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Athanadorus

(210 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Son of Agesander; sculptor from Rhodes. Worked with  Agesander and  Polydorus; his marble copies of Hellenistic bronze groups were celebrated even in antiquity. The workshop's creative period was at first set in the mid 1st cent. BC, on the basis of Rhodian inscriptions, but after the discovery of the extensive sculpture complex of Sperlonga, most probably going back to the time of Tiberius, it can be fixed in the early Imperial period. The Scylla group is signed. Also by him are …

Kolossos

(310 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (κολοσσός, kolossós; lat. colossus). Statues of remarkable size were called kollossoi, originally in Greek literature with regard to their function as immovable representatives. Since the kolossos of Rhodes (293 BC), kolossos became a technical term for statues with a measurement of 100 feet (29 m) to as little as 10 feet. Modern scholars consider a kolossos to be at least twice life-sized. Marble kolossoi first appear in the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC ( kouroi in Samos, Delos, Naxos), influenced by large Egyptian sculpture. In the 5th cent. BC, kolossoi were produced…

Pyrilampus

(92 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Πυρίλαμπος; Pyrílampos). Bronze sculptor, son of Agias from Messene. A preserved Exedra base with signature of P. was dated in the 2nd or 1st century BC. It is uncertain whether this refers to the same P. of whom Pausanias (6,3,13; 6,15,1; 6,16,5) saw three victory statues in Olympia. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 1565-1567  Loewy, no. 274  Lippold, 380  EAA 6, s. v. Pyrilampus, 1965, 572-573  G. Maddoli, Pyrilampes, dimenticato scultore di Sicione, e la cronologia di Pyrilampes di Messene, in: Dialoghi di archeologia 7, 2, 1989, 65-69.

Athenis

(41 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Chios, son of  Archermus. He worked in the late 6th cent. BC on Delos, in Iasos, Chios and in Athens with his brother  Bupalus. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 335-337 Overbeck, no. 314, 315, 318 (sources).

Theocosmus

(90 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Θεόκοσμος; Theókosmos). Sculptor from Megara in the late 5th cent. BC, father of Callicles [2]. With the help of Pheidias he created a gold-ivory cult image of Zeus (Gold-ivory technique) in Megara, which remained unfinished after 431 BC because of the Peloponnesian War. On the victory monument of Lysander [1] in Delphi (in 405 BC) T. made the statue of Hermon [3]. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, Nr. 855; 979; 1035  Lippold, 203 f.  P. Moreno, s. v. T., EAA 7, 1966, 816  A. Jacquemin, Offrandes monumentales à Delphes, 1999, Nr. 322.

Eucheir

(88 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (called E. II). A sculptor in Athens, the son of  Eubulides [4], called Eubulides II. Together with his son  Eubulides [5], also called Eubulides III, he signed honorary statues and votives in Attica, Euboea and Megara during the 1st half of the 2nd cent. BC. His Hermes in Phenea, which Pausanias described, is perhaps depicted on coins. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography G. Becatti, Attika, in: RIA 7, 1940, 14-17 H. Brunn, Gesch. der griech. Künstler, 1, 1857, 551-552 Loewy, 134, 135, 222-227 P. Moreno, Scultura ellenistica, 1994521, 554

Akrolithon

(149 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Archaeological term for statues where the exposed body parts are made of marble and the robes of metal, both attached to a wooden core. The term first occurs in temple inventories in the 2nd cent. BC, later in Vitruvius for colossal statues. The technique can be traced back to the earliest cult idols with clothing and, since the classical period, is often used for cult statues. Numerous descriptions of akrolitha are contrasted by just a small number of preserved fragments, such as…

Eutychides

(185 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Εὐτυχίδης; Eutychídēs) Sculptor and painter from Sicyon, pupil and son of  Lysippus. His acme was dated to 296-293 BC. His fame is based on the bronze statue ─ known in many replicas and copies ─ of Tyche of Antioch on the Orontes, which he created not long after the city's refoundation in 300 BC. It is one of the keystones for the chronology of Hellenistic sculpture, and was trendsetting in its composition in the round and its iconography of personifications of cities. E.'s work …

Phradmon

(187 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Φράδμων; Phrádmōn). Bronze sculptor from Argos. Plinius (HN 34,49) gives 420-417 BC as his prime. P. is known primarily for his participation in the competition over the statues of Amazons in Ephesus, among the copies of which the 'Doria Panfili' type (Rome, Galleria Doria Panfili) are attributed without adequate reason to him. Victors' statues by P. were to be seen in Olympia (according to Pausanias 6,8,1), and in Delphi (according to a restored inscription). An inscription in Os…

Marble sculptures

(417 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Crystalline limestone marble was the preferred stone material in Graeco-Roman sculpture. Marble was partially painted or gilded, otherwise impregnated with a coating of wax and oil ( gánōsis). Coloured marble was used to match the colour of clothing and hair; painted effects were achieved by adding metals to jewellery, weapons, hairpieces and eyes. The term akrolithon is used for elaborate mixed techniques. Stucco was often added to economize with material or time. The proportions of the blocks often called…

Portraits

(1,884 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. General remarks By the modern definition, a portrait is a rendering of an individual person's appearance. Typological and physiognomic characterizations serve this end. However, portraits recognizable as portraits only through their intention or by furnishing a name lack such characteristics. A typological portrait uses canonical features to indicate that its subject belongs to a certain group. A physiognomic portrait guarantees the identification of its subject by reproducing phy…

Chaerestratus

(105 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Son of Chaeredemus; Attic sculptor from  Rhamnus. On a prosopographical basis, his creative period has been deduced to have been in the early 3rd cent. BC, but by some to c. 320 BC. This is significant for the chronology of early Hellenistic developments in style, as the statue of Themis in the sanctuary of Nemesis at Rhamnus (Athens, AM) is signed by C. Further works are attributed to him by way of style. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures des sculpteurs grecs, 1, 1953, no. 11-12 P. Moreno, Scultura ellenistica, 1994, 168-172 fig. B.…

Cippus

(273 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] As a stone monument with or without inscription, the cippus was used in particular for territorial delineation. Made as a free-standing sculpture, it marked burial sites and was linked as reference to the dead to magical ideas and should not be confused with steles. The basic form was phallic, 30-50 cm high and it was represented in diverse ways especially in Etruria ( Etruscan Archaeology). Mostly onions, spheres or eggs top a pillar or cylinder. Special regional types in the 6th…

Corinthian alloy

(247 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Corinthium aes, according to Plin. HN 34,6-8 an alloy of  copper,  gold and  silver, with an artificial patination that made it gleam like gold. Attempts to identify Corinthian alloy (CA) with so-called ‘black gold’ and ‘niello’ are not convincing, as only a lesser sort of CA was dark in colour. The term CA was always associated with legendary invention, names of old masters, and dubious authenticity. Juridical sources (Dig. 32,100,3), however, distinguish CA from plain bronze, ref…

Appliqués (pottery)

(158 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Term for attached decorative items representing figures or plants. On bronze vessels of the 7th cent. BC, they are attached as protome (e.g. griffin cauldron). In Hellenistic and imperial times, crustae on tableware are highly valued masterpieces of  toreutics, and also on clothing, luxurious armour such as gladiators' helmets, on horse harness and carriage components. On kline rests ( fulcra), bronze animal protomes can be found, appliqués of ivory on furniture. Wooden sarcophagi in Taranto and south Russia of the 4th cent. BC had relief…

Hermathena, Hermeracles

(98 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Cicero called the  Herms of Athena and Hercules, which Atticus had obtained in 67-65 BC for Cicero's Tusculanum (Cic. Att. 1,1; 4; 8; 9; 10), Hermathena and Hermeracles. The bronze heads were set on marble pillars and were considered an appropriate ornamentum for his peristyle, which was compared to the Academia and a gymnasium. These terms are Cicero's creation. Setting up Herms of this type in the gardens of Roman villas became a common practice. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography R. Neudecker, Die Skulpturenausstattung röm. Villen in Italien, 1988, 11-18 H. Wr…

Styppax

(83 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Cyprus in the 5th century BC. He was famous for his statue of a splanchnoptes (Plin. HN 34,19,81), a slave who blows on the fire to roast the entrails at a sacrifice. It was erected on the orders of Pericles [1] as a votive offering after his slave was injured during the building of a temple and miraculously healed. The work does not survive. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, Nr. 868-869  P. Moreno, s. v. S., EAA 7, 1966, 535-536.

Agoracritus

(246 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀγοράκριτος; Agorákritos). Sculptor from Paros, master of the high-classical period in Athens. Uncertain attributions to A., his rival  Alcamenes and their teacher  Phidias are reflected in anecdotes of ancient literature, which makes attributing the œuvre difficult. When it came second in a contest with Alcamenes, A. is said to have sold a statue of Aphrodite to a buyer in Rhamnus as one of Nemesis, or that Phidias had one of his own statues signed by A. The signature was discove…

Tabula Iliaca

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Archeological technical term for marble plates with illustrations of the Homeric epics (Homerus [1]). The small plates with a height of up to 25 cm are covered on both sides with low reliefs in miniature with accompanying texts. Most of the 22 extant plates refer to the Iliad, one to the Odyssey. The most complete plate, the so-called Tabula Capitolina (Rome, KM), contains parts of the Aethiopís as well. The plates are dated to the early Imperial Period and were all found in Rome. Some are attested to have been produced by T…

Phyromachus

(686 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Φυρόμαχος/ Phyrómachos). Sculptor of Athens, teacher of the painters Heraclides [30] (active 168 BC) and Milon. The written and archaeological traditions, which are controversial, reveal at least the existence of a famed artist who was active under the Attalid kings (Attalus) of Pergamum. The Laterculi Alexandrini (late 2nd cent. BC) place him in a list of artists, and Pliny (HN 34,84) has the same in mind when documenting the sculptors who worked for Attalus and Eumenes. As Pliny only makes a generalized reference to the monumenta Attalidum, it cannot be demonstr…
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