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Io

(541 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἰώ; Iṓ). Daughter of  Inachus, king of Argus (Aesch. PV 589f.; Bacchyl. 19,18 et al.), or of  Peiren (or Peras or Peirasus), king of Tyrins (Hes. Cat. fr. 124), and Melia (Johannes Antiochenus FHG IV 544 fr. 14). Zeus falls in love with her and seduces her in the form of a bull. Out of jealousy, Hera transforms I. into a cow (Aesch. Supp. 299). According to Hes. Cat. fr. 124, I. is transformed by Zeus himself only after their affair in order to deceive Hera (so also Apollod. 2,1,3…

Cassiepea, Cassiopea, Cassiope

(158 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Κασσιέπεια, Κασσιόπεια, Κασσιόπη, Kassiépeia, Kassiópeia, Kassiópē). [German version] [1] Mistress of Zeus Daughter of Arabus, wife of the son of Agenor  Phoenix, mother of  Phineus, Cilix and Doryclus, by Zeus of  Atymnius [2] (Hes. Cat. fr. 138; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 86; Apollod. 3,1,2). According to Antoninus Liberalis (40), also the mother of  Europe [2] and  Carme (cf. Hes. Cat. fr. 140). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [2] Wife of Epaphus, son of Zeus Wife of Epaphus, son of Zeus and  Io, mother of Libya, after whom the country of Libya is named (Hyg…

Nicostrate

(107 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Νικοστράτη/ Nikostrátē). Arcadian nymph, prophetess, mother by Hermes of Evander [1], with whom she moved, 60 years before the Trojan War, from Pallantium in Arcadia to Italy, where Evander founded on the Palatine the first city (Str. 5,3,3; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,31,1;  Plut. Quaest. Graec. 56; Ov. Fast. 1,462; 618; 627; 634; Serv. Aen. 8,51; 130; 336). According to Plut. Romulus 21, she was the wife of Evander. Outside this Hellenizing tradition, the mother of Evander is called Carmentis (cf. Str. 5,3,3; Plut. Romulus 21). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) Bibliography H.…

Pelopeia

(259 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Πελόπεια/ Pelópeia, Πελοπία/ Pelopía). [German version] [1] Daughter of Pelias Daughter of Pelias and Anaxibia or Phylomache (Apollod. 1,95; Hyg. Fab. 24). With Ares mother of Cycnus [1] (Apollod. 2,155). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [2] Daughter of Thyestes Daughter of Thyestes, with him mother of Aegisthus, who takes revenge on Atreus for the killing of Thyestes' sons. The story of Thyestes' incest is part of the complex of myths about the descendants of Pelops. This incest is mentioned frequently (e.g. Ov. Ib. 359…

Leda

(439 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Λήδα; Lḗda). Daughter of the Aetolian king Thestius and of Eurythemis (Apollod. 1,7,10), sister of Althaea [1] and Hypermestra [1] (Hes. Cat. fr. 23a, 3-5; Apollod. ibid.), wife of the Lacedaemonian king Tyndareos. She is credited with different children: Timandra, Clytaemnestra, Phylonoe (Hes. Cat. fr. 23a, 7-10; Apollod. 3,10,6), Phoebe (Eur. IA 49-51), especially Helene [1] and the Dioscuri Castor and Polydeuces. According to Homer, these are the sons of Tyndareos (Hom. …

Canace

(212 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Κανάκη; Kanákē). Daughter of the Thessalian  Aeolus [1] and Enarete, who had an additional five daughters and six sons (Apollod. 1,50). C. is mother of five sons fathered by Poseidon, among them is Aloeus, progenitor of the  Aloads (Apollod. 1.53). According to Diod. Sic. 5.61, the Tyrrhenian king Aeolus is C.'s father. The Tyrrhenian and Thessalian Aeolus were blended and said by Homer to be the king of the winds  Aeolus [2], whose six sons and six daughters lived in pairs as married couples (Hom. Od. 10.1-9). In the tragedy Aeolus, Euripides described an incestuous …

Coronis

(273 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Mistress of Apollo (Κορωνίς; Korōnís, accusative also Κόρωνιν; Korōnín). Daughter of the Lapith  Phlegyas, mistress of  Apollo, by him mother of  Asclepius. Through his messenger, the raven, Apollo discovers that C., pregnant by him, has slept with  Ischys and wants to marry him (Hes. Aeolidae fr. 60; Pind. Pyth. 3,5-20). According to Pindar (Pyth. 3,27-29), Apollo in his omniscience needs no messenger. He kills Ischys and has C. and other women killed by  Artemis. He saves Asclepius f…

Thetis

(519 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Θέτις/ Thétis). Daughter of Nereus and Doris [I 1], one of the Nereids (Hes. Theog. 240-244; cf. Hom. Il. 1,358; 18,36; Pind. Pyth. 3,92; Apollod. 1,11 et al.), raised by Hera (Hom. Il. 24,60), mother of Achilles [1]. When Poseidon and Zeus desire T., an oracle of Themis prophesies that the son of T. will dethrone his father. Zeus therefore decides to marry T. against her will to the mortal Peleus. According to a further prophecy of Themis, T. would see her son die in battle (Pind…

Harmonia

(272 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἁρμονία; Harmonía). Daughter of Ares and Aphrodite, wife of  Cadmus, mother of  Ino,  Semele,  Agave,  Autonoe and  Polydorus (Hes. Theog. 933-937; 975-978; Apollod. 3,25). The wedding of Cadmus and H., for which the gods bring along opulent presents (i.a. a necklace made by Hephaestus and a  peplos, in Alcmaeon [1], Amphiaraus), was a popular topic (Pind. Pyth. 3,88-92; Paus. 3,18,12; Apollod. 3,25). The bridal song is sung by the Muses (Thgn. 15-18). At the end of their life, Ca…

Melanippe

(399 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Μελανίππη; Melaníppē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Aeolus Daughter of Aeolus [1], the son of Hellen, and of Hippe [2], the daughter of the centaur Chiron. Mother by Poseidon of the twins Aeolus [3] and Boeotus. M. was the protagonist in two fragmentarily surviving tragedies by Euripides: Μ. ἡ σοφή (‘The Wise M.; TGF 479-487) and Μ. ἡ δεσμῶτις (‘M. Bound; TGF 488-514). In the older ' Wise M.' (set in Thessaly), it is told how in the absence of her father Aeolus, M. becomes the mother of two sons by Poseidon. Although she exposes the children, they survive a…

Sterope

(195 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Στερόπη/ Sterópē, Ἀστερόπη/ Asterópē '(flash of )lightning'; Ἀερόπη/ Aërópē). [German version] [1] One of the Pleiades One of the Pleiades, the seven daughters of Atlas [2] and Pleione (Hes. fr. 169 M.-W.; Apollod. 3,110; Paus. 5,10,6), mother by Ares of Oenomaus [1] (Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 19a; Eratosth. Katasterismoí (epitome) 23; cf. Tzetz. on Lycoph. 149). There is a depiction of S. on the frieze of the eastern gable at Olympia (Paus. 5,10,6; [2. 809 no. 5]), dated to the second quarter of the 5th cent. BC. She is also called Asterope or Aerope (Hes. fr. 169; Hyg. Fab. 84). Waldner, Kathar…

Polycrite

(331 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Πολυκρίτη/ Polykrítē). Heroine of Naxos who, by a ruse, saves her hometown when it is besieged by the Milesians and Erythreans: she is left behind in a sanctuary before the city of Naxos [1] and taken prisoner by Diognetus, the leader of the Erythreans. Since he does not dare to rape her in the sanctuary, he tries to win her over by persuasion. She agrees under the condition that he swears to grant her request first. When Diognetus agrees, P. requests that he betray his allies, th…

Oenotropae

(236 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Οἰνοτρόποι; Oinotrópoi). The three daughters of Dorippe and Anius, the mythical first king of Delos: Oino ('Wine-Maid'), Spermo ('Corn-Maid') and Elais ('Oil-Maid'). On their way to Troy, Anius tries to persuade the Greeks to stay with him for nine years and be fed by the O., in order then to conquer Troy in the 10th year (Kypria PEG I fr. 19). The O. have from Dionysus the ability to conjure up corn (schol. Lycoph. 570), wine and oil (Lycoph. 577-580). According to Ovid, everythi…

Phaedra

(678 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Φαίδρα/ Phaídra, Latin Phaedra). Daughter of Minos and Pasiphae, second spouse of Theseus, mother of Demophon [2] and Acamas. P. loves her stepson Hippolytus [1]. She tries in vain to seduce him and accuses him of having raped her. Theseus asks Poseidon to destroy Hippolytus. The god sends a bull from the sea, which gives such a fright to Hippolytus' horse-team, that he is killed in the accident. P. commits suicide when her love for Hippolytus becomes public (Ps.-Apollod. epit. 1,17…

Thyone

(87 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Θυώνη; Thyṓnē). Name of Semele after her assumption among the gods (Diod. 4,25,4; Apollod. 3,38). The earliest evidence is in Sappho (fr. 17,10 Voigt) and Pindar (P. 3,98-99). T. also appears sporadically as the nurse of Dionysus (e.g. Panyassis fr. 5). The latter receives from her the epithet Thyonidas (Hesych. s. v.), Latin Thyoneus (e.g. Hor. Carm. 1,17,23; Ov. Met. 4,13 et passim). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) Bibliography A. Kossatz-Deissmann, s.v. Semele, LIMC 7.1, 718-726  K. Preisendanz, s.v. T., RE 6 A, 735-736  J. Schmidt, s. v. T., Roscher 5, 926-92…

Lyssa

(343 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Λύσσα, Λύττα; Lýssa, Lýtta). Personification of (battle) rage and madness. She appears as an independent person for the first time in 5th-cent. tragedy; according to Eur. HF 822-899 she is descended from Nyx and the blood of Uranus that the latter sheds when he is castrated by Kronos. Homer mentions the state of lyssa, but she is not a person (Hom. Il. 8,299; cf. also 9,239; 304f.). As such she appears for the first time in Aeschylus in the Xántriai (TrGF III fr. 169) where she spurs on the Minyades - struck with madness by Dionysus - to kill a human being …

Psamathe

(229 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Ψαμάθη/ Psamáthē, Ψαμάθα/ Psamátha, Ψαμάθεια/ Psamátheia). [German version] [1] Nereid Nereid (Hes. Theog. 260; Apollod. 1,12). The mother of Phocus [1] by Aeacus (Hes. Theog. 1004 f.; Pind. Nem. 5,13). Like her sister Thetis, who resisted marriage to Peleus, P. escaped marriage with Aeacus by transforming into a seal (Apollod. 3,158). According to Eur. Hel. 6-14, she later became the wife of Proteus and the mother of Theoclymenus and Theonoë by him. Because Peleus killed her son Phocus, she sent a rapac…

Omphale

(454 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὀμφάλη; Omphálē). Mythical queen of the Lydians (Lydia). She is the daughter of Iardanus and becomes queen as successor to her husband Tmolus (Apollod. 2,6,3; Diod. 4,31). Heracles [1] is the father of her sons Lamus [2] and Agelaus [3] (e.g. Apollod. 2,7,8; Ov. Epist. 9,54). According to Clearchus of Soli (fr. 43a Wehrli), she and other Lydian women are raped and as queen she takes her revenge by forcing free women to sleep with slaves. Heracles is sold abroad as a punishment for killing his host Iphitus and performs the duties of a slave for O. (Soph. …

Callisto

(331 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Καλλιστώ; Kallistṓ, Lat. Callisto). Arcadian nymph or princess, daughter of  Lycaon (Eumelus of Corinth, EpGF p. 100 fr. 10; Hes. Cat. fr. 163; Apollod. 3.100), according to Asius (EpGF p. 90 fr. 9) of Nycteus, according to Pherecydes (FGrH 3 fr. 157) of Ceteus; Hunting companion of Artemis who falls in love with Zeus. He approaches her in the shape of Artemis or Apollo and either seduces or rapes her (Amphis, CAF II fr. 47; Apollod. 3.100; Ov. Met. 2,425). Artemis (Hes. Cat. fr. …

Nephele

(200 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Νεφέλη/ Nephélē). [German version] [1] Personification of a cloud No evidence exists concerning her ancestry, probably because originally she is the personification of a ‘cloud’. Nephele is the wife of Athamas, mother of Helle and of Phrixus. Because Ino (Leukothea), the second wife of Athamas, caused a drought and wanted to kill Nephele's children, Nephele put the two children onto a golden ram, which flew away with them (Apollod. 1,9,1-6; Hyg. Fab. 1-3; 21; Ov. Met. 11,195). According to schol. Aristo…
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