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Halcyoneus

(53 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἁλκυονεύς/ Halkyoneús or Ἀλκυονεύς/ Alkyoneús). Son of  Antigonus [2] Gonatas, to whom he brought the head of his fallen archrival  Pyrrhus in Argos in 272 BC; rebuked by his father as a barbarian, H. treated Pyrrhus' son Helenus honourably (Plut. Pyrrhus 34; Plut. Mor. 119C; Ael. VH 3,5). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Morzius

(86 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μόρζιος; Mórzios) of Gangra, prince of (south) Paphlagonia (Str. 12,562,41). As an alleged ally of Antiochus [5] III, like Ariarathes IV of Cappadocia, M. supported the Celts against Cn. Manlius [I 24] Vulso (Liv. 38,26,4) in 189 BC. Around 182/180 Pharnaces of Pontus plundered M.'s territory and in 179 had to pay him compensation as part of the peace treaty with the main enemy, Eumenes [3] II of Pergamon (Pol. 25,2,5;9). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography J. Hopp, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der letzten Attaliden, 1977, 46.

Mandonius

(134 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Iberian. Like his brother Indibilis, together with whom he is mostly mentioned, he was a prince of the Ilergetes; in the 2nd Punic War he changed sides several times as an ally initially of the Carthaginians and then of the Romans: he joined P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio in 208 BC, because of the good treatment the latter had given to M.'s wife and relatives who had been taken hostage (Pol. 10,18,7-15; 35,6-8; Liv. 26,49,11-16; 27,17,3). Later he was received back into the alliance w…

Sufetes

(140 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Punic sptm = 'judge'; Latin sufetes). Highest-ranking functionaries of the civil administration in Punic and probably also in Libyan and Sardo-Punic cities [1. 461, 467 note 7, 470, 473 note 58]. From at least the 6th cent. BC, sufetes are also attested in Carthage [1. 458-460; 2. 69 note 10], where (instead of the usual two) there is occasionally evidence of four sufetes. In addition to certain religious duties, it fell to the sufetes to control judicial and financial affairs and pre…

Micythion

(132 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μικυθίων; Mikythíōn) from Chalcis [2], son of Mikylion (Syll.3 585, 235f.), an influential friend of the Romans, who in the years 198-192 BC stopped a pro-Aetolian or a pro-Seleucid movement in Chalcis but then had to flee before the Seleucid king Antiochus [5] III. (Liv. 35,38,1-12; 46,9-13; 50,10; 51,4; 6; Diod. 29,1) [1. 81-84; 130]. He returned after the Roman victory and continued to be part of the principes (compare IG XII 9,904).In 179/8 BC he acted as próxenos in Delphi (Syll.3 585,235f.). In 170 BC, in spite of his great age and difficulty in walking…

Diaeus

(208 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Δίαιος; Díaios) of Megalopolis; a radical opponent of Rome, strategos of the Achaeans in 150/49, 148/7, and 146 BC. In 146 BC, D., together with  Critolaus led the league into catastrophe (Pol. 38,10,8; 18,7-12) [1. 127, 228]. Following a dispute with Menalcidas of Sparta over bribery and capital jurisdiction, D. travelled to Rome in 149/8, where the former had fled; the Senate, however, did not come to any decision (Paus. 7,11-12) [1. 220-222]. After an Achaean-Spartan passage at arms, M…

Morcus

(59 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μόρκος/ Mórkos). Illyrian. In 169 BC, he and Parmenion were sent to Dion as envoys from Genthius to Perseus to conclude the Illyrian-Macedonian alliance against Rome. In 168 BC, he took part in Metrodorus's [4] negotiations on Rhodes (Pol. 29,3,9; 29,11,1-6; Liv. 44,23,4f.). Macedonian Wars Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography E. Olshausen, Prosopographie der hellenistischen Königsgesandten, 1974, 281f.

Acesimbrotus

(57 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀκεσίμβροτος; Akesímbrotos, Latin Acesimbrotus). Rhodian nauarch in the second Macedonian War, in 199 BC supported the Romans with 20 ships at the conquest of Oreos (Liv. 31,46,6; 47,2) and represented Rhodian interests 198/7 in the negotiations between  Flamininus and  Philip V (Pol. 18,1,4; 2,3) [1. 70]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 H. H. Schmitt, Rom und Rhodos, 1957.

Barcids

(206 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Βαρκαῖοι; Barkaîoi). Relatives of  Hamilcar Barcas (Punic hbrq, brk:, Greek Βάρκας, Lat. Barcas, Boccor) ‘Lightning’ [1. 220-221], one of the most prominent families of Carthage, which traced itself back to  Dido (Sil. Pun. 1,71-77) [1.76]. From 237 BC Hamilcar provided the B. with a solid power base, after the (re-?) conquest of Hispania [2. 271-273; 3. 26]; until the withdrawal of  Mago, the last Carthaginian general of Iberia, in the year 206 (Liv. 28,36-37; App. Hisp. 37,151) [3. 40…

Cleuas

(53 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Κλεύας; Kleúas). Macedonian officer of  Perseus; as garrison commander of  Phanote (Epeirus) in the year 169 BC equally successful against Ap.  Claudius [I 4] Centho as subsequently at  Antigonea [4], where C. jointly with the Epirote general Philostratus forced the Romans back to Illyria (Liv. 43,21,5; 23,1-5). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Spendius

(95 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Σπένδιος/ Spéndios). Campanian slave who defected to Carthage in the 1st Punic War. In 241 BC, he and Mathos led the insurgent army in the so-called Mercenaries' War. He was known for his strength and courage (Pol. 1,69,4-7) more than for his revolutionary thinking (cf. [1. 95, 107 f.]). After his initial military successes, he was defeated several times, had his army pursue Hamilcar [3], surrendered near Prion and was executed in 238 at Tynes/Tunis (Pol. 1,86,4; [2. 259 f., 263-265]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 L. Loreto, La grande insurrez…

Nicodamus

(35 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Νικόδαμος/ Nikódamos). Aetolian, whose brave attack on the Romans besieging Ambracia in 189 BC failed because Nicander [2], contrary to expectations, failed to arrive with reinforcements (Liv. 38,5,6-10; 38,6,5-7). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Aristaenus

(106 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] From Megalopolis, exponent of the extremely pro-Roman party in the Achaean Confederation and opponent of  Philopoemen (Pol. 24,11-13; Plut. Phlp. 17,4-5 [1. 109-115]; strategos of the federation in 198/7, 195 and 186/5 BC; initiated in 198 in Sicyon the decisive changeover to the Romans (Pol. 18,13,8-10; Liv. 32,19,5-23,3) [1. 40-45] and persuaded in 197 the Boeotians to form an alliance with the Romans (Liv. 33,2,4). A. agitated in 195 against the Aetolians and Nabis (Liv. 34,34,24), in 186 against th…

Indibilis

(174 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀνδοβάλης; Andobálēs). Tribal prince of the  Ilergetes; he and his brother  Mandonius were omnis Hispaniae principes (Liv. 27,17,3); As an ally of the Carthaginians in the 2nd Punic War, I. was captured by the Romans in 218 BC (Pol. 3,76,6f.), and in 211 was involved in the victory of  Hasdrubal [3] and  Mago over P.  Cornelius [I 68] Scipio (Liv. 25,34,6-9) [1. 319]. After reprisals on the part of  Hasdrubal [5] and courted by P.  Cornelius [I 71] Scipio, he went over to the Romans (Pol. 9,11;…

Balari

(63 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Βαλαροί; Balaroí). Rapacious mountain people in Sardinia (Str. 5,225; Plin. HN 3,85). The B. were supposedly descendants of Iberian and Libyan mercenaries, who had deserted from Carthaginian service (Paus. 10,17,9); participated in the rebellion of the neighbouring  Ilienses against the Romans in 178 BC and defeated the consul Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Liv. 41,6,12) in 177.   Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Hasdrubal

(991 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
( zrbl = ‘Help is Bl’; Ἀσδρούβας/ Asdroúbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian field marshal in the 1st Punic War, 3rd cent. BC Carthaginian field marshal in the First Punic War. Together with  Bostar [1] he was defeated near Adys by the Roman invasion troops of consul M.  Atilius [I 21] Regulus in 256 BC, under  Xanthippus he probably took part in the victory near Tynes in 255 (Pol. 1,30; 32; Diod. Sic. 23,11) [1. 48, 264 and 132, 751] and from 251 he was active i.a. in Sicily with 140 elephants, until he suffer…

Pamphilidas

(62 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Παμφιλίδας/ Pamphilídas) from Rhodes. A cautious admiral, and willing to seek peace, in the war against Antiochus [5] III. (Pol. 21,7,6-7; 21,10,5; cf. Liv. 37,2,9; 37,19,1). He was in action on the Carian coast in 190 BC, together with Eudamus [2], and played a leading role in the naval victory over Hannibal [4] off Side (Liv. 37,22,3; 37,24,9). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Dasius

(188 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
Messapic name in Lat. form (Schulze, 39, 44; ThlL Onom. s.v. D.). Respected bearers of that name in Apulia (in particular from Arpi and Sala) were still anti-Roman during the Second Punic War. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [1] Commander of Clastidium against Hannibal D. from Brundisium, in 218 BC commander of the allied occupation forces of  Clastidium with large Roman stores which he betrayed to Hannibal after the victory at the Ticinus for 400 pieces of gold (Pol. 3,69; Liv. 21,48). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Leader of the pro-Carthaginian p…

Xenocleides

(307 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ξενοκλείδης/ Xenokleídēs). [German version] [1] Corinthian naval commander, 5th cent. BC Corinthian. One of five naval commanders sent by Corinth against Corcyra in 433 BC (Thuc. 1,46,2). The fleet achieved a partial victory near the Sybota islands (Thuc. 1,47-54; Diod. 12,33,3 f.). On the return voyage X. captured Anactorium on the Gulf of Ambracia and occupied the town with Corinthian settlers (Thuc. 1,55,1). In 426/5 BC X. led 300 hoplites in defence of Ambracia (Thuc. 3,114,4). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. B. Salmon, Wealthy Corinth, 1984, 318 K.-W. Wel…

Thebe

(258 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Θήβη/ Thḗbē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Iason [2], 4th cent. BC Daughter of Iason [2] of Pherae; her name refers to Jason's former political soliciting of Boeotian support [1. 286] or her mother's origin in Thebes [2. 50]. In opposition to the tyrannical policies of her cousin and husband Alexander [15] of Pherae, in 364 BC T. encourages Pelopidas to intervene in Thessaly (Plut. Pelopidas 28 f.) and in 359 is supposed to have incited her brothers Tisiphonus and Lycophron [3] to assassinate Alexander…
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