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Lycis

(42 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] Writer of the Old Comedy, victorious at the Dionysia at the earliest in 411 BC [1. test. 1]; ridiculed in Aristoph. Ran. 12-15 [1. test. 2] because of his bad jokes. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1PCG V, 1986, 615.

Ecphantides

(64 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἐκφαντίδης; Ekphantídēs). Early playwright of the Old Comedy [1. test. 4]. After 458 BC, he won four times in the Dionysia [1. test. 1]. Two titles of his plays are known: Peírai and Sátyroi. An unknown play is the origin of fr. 3Ekphantides fr. 3, in which E. criticizes the Megarian Comedy. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 126-129.

Nicochares

(86 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Νικοχάρης; Nikochárēs). Comic poet of the 5th/4th cents. BC, from the Attic Cydathenaeum demos. Son of the comedian Philonides [1. test. 1 and 2]. 28 fragments and 9 titles are preserved, of which 7 are mythological (Ἀγαμέμνων, Ἀμυμώνη ὴ Πέλοψ, Γαλάτεια, Ἡρακλῆς γαμῶν, Ἡρακλῆς χορηγός, Λάκωνες, Λήμνιαι). With the Λάκωνες, he competed against Aristophanes' [3] second Πλοῦτος in 388; his Γαλάτεια dates from the same period [2. 203]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG 7, 1989, 39-49 2 H.-G. Nesselrath, Die attische Mittlere Komödie, 1990.

Stratagus

(38 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Στράταγος; Strátagos). Greek comic poet of the 3rd cent. BC, known only from an honorary inscription by Dionysus technitai found in Ptolemais in Egypt ( c. 273-246 BC). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 616.

Aropus

(30 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] Writer of New Comedy known to us only through inscriptions; winner of the Lenaea festival in the 3rd cent. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 12.

Laenes

(46 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Λαίνης; Laínēs). Comic poet of the 2nd cent. BC, attested only in inscriptions; he won three victories at the Dionysia (1. test. 2), one of which is dated to 185 BC (1. test. 1). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 609.

Emmenides

(35 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἐμμενίδης; Emmenídēs). Writer of New Comedy [1] known to us only epigraphically; won a victory at the Lenaia in the 2nd cent. BC. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 130.

Crobylus

(56 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Κρωβύλος). Writer of comedies in the 4th cent. BC, with 11 fragments preserved: two can be assigned to the comedy Ἀπαγχόμενος (‘He Who Hangs Himself’), two to Ἀπολείπουσα (or -λιποῦσα, ‘The Woman Who Left (the Man) ’) and three to Ψευδυποβολιμαῖος (‘The False Substitute’). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 1983, 350-355.

Lampytus

(36 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Λάμπυτος; Lámpytos). Poet of the New Comedy, known only from an inscription; in 167 BC he took fourth place at the Dionysia (I. test.). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 609.

Telecleides

(154 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Τηλεκλείδης; Tēlekleídēs). Writer of the Attic Old Comedy with three victories at the Dionysia [1. test. 3] and five at the Lenaea [1. test. 4], from the generation of Cratinus [1. test. 3 and 4], i.e. c. 450-420 BC. Despite his success only 8 titles and 73 fragments have been preserved. In them there is a great deal of personal derision: against Pericles (fr. 18; 47), but also against poets such as Philocles [4] (fr. 15; 31), Nothippus (fr. 17) and and the Socrates-inspired Euripides [1] (fr. 41), perhaps against Morychus ( Apseudeís, fr. 12, probably soon after 426 BC…

Theognetus

(88 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Θεόγνητος; Theógnētos). Comic poet of the 3rd cent. BC (cf. Pantaleon mentioned in fr. 2). Two fragments and three titles survive: Κένταυρος ('The centaur'), Φιλοδέσποτος ('The one who loves his master', probably referring to a slave [2. 28710]) and Φάσμα ἢ Φιλάργυρος ('The ghost or The miser'); in the surviving fr. 1 of this play there is mockery of somebody who has lost his mind in the pursuit of Stoic philosophy. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 696-698 2 H.-G. Nesselrath, Die att. Mittlere Komödie, 1990.

Archedicus

(85 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] Poet of the New Comedy, from whom four fragments and two titles ( Diamartanon, Thesauros, where a cook speaks) are extant. Worthy of note is his attack on the politician  Demochares, nephew of Demosthenes [1 test.2 and fr. 4]. A. could be identical with the anagrapheus of the year 320/19 and may have been politically active as ally of the Macedonian royal administrator  Antipater [2]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 533-536 2 Chr. Habicht, The comic poet A., in: Hesperia 62, 1993, 253-256.

Dioxippus

(73 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Διώξιππος; Diṓxippos). Poet of the Middle Comedy; titles of five plays have survived [1. test. 1]: Antipornoboskós [2], Diadikazómenoi, Thēsaurós, Historiográphos (possibly mocking the oligarchic, pro-Macedonian politician Callimedon, fr. 3Dioxippos fr. 3), and Philárgyros. He was probably involved in the Lenaea of 349 BC as didaskalos for a play by Anaxandrides [1. test. 2]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 44-46 2 H.-G. Nesselrath, Die att. Mittlere Komödie, 1990, 324.

Phoenicides

(104 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Φοινικίδης/ Phoinikídēs). 3rd century BC comic poet from Megara [1. test. 2]; twice victorious at the Dionysia [1. test. 3]. At the Lenaea he took fifth place in 285 with the Ἀνασῳζόμενοι/ Anasōizómenoi, and fourth place the following year with the Ποιητής/ Poiētḗs. Four fragments and five titles (in addition to those already listed: Αὐλητρίδες/ Aulētrides, Μισουμένη/ Misouménē, Φύλαρχος/ Phýlarchos) survive; in the untitled fragment 4, a hetaira wants to give up her craft because of bad experiences she had had with three lovers (a soldier, a ph…

Aristonymus

(32 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] Poet of the Old Comedy, of whom the titles Theseus and Helios Rhigon, as well as eight fragments are extant. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 1991, 571-573.

Nicophon

(123 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Νικοφῶν; Nikophôn). Comic poet of the 5th/4th cents. BC; he was victorious at the Lenaea and prior to 402 at the Dionysia [1. Test. 3 and 4; 2. 203]. In 388 his Ἄδωνις ( Ádōnis) rivaled Aristophanes' Πλοῦτος (Ploûtos). 30 fragments have survived; of the six known titles four have a mythological subject: In addition to Ἄδωνις, the titles are Ἀφροδίτης γοναί ( Aphrodítēs gonaí) , Πανδώρα ( Pandṓra), Σειρῆνες ( Seirênes); the latter [1. Fr. 20-22] treat the popular topic of the Land of Plenty. The titles indicate that N. (although Athenaeus [3] and H…

Caricature

(725 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] The terms caricature, grotesque,   grylloi are sometimes defined differently, sometimes not strictly separated, sometimes used synonymously [11. 89]; but although the word grotesque is differentiated from caricature because, unlike it, caricature refers precisely to a model, in order to cover as many aspects as possible a broader definition of the term caricature is to be preferred [4. 4]. Therefore, regarding term and delimitation. cf. the essential [9]. Caricature as deviation from the normal evoked mockery very early on (Thersites: Hom. Il. 2…

Philyllius

(112 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Φιλύλλιος; Philýllios). Comic poet from the 5th/4th cents. BC; according to the Suda he was a contemporary of Diocles [5] and Sannyrion [1. test. 2]. He was victorious at the Lenaean festival and possibly at the Dionysian [1. test. 3, *4]. Thirty-three fragments and ten titles have survived, of which six are of a mythical nature (Αἰγεύς, Ἀταλάντη, Αὔγη, Ἑλένη, Ἡρακλῆς, Πλύντριαι ἢ Ναυσικάα; 'Aegeus', 'Atalante', 'Auge', 'Helen', 'Heracles, 'The Washerwomen or Nausicaa'). The last-…

Poliochus

(42 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Πολίοχος; Políochos). Attic comic poet of the 5th cent. BC, victor on one occasion at the Lenaea [1. test. 1]. Two fragments survive, one from the play Κορινθιαστής ( Korinthiastḗs, 'The Whoremonger'). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 550-551.

Ararus

(103 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] Son of  Aristophanes [3]; had the victory at the Dionysia 387 BC with the Kokalos of his father ([1. test.1; 3], [2]) and probably soon thereafter performed the second Aiolosikon of his father (Aristophanes, Aiolosikon, test. iv). The Suda [1. test. 1] places the beginning of A.'s activity in the 101st Olympiad (376/5-373/2 BC), which presumably means the performing of his own works [2], of which six titles (three of mythic content, three of non-mythic content) are extant. Alexis fr. 184 derides A. as frosty [1.test.4]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II…

Poses

(94 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ποσῆς/ Posês). Athenian comedian in the early 1st century BC; his father was a comedian called Ariston [2. 569], as was his son [2. 570]; victor at the Sarapian Games in Tanagra in c. 85 [1. test. 1]. P. was also an archon (in 88/87 [1. test. 2]), a gymnasiarch [1. test. 3] and together with his brother Timostratus a mint-magistrate ( c. 101 [1. test. 4]. Neither fragments nor titles of his plays survive. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 560 2 PCG II, 1991, 569-570 3 Ch. Habicht, Athen in hellenistischer Zeit, 1994, 296.

Laon

(63 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Λάων; Láōn). Writer of the New Comedy. As he is quoted by Heraclides [18], it is safe to assume he belongs in the 3rd cent. BC. Two fragments are extant, of which fragment 1 is from a play Διαθῆκαι ( Diathêkai, ‘The Wills’); in fragment 2 (without a play title) an adulterer speaks. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V 610.

Dromon

(29 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Δρόμων; Drómōn). Poet of the 4th cent. BC; two fragments of his play Psaltria are extant [1]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 124-125.

Nouius

(31 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Νούιος; Noúios). Comic poet of the 2nd cent. BC, known only from inscriptions; achieved three victories at the Lenaea. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 94.

Philostephanus

(477 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Φιλοστέφανος/ Philostéphanos). [German version] [1] P. of Cyrene Pupil of Callimachus, 3rd cent. BC Pupil (γνώριμος/ gnṓrimos) of Callimachus [3] (Ath. 331d; cf. [4. vol. 2, 752]), lived in the reign of Ptolemaeus Philopator (222-206 BC, cf. [1. 30]). Author of ostensibly geographical works whose true compass is in the aetiological and paradoxographic (Gell. NA 9,4,3 puts P. alongside other authors of res inauditae, Aristeas, Ctesias, Onesicritus), of which we have only scanty fragments and titles, which may also denote parts of a single comprehensive wor…

Poseidon

(2,631 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ποσειδῶν/ Poseidôn, Doric Ποτειδάν/ Poteidán, along with other forms of the name). I. Myth and cult [German version] A. General remarks P. was the Greek "god of the sea, of earthquakes and of horses" (Paus. 7,21,7). He belongs to the older strata of Greek religion: his name is already well attested in Mycenaean times. He was worshipped both in Knossos and in Pylus [2], where he also had a sanctuary (the Posidaion), a cult association (the Posidaiewes) and probably even a wife, Posidaeja [1. 181-185]; his local importance is still reflected in Pylian Nestor's [1] sacrifice to…

Strattis

(244 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Στράττις/ Stráttis). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Chios, 6th cent. BC Tyrant of Chios, who took part in the Scythian campaign in 513 BC as an adviser of Darius [1] (Hdt. 4,138). It can not be determined whether he was deposed at the beginning of the Ionian Revolt. Nevertheless, he was able to resume his reign after the Persians' victory (in 493/2 BC). In 479 he was able to elude a conspiracy (Hdt. 8,132). At the liberation of Ionia after the battle of Mycale in 479 S. may also have been toppled. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Attic comic poet, 5th/4th cents. BC Attic comi…

Archippus

(192 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Poet of the Old Comedy Poet of the Old Comedy, one-time winner at the Dionysia of the 91st Olympiad (415-412 BC) [1.test.1.2]. 61 fragments and six titles are extant, amongst them an Amphitryon and a Plutos. Rhinon and ‘Fishes’ ( Ichthyes) -- portraying a fish state (cf. Aristophanes' state of birds) in conflict with the Athenians -- were probably written after 403 BC. Occasionally, four plays by Aristophanes were also attributed to A. [1.test.4]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 538-557. [German version] [2] Pythagoraean Pythagorean who, acc…

Satyr

(1,533 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Σάτυρος/ Sátyros, pl. Σάτυροι/ Sátyroi, Latin Satur, Satyrus), also Silenus (Σι-, Σειληνός/ Si-, Seilēnós, pl. Σι-, Σειληνοί/ Si-, Seilēnoí, Doric Σιλανός/ Silanós, Latin Silenus, Silanus). [German version] I. Mythology, art and cult A satyr/Silenus was a member of a group of demons who, since their relatively late emergence at the end of the 7th/beginning of the 6th cent. BC, have formed part of the mythical entourage of the god Dionysus; Silens, as a more or less distinctive and independent figure, emerged from that retinue…

Theseus

(1,832 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Θησεύς /Thēseús). Mythical king and national hero of the Athenians (Athens). T. belongs to the generation before the Trojan War. He is the son of Aethra, daughter of Pittheus. His divine father is Poseidon, his human father the Athenian king Aegeus. [German version] I. Myth T. grew up with Pittheus at Troezen, because Aegeus abandoned the pregnant Aethra in the light of an oracular prophecy. Having found the symbolic items (sword, shoes) left there by Aegeus, he made his way to Athens. During the journey, T. had to survive several battles…

Odysseus

(2,574 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ὀδυσσεύς, Latin Ulixes, Etruscan utuze). [German version] I. Mythology Son of Laertes and Anticlea, husband of Penelope, father of Telemachus. One of the central figures of Greek mythology; in Homer's Odyssey, the focus of a major Archaic epic. This fact alone indicates the significance of the figure of  O., which contrasts with the other figures of Greek heroic myth through the emphasis on special intellectual abilities. Thus, he represents an archetype in the history of European thought; his presence in later literature a…

Athenocles

(201 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀθηνοκλῆς; Athēnoklês). [German version] [1] From Cyzicus. Grammarian, 3rd/2nd cent. BC from Cyzicus. Grammarian. On the basis of Didymus in Schol. Hom. Od. 14,503, where in reference to him the word προηθέτει (‘has athetized earlier’) is used (see also Schol. Hom. Od. 6,144), he is believed to be older than Aristarchus [4] of Samothrace or at least one of his contemporaries, so that he can also be placed in the 3rd/2nd cents. BC. Ammonius [3] of Alexandria, the student of Aristarchus, published a text Πρ…

Ephippus

(265 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἔφιππος; Éphippos). [German version] [1] Author in the period of Alexander the Great of Olynthus, at the court of  Alexander [4] the Great during the final years; he later wrote an anecdotal work ‘On the life and death of Hephaestion and Alexander’. As all extant fragments (FGrH 126) derive from  Athenaeus [3], they for the most part describe banquets. We also hear that Alexander was in the habit of putting on the insignia of various gods, and like  Gorgus sought the liberation of Samos. Identification of E. with an officer of Alexander in Egypt (cf. Berve 2, no. 331) is erroneously based. Badi…

Sirens

(706 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Σειρῆνες/ Seirḗnes; Latin Sirenes, Sirenae). [German version] I. Mythology Mythical female creatures who sing seductively Sirens are mythical beings (in Greek myth female) in ancient sailors' tales (the earliest evidence - admittedly without context - extends back to the Mycenaean period [1]). Their seductive song makes sailors forget their home  (cf. Lotophagi) and perish. Instructed by Circe, Odysseus outwits the Sirens: he stops the ears of his companions with wax and has himself tied to the mast with inst…

Polyzelus

(180 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Πολύζηλος/ Polýzēlos). [German version] [1] Comic poet, c. 400 BC Comic poet of the late 5th and early 4th cent. BC; won four victories at the Lenaea [1. test. 2]. 13 frr. and five titles survive. Four of them are mythological (Ἀφροδίτης γοναί/ Aphrodítēs gonaí, 'The Birth of Aphrodite'; Δημοτυνδάρεως/ Dēmotyndáreōs, Διονύσου γοναί/ Dionýsou gonaí, 'The Birth of Dionysus'; Μουσῶν γοναί/ Mousôn gonaí, 'The Birth of the Muses'); he evidently favoured comedic presentations of the births of gods, a special variety of mythological play in vogue at the turn of …

Aristagoras

(341 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀρισταγόρας; Aristagóras, Ionic Ἀρισταγόρης; Aristagórēs). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Cyzicus (end of the 6th cent. BC) Tyrant of Cyzicus, mentioned in Hdt. 4,138 because he supported the Persian king  Darius with a naval unit during his campaign against the Scythians about 513 BC [1. 87, 569]. Cobet, Justus (Essen) [German version] [2] Tyrant of Cyme (around 500 BC) Son of Heracleides, tyrant of Cyme, mentioned by Herodotes (4,138) as being important in the Aeolis along with A. [1]; he participated in the expedition against Naxos before the Ionia…

Niobe

(1,303 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Νιόβη/ Nióbē, Lat. Nioba). [German version] I. Mythology Daughter of Tantalus and Dione or Euryanassa (Hyg. Fab. 9, schol. Eur. Or. 4) and wife of Amphion [1] (Hes. fr. 183 M./W.). The oldest version of the myth is found in Hom. Il. 24,602-617 in the form of a comparison by which Achilles seeks to induce Priam to overcome his grief over his son's death just as N. did. N.'s children, the Niobids (Νιοβίδαι/ Niobídai, Lat. Niobidae), were killed by Apollo and Artemis after N. boasted of her superiority to their mother, Leto, because Leto had borne only two children, whil…

Nike

(1,060 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Νίκη; Níkē). [German version] I. Mythology N. is the Greek personification of victory. As early as in Hesiod she is an abstract concept: Nike is the daughter of Styx and Pallas and the sister of similar personifications: Zelos (zeal), Kratos (power) and Bia (force) (Hes. Theog. 384-385). Zeus commands these powers forever (ibid. 388), since, on the advise of Styx, they supported him in the Gigantomachy (ibid. 389-403; Serv. Aen. 6,134). Nonnus outlined N.'s participation in the battle (Nonnus, Dion. …

Zeus

(4,058 words)

Author(s): Henrichs, Albert (Cambridge, MA) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ζεύς/ Zeús, genitive Διός/ Diós). [German version] I. Name and identity Chief Greek god of the heavens As the chief Greek god of the heavens, patriarchal 'father of gods and men' (Hom. Il. 1,544) and the embodiment of rule, justice and omnipotence, Z. stands at the head of the Olympian family of gods (Twelve (Olympian) gods). His symbols include the eagle, bundle of lightning or thunderbolt and sceptre [32. 30-32]. As the 'highest' god both with regard to his residence and his position, he bears the epithets Hýpatos [7. 202 f.] and Hýpsistos in literature and …

Silen(s)

(780 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Σιληνός/ Silēnós, Σειληνός/ Seilēnós; Doric Σιλανός/ Silanós; Lat. Silenus, Silanus). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] I. Mythology Creature from Dionysus' entourage Among the collectively acting silens or satyrs, one silen/Silen(us) stands out as a single figure whose origin remains unclear (perhaps comparable: Chiron among the centaurs; Pan in contrast to the various Pans). This figure was fleshed out in mythical stories and satyr plays. The 'Midas-silen' expresses a pessimistic thought to the Phrygian king Midas, a thought typical for the Archai…

Perseus

(1,751 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Περσεύς; Perseús). [1] Son of Danae and Zeus, Argive hero [German version] I. Mythology Son of Danae and Zeus, who impregnates her in the form of a shower of gold; grandson of Acrisius, the king of Argos, and Eurydice. Because of an oracle predicting that the son of his daughter will kill him, Acrisius sets Danae and P. adrift at sea in a chest. Mother and son are washed ashore in Seriphus and found and taken in by Dictys [1]. When Polydectes, the brother of Dictys and king of Seriphus, wishes to marry Danae…

Narcissus

(1,201 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] I. Mythical character (Νάρκισσος/ Nárkissos, Lat. Narcissus). [German version] A. Mythology Narcissus is the personification of a plant by the same name; as with many plants, the etymology may be pre-Greek (Chantraine, vol. 2, s.v.). The aetiological myth of Narcissus is documented only in relatively late sources and is unlikely to be earlier than Hellenistic. Conon [4] (FGrH 26 F 1,26), a mythographer, who knew many local myths, tells of the fate of a handsome youth from Thespiae in Boeotia…

Diopeithes

(409 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Διοπείθης; Diopeíthēs). [German version] [1] Writer of Old Comedy Author of Old Comedy, only known from inscriptions; probably won at the Dionysia for the first time in 451 BC [1. test.]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 43. [German version] [2] Athenian oracle consultant and fanatical opponent of the enlightenment promoted by Pericles Athenian oracle consultant and fanatical opponent of the enlightenment promoted by  Pericles. Following his petition it was decided in 437/6(?) BC to prosecute those who did not believe in the …

Aristophon

(303 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀριστοφῶν; Aristophôn). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (end of the 5th cent. BC) Member of the Athenian regime of 400 oligarchs in 411 BC. Sent by them as an emissary to Sparta, he was abducted to Samos by Athenian democrats and Argives (Thuc. 8,86,9; PA, 2102; Traill PAA, 175995. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Athenian politician (end of the 5th-middle of the 4th cent. BC) Athens. Politician, who was honoured in 403 BC for his resistance against the 30 Tyrants ( Triakonta) by   ateleia (ἀτέλεια) (Dem. Or. 20,148). Until his deat…

Sphinx

(1,195 words)

Author(s): Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Σφίγξ/ Sphínx, also ἀνδροσφίγξ/ androsphínx: Hdt. 2,175; Boeotian: φίξ/ phíx; pl. Σφίγγες/ Sphínges). [German version] I. Egypt Depiction of the Egyptian king with the body of a lion and a human head Greek designation for the depictions which were originally only of the Egyptian king with the body of a lion and a human head; there is no known Egyptian designation for this type of image. Three-dimensional sculptural representations of recumbent sphinxes have been documented since the 4th Dynasty. (Djedefre, 2570-2450 BC). The great sphinx of Gizeh, worshipped…

Epochs, concept of

(9,873 words)

Author(s): Demandt, Alexander (Berlin RWG) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Kuhlmann, Peter (Düsseldorf/Gießen RWG)
Demandt, Alexander (Berlin RWG) I. Ancient History (CT) [German version] A. Definitions and Scope (CT) By Altertum ('Antiquity'“)”, Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, newly revised since 1890 by Georg Wissowa, understands the culture of the 'Classical' peoples of the Greeks and Romans, with the additions of the Ancient Orient, inclusive of Egypt, insofar as it has connecting links to the former; of the ancient peripheral cultures (Arabs, Germanic tribes, Jews, Carthaginians, Celts, Numidia…

Nicodemus

(296 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νικόδημος; Nikódēmos). [German version] [1] Prosecutor of Demosthenes, probably died after 349 BC Athenian from Aphidna, prosecutor of Demosthenes [2] (Aeschin. 2,148), friend of Meidias [2] and of Eubulus [1], was killed by Aristarchus, the son of Moschus (Idomeneus FGrH 338 F 12) in 352 BC: [2]; (according to [1. 112] and [3. 9-12] the preferred date is more likely after 349 BC), for which deed Meidias held Demosthenes responsible (also [1. 102-105]; Aristot. Rh. 1397b 7 see [2]). Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 Schäfer, vol. 2 2 H.E. Stier, s.v. Nikodemos (2), RE 1…

Epigenes

(499 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Ἐπιγένης; Epigénēs). [German version] [0] Of Sicyon, Greek tragedian, 6th cent. BC E. of  Sicyon. According to the Suda s. v.  Thespis (θ 282 = TrGF I 1 T 1), the first tragedian (6th cent. BC). The audience supposedly reacted to the lack of Dionysiac content in his plays with the proverbial exclamation οὐδὲν πρὸς τὸν Διόνυσον ( oudèn pròs tòn Diónyson, ‘But this has nothing to do with  Dionysus!’; TrGF I 1 T 18,3). Perhaps E.'s activity may be related to the τραγικοὶ χοροί ( tragikoì choroí, ‘tragic choruses’) attested for Sicyon in Hdt. 5,67 [2. 21-23].  Tragedy I Zimmermann, Bernhard (Fr…

Athenion

(484 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀθηνίων; Athēníōn). [German version] [1] Peripatetic rhetorician in Athens Peripatetic rhetorician in Athens (different from  Aristion [1. 341-343]), only known from the polemic party of  Posidonius (FGrH 87 fr. 36). Sent from Athens to  Mithridates VI in 88 BC, taken up by him among his φίλοι ( phíloi, friends), he won the support of the people with Mithridates' support and had as στρατηγὸς ἐπὶ τὰ ὅπλα ( strategòs epì tà hópla) a decisive influence on Athenian politics (‘tyrant’). A failed raid on Delos seems to have ended his political career. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliogra…

Philostratus

(3,230 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Φιλόστρατος/ Philóstratos). [German version] [1] Attic orator, 4th cent. BC Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC, son of Dionysius of Colonus, known from inscriptions (IG II/III2 2,1622,773) and mentions by Demosthenes [2]. In the 90s, while still a young man, he provided lodging for the lover of his friend Lysias (Dem. Or. 59,22f.); in 366/5, he was among the accusers of Chabrias in the Oropus trial; later he gained a victory as choregos with a choir of boys at the Dionysia (Dem. Or. 21,64); in 342, he was trierarch; between 343 and 340, he testified as a witness in t…
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