 446. Archaeological monuments: a few remnants, Imperial Roman villa. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. Nibby, Analisi storico-topographico-antiquaria della carta…

Malaca

(524 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula (Μαλάκη; Malákē). City on the Spanish east coast, modern Málaga (name probably Semitic, not from Hebrew malkah, ‘queen but from Phoenician mlkt, ‘place of work [1. 5742]; in [2. 574; 4. 76] the possibility of a semantic reference to fish processing is mentioned); probably a settlement that was not established until the early 6th cent. BC as a substitute for the 200 years older Ph…

Navia

(221 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Nabia). [German version] [1] Goddess in the west of the Iberian Peninsula, poss. Celtic Goddess of indeterminate character and of Celtic (?) provenance. Her votive offerings (inscriptions) have been found widely distributed in the west of the Iberian Peninsula, in Lusitania and Gallaecia in modern Portugal and Spain. N., who was given no interpretatio Romana, is at one occasion given the epithets Elaesurraeca and Sesmaca (possibly place names, clan names or similar). An interpretation of N. as a water goddess on the basis of the derivation of the name from the Celtic root  nav- is unce…

Mago

(1,896 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ruffing, Kai (Münster) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(* Mgn = ‘(god's) gift’; Greek Μάγων; Mágōn). [German version] [1] Carthaginian king (?), 2nd half 6th cent. BC Carthaginian, leading figure (king?) in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC; successor of Malchus [1], efficient promoter of Carthaginian power (Iust. 18,7,19; 19,1,1; [1. 173f.; 2. 475f.]), to whom a great army reform with the goal of the deployment of mercenaries is erroneously attributed [3. 184-187]. As father (?) of Hamilcar [1] and Hasdrubal (Iust. 19,1,2), M. is considered the ancestor of the Magonid…

Germani, Germania

(3,987 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
G. is a collective noun attested in various regions of Europe and West Asia and was disseminated, at least in part, by the migrations of splinter groups. Linguistically, Germanic belongs to the Indo-European language family ( Germanic languages); the term ‘Germanic’ was attributed from outside. Countering popular, Romantically influenced ideas that assumed a parallelism of language and material culture, as well as a lasting ethnic constancy, and countering an inherently racist concept of the uni…

Pollentia

(385 words)

Author(s): Mennella, Giovanni (Genoa) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Town in the region of the Ligures Bagienni This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Town (present-day Pollenzo in the province of Cuneo) in the region of the Ligures Bagienni, close to where the Stura flows into the Tanarus on the southern section of the via Fulvia between the Appenninus and the upper course of the river Padus. It was probably founded at the time of the campaigns of Fulvius [I 9] (rather than Fulvius [I 12]) in 125-123 BC. The town was famous for producing wool and ceramics (Plin. HN. 8,191; 35,16…

Pylae

(411 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Pylae Gadeirides The Straits of Gibralter (Πύλαι Γαδειρίδες; Pýlai Gadeirídes). The Straits of Gibraltar; the sound (saddle depth 286 m), which is about 60 km long and at its narrowest point 13 km wide, lies between the southern tip of the Spanish Peninsula and the continent of Africa, and between the Mediterranean (Mare nostrum) in the east and Oceanus in the west. The ancient names for the straits are based on Gades (Plin. HN 3,3; 5; 74; 4,93: Gaditanum fretum; Plut. Sertorius 8,1: Γαδειραῖος πορθμός/ Gadeiraîos porthmós), on the temple of Heracles in Gades ('…

Promunturium, Promontorium

(612 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
('promontory', 'cape'). [German version] [1] Promontorium Cantium Headland in the far south-east of Britannia, opposite the mouth of the Rhine (τὸ Κάντιον). Headland in the far south-east of Britannia, opposite the mouth of the Rhine; a landmark for seamen and geographers, modern South Foreland/Kent ( cf. Caes. B Gall. 5,13,1; 14,1; 22,1; Diod. Sic. 5,21,3; Str. 1,4,3; 4,3,3; 5,1). Cantium probably means 'corner' in Celtic [1]. The exposed location in the far south-east of the island gave its name to the Cantiaci, and the name was also applied to the ki…

Hispania, Iberia

(5,486 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) | Untermann, Jürgen (Pulheim/Köln) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
I. Geography and history [German version] A. Name Since the 1st cent. AD, H. has referred more and more to the entire Iberian Peninsula. Although the name Hispania is only attested since the time of the 2nd Punic War (218-201 BC; Liv. 21,2; Enn. Ann. 503), it is the oldest of all, because it is derived from Phoenician í-shephanním, ‘rabbit coast’ (according to a new interpretation ‘land of metal plates’). A further name was Ophioussa (‘land of the snakes’; Avien. 148; 152; 172; 196), which was probably coined by the Phocaeans when they came into contact with some reg…

Hasta

(1,030 words)

Author(s): Campbell, J. Brian (Belfast) | Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) | Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover) | Salomone Gaggero, Eleonora (Genoa) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Hasta, hastati In the Roman army of the middle Republic, the hasta served primarily as a thrust lance for close combat although it could also be thrown; it had a wooden shaft and an iron point. The hasta was adapted to the fighting style of the  phalanx, but it remained in use when, in the 4th cent. BC, the Romans adopted a more flexible set-up in maniples (  manipulus ). According to Livy (Liv. 8,8,5-13), whose account, however, is not without its problems, in 340 BC the Roman army consisted of three battle rows, the hastati, the principes and the triarii. The triarii were a…

Augusta

(3,972 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Gaggero, Gianfranco (Genoa) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Walser, Gerold (Basle) | Et al.
(Αὐγούστα, Αὐγοῦστα; Augoústa, Augoûsta). [German version] [0] Title First to receive the name A. (‘the Sublime’) was  Livia [2], by the terms of the will of her husband  Augustus (Tac. Ann. 1,8,1; Vell. Pat. 2,75,3; Suet. Aug. 101,2), who at the same time adopted her into the Julian family (thus: Iulia Augusta). Hellenistic influence is disputed (in favour [1], against [2. 140-145]); the name Σεβαστή/ Sebastḗ with the same literal meaning was bestowed on the wives of Roman emperors in the Greek-speaking world independently of any conferring of the name of A…
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