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2.7.15. Cyprus

(3,451 words)

Author(s): Matthäus, Hartmut | Niehr, Herbert
A. Names, significance, chronology [German source] Three factors determined the history of Cyprus (indigenous and Greek name: Kýpros; Neo-Assyrian  Jad(a)nana; Hebrew  aeraeṣ kittim, ‘isles of Kittim’; Egyptian probably  iw, on the stela of  Amasis at Elephantine) in the LBA and IA. The first was the rich reserves of  copper ore on the edge of the Troödos Mountains [20]. Copper ore was a rare material in the Mediterranean, and smelting and exporting it guaranteed economic prosperity (on copper from  Tamassus, cf. Hom. Od. 1,183–185). Such activities are confirmed by archa…
Date: 2018-08-16

3.3.2. Religion: Eastern Mediterranean

(7,430 words)

Author(s): Niehr, Herbert | Wittke, Anne-Maria | Kubisch, Sabine | Matthäus, Hartmut
A. General principles [German source] Scholars often treat the religions of the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean world 2.7.) in the context of the ‘Fertile Crescent’. This concept, however, brings together the religions of Mesopotamia, Anatolia and Egypt as dominant, while tending to neglect those of the Aramaeans (2.7.2.), the Phoenician cities 2.7.3., Israel (2.7.5.) and Judah (2.7.6.). Lumping cultures like Egypt and Mesopotamia together also has the effect of glossing over differences between them. …
Date: 2018-08-16

2.5.12. Crete

(4,011 words)

Author(s): Matthäus, Hartmut | Sporn, Katja
A. Chronology [German source] On the basis of evolving pottery styles, which are the best chronological indicator, the LBA and EIA of the island of Crete can be divided into the following archaeological phases: Late Minoan (LM) IIIC (1200–1100), Sub-Minoan (1100–1000), Proto-Geometric (1000–850) and Proto-Geometric B (850–810). On this period of time as a whole, cf. [3]; [6]; [8]; [9]; [16]; [34]; [36]; [38]; [43]; [45]; [55].Proto-Geometric B is followed by the Early Geometric (810–790), Middle Geometric (790–750), Late Geometric (750–700) and Orientalizing…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.5.13. Knossos

(1,508 words)

Author(s): Matthäus, Hartmut
A. Name and chronological context [German source] Knossos (Linear B: Ko-no-so, Greek Knōsós) was a  Minoan and Mycenaean palace complex with a surrounding urban settlement in northern central  Crete (2.5.12.). The destruction of the palace around 1350 (LM IIIA) heralded a phase of decline, which continued through LM IIIC (12th cent.; BNP Atlas 27, 33). However, Knossos and  Phaestus are the only ancient Minoan palace complexes that were continuously inhabited until the historical period and whose urban development culminated in the consolidation of a p…
Date: 2018-08-16