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Nicias

(1,775 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Νικίας; Nikías). [German version] [1] Important commander in the Peloponnesian War, c.470-413 BC Son of Niceratus of Athens, born c.470 BC, died 413; one of the most important commanders in the Peloponnesian War. After the death of Pericles, N. competed with Cleon [1] for influence in the popular assembly and the assignment of military commands. His policy was directed towards ending the aggressive Athenian politics of expansion and towards reconciliation with Sparta. From 427, N. was regularly elected stratēgós . He led expeditions against Minoa [4…

Arcesilaus

(1,194 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀρκεσίλαος; Arkesílaos). [German version] [1] Arcesilaus I. King of Cyrene (beginning of 6th cent. BC) Son and successor of  Battus I as king of  Cyrene. Ruled early in the 6th cent. BC for 16 years (Hdt. 4,159). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] A. II. King of Cyrene middle of 6th cent. BC) the ‘Cruel’, son and successor of Battus II, grandson of Arcesilaus I, successfully fought against an opposition led by his brothers at his accession 565/60 BC. They left the town, founded Barca in the western Cyrenaica and made an alliance wit…

Heraclides

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …

Chronology

(14,519 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Matthäus, Hartmut | Kuhlmann, Peter (Düsseldorf/Gießen RWG) | Schmitz, Thomas A.
Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) I. Classical Archaeology (CT) [German version] A. Comparative Chronology (CT) Before any artefacts can be placed within an historical time scale, it makes sense to determine their relationship to each other (comparative chronology) by means of stratigraphy and by observing how morphological changes in objects take place. The basic principles of stratigraphy were established by geologists during the first half of the 19th cent. In 1847, J. Boucher de Perthes applied the observations made about the layers of the earth …

Zeus

(4,058 words)

Author(s): Henrichs, Albert (Cambridge, MA) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ζεύς/ Zeús, genitive Διός/ Diós). [German version] I. Name and identity Chief Greek god of the heavens As the chief Greek god of the heavens, patriarchal 'father of gods and men' (Hom. Il. 1,544) and the embodiment of rule, justice and omnipotence, Z. stands at the head of the Olympian family of gods (Twelve (Olympian) gods). His symbols include the eagle, bundle of lightning or thunderbolt and sceptre [32. 30-32]. As the 'highest' god both with regard to his residence and his position, he bears the epithets Hýpatos [7. 202 f.] and Hýpsistos in literature and …

Nouius

(31 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Νούιος; Noúios). Comic poet of the 2nd cent. BC, known only from inscriptions; achieved three victories at the Lenaea. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 94.

Silen(s)

(780 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Σιληνός/ Silēnós, Σειληνός/ Seilēnós; Doric Σιλανός/ Silanós; Lat. Silenus, Silanus). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] I. Mythology Creature from Dionysus' entourage Among the collectively acting silens or satyrs, one silen/Silen(us) stands out as a single figure whose origin remains unclear (perhaps comparable: Chiron among the centaurs; Pan in contrast to the various Pans). This figure was fleshed out in mythical stories and satyr plays. The 'Midas-silen' expresses a pessimistic thought to the Phrygian king Midas, a thought typical for the Archai…
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