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Augustus [1]

(5,528 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] A. Origin and adoption by Caesar Born on 23 September 63 BC in Rome as the son of C.  Octavius and  Atia [1], from an affluent family that did not belong to the nobility. A. lost his father at the age of four and was raised by his mother, a niece of Caesar (Tac. Dial. 28,5), first in Velitrae, then in the house of his stepfather L. Marcius Philippus (Nic. Damas. FGrH 2 A no. 90 F 127,5, whose biography dates back to the autobiography of A.). In 51, A. made the funerary speech for his grandmother Iulia (Suet. Aug. 8,1). On 18 October 48, he took on the toga virilis and soon thereafter was…


(134 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
Uncommon family name. [German version] [1] C., P. Commander in Spain under Augustus Legatus Augusti pro praetore in Spain, defeated the Asturians in 25 BC, conquered the fortress of Lancia and settled veterans in the colonia Emerita (Flor. Ep. 2,33,54-58; Cass. Dio 53,25,8-26,1). In 22, he crushed an Asturian revolt (Cass. Dio 54,5,1f.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography RIC 11, Augustus, no. 277-303 P. le Roux, L'armée Romaine et l'organisation des provinces Ibériques, 1982, 64ff. [German version] [2] C., T. Mint master around 46 BC Mint master c. 46 BC (RRC 475f. no. 4…

Cremutius Cordus

(184 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Roman historiographer (and senator?) of the Augustan-Tiberian period. He incurred L.  Aelius [II 19] Seianus' hatred and was accused in AD 25 before the senate lege maiestatis, because he had glorified Caesar's murderers Brutus and Cassius in his Annales. After an honest defence, he took his own life by refusing food. His writings were confiscated and burned in Rome and in the empire. However, his daughter Marcia, the recipient of Seneca's consolatory discourse, was able to save several books. Under Caligula, a new, ‘…


(31 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Wife of P. Vitellius (died AD 31), was condemned in AD 37 for lèse-majesté (Tac. Ann. 6,47,1). PIR2 A. 102. Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography Raepsat-Charlier 1, no. 5.


(30 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] T.C. Former praetorian who in AD 24 instigated an uprising of the slaves in Brundisium that was soon put down (Tac. Ann. 4,27). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)


(46 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Imperial freedman of the Augustan age (Suet. Aug. 67,1). In c. 7-4 BC he unmasked the alleged son of Herod, the false Alexander (Ios. Ant. Iud. 17,332; Bell. Iud. 2,106-110). Perhaps mentioned in CIL VI 23338 and XIV 3524. Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)

Carsidius Sacerdos

(54 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Acquitted in AD 23 of the charge that he provided grain to  Tacfarinas in Africa (Tac. Ann. 4,13,3). Praetor urbanus in 27 (InscrIt 13,1 p. 299). In 37, he was exiled to an island because of his contact with  Albucilla (Tac. Ann. 6,48,4). PIR2 C 451. Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)

Clutorius Priscus

(67 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Roman knight, author of a poem on the death of Germanicus, for which he was rewarded with money. When Drusus minor, Tiberius' son, was ill and C. boasted of having prepared a poem to mark his death also, the emperor had him executed in AD 21 (Tac. Ann. 3,49-51; Cass. Dio 57,20,3). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography H. Bardon,La littérature latine inconnue, 2, 1956, 74f.


(94 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Very rare family name. C. commanded several cohorts under  Caesar in the Alexandrinian War (Bell. Alex. 31,1-3). After the Ides of March 44 BC, he joined Octavian ( Augustus), and was expelled from the Senate on 28 November 44 (C(Cic. Phil. 3,23), perhaps because he was a people's tribune (MRR 2,324). In April 43, he was sent to Mutina, where M.  Antonius attacked both him and the consul Pansa; C.'s wing fought victoriously, but he himself probably died in the aftermath (Cic. Fam. 10,33,4; App. B Civ. 3,272ff.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)

Abudius Ruso

(49 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Former aedile and legionary legate under Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus in Upper Germany. A. accused him, because he had designated the son of L.  Aelius [II 19] Seianus as his son-in-law, but he was then banned himself (Tac. Ann. 6,30,2). PIR2 A. 17. Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)


(93 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] King in the lower Danube region about 40 BC., according to Flor. 2,28 of the Dacians (according to Suet. Aug. 63,2 of the Gaetae). Florus and Horace (Carm. 3,8,18) report that he suffered a defeat at the hands of the Romans, probably in 30/29 (cf. [1]). Information by Antony that Octavian planned to establish a family relationship with C. is probably just a rumour (Suet. ibid.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography 1 A. Mócsy, Der vertuschte Dakerkrieg des M. Licinius Crassus, in: Historia 15, 1966, 511-514. A. Mócsy, Pannonia and Upper Moesia, 1974, 23f.


(64 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Donkey driver with a donkey by the name of Nicon, whom Octavian met before the battle of Actium and who became an omen. Octavian had a brazen image erected of E. and his donkey (Suet. Aug. 96,2; Plut. Antonius 65.5), which was later transferred to Constantinople, but was destroyed in 1204 (Niketas Choniates 6 [PG 139,1049,1ff.]).  Omen Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)


(54 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Wife of Satrius Secundus, infamous for her affairs, was accused of disrespect ( impietas) towards the princeps and died in AD 37 after a suicide attempt in prison. Several respected senators were involved in her downfall (Tac. Ann. 6,47,2 ff.; Cass. Dio 58,27,4). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography R. A. Bauman, Impietas in principem, 1974, 130 ff.


(98 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] [1] Defender of an African fort 20 AD Defender of a fort on the river Pagyda in Africa, captured in AD 20 by Tacfarinas; D. perished courageously in the action (Tac. Ann. 3,20,1f.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography Demougin, no. 233. [German version] [2] L.D. Husband of Paconia Agrippina Husband of Paconia Agrippina, honoured by the Rhodians (IGR 3,1126). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) [German version] [3] D. Calpurnianus Praefectus vigilum, killed in 48 AD praef. vigilum, killed in AD 48 as a consequence of his relationship with Messalina (Ta…


(118 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] [1] C. Fibulus End of the 1st cent. BC was in 10 BC the centre of a famous inheritance trial involving the estate of Urbinia, who C.'s lawyer, T.  Labienus, claimed had been his mother, while the lawyer representing the other heirs, C.  Asinius [I 4] Pollio, argued that C. had been a slave of someone called Sosipater (Quint. Inst. 7,2,4f.; 26; Tac. Dial. 38,2; Charisius, Gramm. p. 98,3ff.B. = 77,15ff. K.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) [German version] [2] C. Gallus End of the 1st cent. AD Friend of Pliny the Younger, who addressed Epist. [see author's works] 4,17…


(336 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] (Εὐρυκλῆς; Euryklês). Son of the noble Spartan Lachares, who was executed by Antonius for piracy (Syll.3 786; Plut. Ant. 67,2ff.). E. consequently fought on Octavian's side at Actium; as C. Iulius E. he received Roman citizenship, the island of Cythera and a dynastic position in Sparta (Plut. ibid.; Str. 8,5,1; 8,5,5; cf. [1]). On a journey to Judaea, E. as intermediary deepened the rift between king Herod and his sons. Awarded with 50 talents, by dint of similar intrigues he obtained further su…


(138 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Flaccus, A. Born in Rome, childhood playmate of the caesars Gaius and Lucius, and friend of  Tiberius (Philo, In Flacc. 19,158). Prosecutor of Agrippina the Elder (ibid. 1,9). Prefect of Egypt from AD 32 to shortly before 20 October 38 [1. 477]. Following the death of Tiberius, A. allowed the Greek nationalists free hand against the Jews in Alexandria out of fear of Tiberius, but still fell out of favour with the emperor. He was ordered back to Rome, prosecuted, exiled to Andros and executed there in the year 39 (main source: Philo, In Flaccum). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Estin…


(72 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Wife of  Aelius [II 19] Seianus and bore him three children; he repudiated her in AD 23 (Tac. Ann. 4,3,5). Following his death she apparently reported to Tiberius her husband's complicity in the death of the younger Drusus, a story discounted by Tacitus (Ann. 4,11,2; Cass. Dio 58,11,6 [1]). She killed herself on 26 October 31 (FOst. 42). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography 1 D. Hennig, L. Aelius Seianus, 1975, 37 n. 16.


(507 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Vipsania, married to Tiberius from 16-12 BC Vipsania, daughter of M. Vipsanius Agrippa with Caecilia Attica (Nep. Att. 19,4). Born c. 33 BC, married to Tiberius from 16-12 (Suet. Tib. 7,2 f.), whom she bore Drusus Caesar in 15 (Drusus the Younger). Married C. Asinius Gallus after her divorce from Tiberius (Tac. Ann. 1,12; stemma RE 9 A 1232). Died in AD 20 (Tac. Ann. 3,19,3). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography Raepsat-Charlier 1, no. 811. [German version] [2] Vipsania (A. maior), wife of Germanicus Vipsania (A. maior), daughter of M. Vipsanius Agrip…


(616 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C. Auctus, L. Architect, late 1st cent. BC Freedman of C. Postumius (Pollio). Architect (CIL X 1614), who constructed the road tunnels between Lake Avernus and Cumae and between Puteoli and Naples for M. Vipsanius  Agrippa [1] (Str. 5,5,245). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography H. Benario, C. and Cumae, in: CB 35, 1959, 40-41 D. Kienast, Augustus, 1982, 347 fn. 148, 348 fn. 153. [German version] [2] C.C. Balbus Cos. suff. 39 BC Cos. suff. in 39 BC (InscrIt 13,1, p. 282; 291; 278; 135; 506; MRR 2, 386). As a supporter of M.  Antonius he was …
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