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Cotiso

(93 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] King in the lower Danube region about 40 BC., according to Flor. 2,28 of the Dacians (according to Suet. Aug. 63,2 of the Gaetae). Florus and Horace (Carm. 3,8,18) report that he suffered a defeat at the hands of the Romans, probably in 30/29 (cf. [1]). Information by Antony that Octavian planned to establish a family relationship with C. is probably just a rumour (Suet. ibid.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography 1 A. Mócsy, Der vertuschte Dakerkrieg des M. Licinius Crassus, in: Historia 15, 1966, 511-514. A. Mócsy, Pannonia and Upper Moesia, 1974, 23f.

Eutychus

(64 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Donkey driver with a donkey by the name of Nicon, whom Octavian met before the battle of Actium and who became an omen. Octavian had a brazen image erected of E. and his donkey (Suet. Aug. 96,2; Plut. Antonius 65.5), which was later transferred to Constantinople, but was destroyed in 1204 (Niketas Choniates 6 [PG 139,1049,1ff.]).  Omen Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)

Albucilla

(54 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Wife of Satrius Secundus, infamous for her affairs, was accused of disrespect ( impietas) towards the princeps and died in AD 37 after a suicide attempt in prison. Several respected senators were involved in her downfall (Tac. Ann. 6,47,2 ff.; Cass. Dio 58,27,4). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography R. A. Bauman, Impietas in principem, 1974, 130 ff.

Decrius

(98 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] [1] Defender of an African fort 20 AD Defender of a fort on the river Pagyda in Africa, captured in AD 20 by Tacfarinas; D. perished courageously in the action (Tac. Ann. 3,20,1f.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography Demougin, no. 233. [German version] [2] L.D. Husband of Paconia Agrippina Husband of Paconia Agrippina, honoured by the Rhodians (IGR 3,1126). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) [German version] [3] D. Calpurnianus Praefectus vigilum, killed in 48 AD praef. vigilum, killed in AD 48 as a consequence of his relationship with Messalina (Ta…

Clusinius

(118 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] [1] C. Fibulus End of the 1st cent. BC was in 10 BC the centre of a famous inheritance trial involving the estate of Urbinia, who C.'s lawyer, T.  Labienus, claimed had been his mother, while the lawyer representing the other heirs, C.  Asinius [I 4] Pollio, argued that C. had been a slave of someone called Sosipater (Quint. Inst. 7,2,4f.; 26; Tac. Dial. 38,2; Charisius, Gramm. p. 98,3ff.B. = 77,15ff. K.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) [German version] [2] C. Gallus End of the 1st cent. AD Friend of Pliny the Younger, who addressed Epist. [see author's works] 4,17…

Eurycles

(336 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] (Εὐρυκλῆς; Euryklês). Son of the noble Spartan Lachares, who was executed by Antonius for piracy (Syll.3 786; Plut. Ant. 67,2ff.). E. consequently fought on Octavian's side at Actium; as C. Iulius E. he received Roman citizenship, the island of Cythera and a dynastic position in Sparta (Plut. ibid.; Str. 8,5,1; 8,5,5; cf. [1]). On a journey to Judaea, E. as intermediary deepened the rift between king Herod and his sons. Awarded with 50 talents, by dint of similar intrigues he obtained further su…

Avillius

(138 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Flaccus, A. Born in Rome, childhood playmate of the caesars Gaius and Lucius, and friend of  Tiberius (Philo, In Flacc. 19,158). Prosecutor of Agrippina the Elder (ibid. 1,9). Prefect of Egypt from AD 32 to shortly before 20 October 38 [1. 477]. Following the death of Tiberius, A. allowed the Greek nationalists free hand against the Jews in Alexandria out of fear of Tiberius, but still fell out of favour with the emperor. He was ordered back to Rome, prosecuted, exiled to Andros and executed there in the year 39 (main source: Philo, In Flaccum). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Estin…

Apicata

(72 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Wife of  Aelius [II 19] Seianus and bore him three children; he repudiated her in AD 23 (Tac. Ann. 4,3,5). Following his death she apparently reported to Tiberius her husband's complicity in the death of the younger Drusus, a story discounted by Tacitus (Ann. 4,11,2; Cass. Dio 58,11,6 [1]). She killed herself on 26 October 31 (FOst. 42). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography 1 D. Hennig, L. Aelius Seianus, 1975, 37 n. 16.

Decrius

(91 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[English version] [1] Verteidiger eines Kastells in Africa 20 n.Chr. Verteidiger eines Kastells am Flusse Pagyda in Africa, das im J. 20 Tacfarinas eroberte, wobei D. tapfer kämpfend fiel (Tac. ann. 3,20,1f.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography Demougin, Nr. 233. [English version] [2] L.D. Gatte der Paconia Agrippina Gatte der Paconia Agrippina, von den Rhodiern geehrt (IGR 3,1126). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) [English version] [3] D. Calpurnianus Praefectus vigilum, 48 n.Chr. getötet praef. vigilum, im J. 48 wegen seines Verhältnisses zu Messalina getöte…

Eutychos

(57 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[English version] Eseltreiber, der mit seinem Esel Nikon dem Octavian vor der Schlacht bei Aktion begegnete und zum omen wurde. Von E. und seinem Esel ließ Octavian ein ehernes Bild aufstellen (Suet. Aug. 96,2; Plut. Antonius 65.5), das später nach Konstantinopel kam, aber 1204 zerstört wurde (Niketas Choniates 6 [PG 139,1049,1ff.]). Omina Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)

Carisius

(130 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
Seltener Familienname. [English version] [1] C., P. Militär in Spanien unter Augustus legatus Augusti pro praetore in Spanien, besiegte 25 v.Chr. die Asturer, eroberte die Festung Lancia und siedelte Veteranen in der colonia Emerita an (Flor. epit. 2,33,54-58; Cass. Dio 53,25,8-26,1). 22 schlug er einen Aufstand der Asturer nieder (Cass. Dio 54,5,1f.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography RIC 11, Augustus, Nr. 277-303  P. le Roux, L'armée Romaine et l'organisation des provinces Ibériques, 1982, 64ff. [English version] [2] C., T. Münzmeister um 46 v. Chr. Münzmeister um …

Abudius Ruso

(46 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[English version] Ehemaliger Aedil und Legionslegat unter Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus in Obergermanien. Er klagte diesen an, weil er den Sohn des L. Aelius [II 19] Seianus zum Schwiegersohn ausersehen habe, wurde aber dann selbst verbannt (Tac. ann. 6,30,2). PIR2 A. 17. Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)

Eurykles

(339 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[English version] (Εὐρυκλῆς). Sohn des vornehmen Spartaners Lachares, der von Antonius wegen Seeraubes hingerichtet wurde (Syll.3 786; Plut. Ant. 67,2ff.). Daher kämpfte E. auf Seiten Octavians bei Aktion, erhielt als C. Iulius E. das röm. Bürgerrecht, die Insel Kythera und eine dynastische Stellung in Sparta (Plut. ebd.; Strab. 8,5,1; 8,5,5; dazu [1]). Auf einer Reise nach Judaea verschärfte E. als Zwischenträger den Zwist des Königs Herodes mit dessen Söhnen. Mit 50 Talenten beschenkt, erwarb er sich durch ä…

Curtisius

(25 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[English version] T.C. Ehemaliger Praetorianer, der im J. 24 n.Chr. einen bald niedergeschlagenen Sklavenaufstand in Brundisium anzettelte (Tac. ann. 4,27). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)

Cremutius Cordus

(177 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[English version] Römischer Geschichtsschreiber (und Senator?) der augusteisch-tiberischen Zeit. Er zog sich den Haß des L. Aelius [II 19] Seianus zu und wurde 25 n.Chr. vor dem Senat lege maiestatis angeklagt, weil er in seinen Annales die Caesarmörder Brutus und Cassius verherrlicht hatte. Nach freimütiger Verteidigung nahm er sich durch Nahrungsverzicht das Leben. Seine Schriften wurden in Rom und im Reich konfisziert und verbrannt. Seine Tochter Marcia, die Adressatin von Senecas Trostschrift, konnte jedoch einige Bücher rett…

Albucilla

(57 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[English version] Gattin des Satrius Secundus, durch ihre Liebschaften berüchtigt, wurde wegen Unehrerbietigkeit ( impietas) gegen den Princeps angeklagt und starb 37 n. Chr. nach einem Selbstmordversuch im Gefängnis. In ihren Untergang wurden mehrere angesehene Senatoren hineingezogen (Tac. ann. 6,47,2 ff.; Cass. Dio 58,27,4). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography R. A. Bauman, Impietas in principem, 1974, 130 ff.

Cocceius

(589 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
[English version] [1] C. Auctus, L. Architekt, E. 1. Jh. v. Chr. Freigelassener des C. Postumius (Pollio). Architekt (CIL X 1614), der für M. Vipsanius Agrippa [1] den Straßentunnel zwischen dem Avernersee und Cumae und den zwischen Puteoli und Neapel geschaffen hat (Strab. 5,5,245). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography H. Benario, C. and Cumae, in: CB 35, 1959, 40-41  D. Kienast, Augustus, 1982, 347 Anm. 148, 348 Anm. 153. [English version] [2] C.C.Balbus Cos. suff. 39 v.Chr. Cos. suff. 39 v.Chr. (InscrIt 13,1, p. 282; 291; 278; 135; 506; MRR 2, 386). Als Anhänger…

Agrippina

(509 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
[English version] [1] Vipsania, 16-12 v. Chr. verheiratet mit Tiberius Vipsania, Tochter des M. Vipsanius Agrippa von Caecilia Attica (Nep. Att. 19,4). Geb. ca. 33 v. Chr., 16-12 verheiratet mit Tiberius (Suet. Tib. 7,2 f.), dem sie 15 den Drusus Caesar (Drusus d. J.) gebar. Ehelichte nach der Scheidung von Tiberius den C. Asinius Gallus (Tac. ann. 1,12; Stemma RE 9 A 1232). Gest. 20 n. Chr. (Tac. ann. 3,19,3). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography Raepsat-Charlier 1, Nr. 811. [English version] [2] Vipsania (A. maior), Gattin des Germanicus Vipsania (A. maior), Tochter des M…

Agrippina

(507 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Vipsania, married to Tiberius from 16-12 BC Vipsania, daughter of M. Vipsanius Agrippa with Caecilia Attica (Nep. Att. 19,4). Born c. 33 BC, married to Tiberius from 16-12 (Suet. Tib. 7,2 f.), whom she bore Drusus Caesar in 15 (Drusus the Younger). Married C. Asinius Gallus after her divorce from Tiberius (Tac. Ann. 1,12; stemma RE 9 A 1232). Died in AD 20 (Tac. Ann. 3,19,3). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography Raepsat-Charlier 1, no. 811. [German version] [2] Vipsania (A. maior), wife of Germanicus Vipsania (A. maior), daughter of M. Vipsanius Agrip…

Cocceius

(616 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C. Auctus, L. Architect, late 1st cent. BC Freedman of C. Postumius (Pollio). Architect (CIL X 1614), who constructed the road tunnels between Lake Avernus and Cumae and between Puteoli and Naples for M. Vipsanius  Agrippa [1] (Str. 5,5,245). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography H. Benario, C. and Cumae, in: CB 35, 1959, 40-41 D. Kienast, Augustus, 1982, 347 fn. 148, 348 fn. 153. [German version] [2] C.C. Balbus Cos. suff. 39 BC Cos. suff. in 39 BC (InscrIt 13,1, p. 282; 291; 278; 135; 506; MRR 2, 386). As a supporter of M.  Antonius he was …

Samos

(1,981 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Kienast, Hermann J.
Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Archaeological investigations on Samos (S.) date back to the 18th cent. They were initially superficial, and limited to finding and identifying the few remains still standing. As the sources provide very little in the way of concrete information, the quest at first concentrated on the monuments described by Herodotus (3,60) as the greatest structures in all Hellas: Eupalinus' tunnel, the harbour mole and the temple of Hera. The ancient …

Clemens

(1,307 words)

Author(s): Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Meyer, Doris (Straßburg)
[English version] [1] von Rom dritter Bf. von Rom, 2. Jh.? In der röm. Bischofsliste seit Irenaeus (haer. 3,3,3) als dritter Bischof von Rom verzeichnet, auch wenn die röm. Gemeinde am Ende des 1.Jh. wohl noch von einem Presbyterkollegium, nicht von einem Bischof allein geleitet wurde. Alle Nachrichten zu C. entstammen späteren Jh.; sie dokumentieren die histor. Entwicklung eines C.-Bildes, nicht aber die histor. Person des C. Dionysios v. Korinth (Eus., HE, 4,23,11) sah in C. den Verf. eines Briefs der r…

Clemens

(1,382 words)

Author(s): Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Meyer, Doris (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] of Rome 3rd bishop of Rome, 2nd cent. AD (?) Since  Irenaeus (Haer. 3,3,3) recorded as the third bishop of Rome in the list of Roman bishops although the Roman congregation was probably led by a college of presbyters and not a bishop alone in the late 1st cent. All information on C. comes from later centuries and documents the historical development of an image of C. but not the historical person. Dionysius of Corinth (Eus. HE, 4,23,11) considered C. the author of a letter of the Roman c…

Epaphroditus

(558 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἐπαφρόδιτος; Epaphróditos). [German version] [1] Freedman of Octavian Freedman of Octavian, who in the year 30 BC was supposed to keep Cleopatra from committing suicide, but was allegedly outwitted by the queen (Plut. Antonius 79,6; Cass. Dio 51,13,4f.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography K. Kraft, KS 1, 1973, 38f. [German version] [2] Freedman of Nero Freedman of Nero, therefore Ti. Claudius Aug(usti) lib(ertus) E. by his full name. First accepted as an imperial freedman into the city of Rome's decuriae, i.a. apparitor Caesarum and viator tribunicius; later a libellis o…

Epaphroditos

(524 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἐπαφρόδιτος). [English version] [1] Freigelassener Octavians Freigelassener Octavians, der im J. 30 v.Chr. angeblich einen Selbstmord der Kleopatra verhindern sollte, von der Königin jedoch überlistet worden sein soll (Plut. Antonius 79,6; Cass. Dio 51,13,4f.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography K. Kraft, KS 1, 1973, 38f. [English version] [2] (Epaphroditus) Freigelassener Neros Freigelassener Neros, deshalb mit vollem Namen Ti. Claudius Aug(usti) lib(ertus) E. Zunächst als kaiserlicher Freigelassener in die stadtröm. decuriae aufgenommen, u.a. apparitor C…

Agrippa

(1,410 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
Nach moderner Etym. sei der Name Agrippa von * agrei-pod- “vorn die Füße habend” abzuleiten. (lt. Leumann, 398, “sehr zweifelhaft”). Urspr. ein Praenomen (so noch bei den Iulii, bes. A. Postumus), dann Cognomen, in den Familien der Antonii, Asinii, Cassii(?), Fonteii, Furii, Haterii, Helvii, Iulii, Lurii, Menenii, Vibuleni, Vipsanii, aber auch bei jüd. Königen (Herodes A.). Als Nomen bei verschiedenen Personen belegt. Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) [English version] [1] M. Vipsanius, cos. 37, 28, 27 v. Chr. M. Vipsanius, geb. 64/3 v. Chr., ritterlichen Geschlechts, wohl…

Agrippa

(1,444 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
According to modern etymology, the name derives from *agrei-pod-, ‘having the feet in front’ (according to Leumann, 398, ‘very dubious’). Originally a praenomen (thus still in the Iulii, especially A. Postumus), then a cognomen in the families of the Antonii, Asinii, Cassii(?), Fonteii, Furii, Haterii, Helvii, Iulii, Lurii, Menenii, Vibuleni, Vipsanii, but also of Jewish kings ( Herodes A.). Documented as name of various persons. Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) [German version] [1] M. Vipsanius, consul 37, 28, 27 BC M. Vipsanius, born 64/3 BC, of knightly lineage, probabl…

Claudius

(10,704 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
Name of a Roman lineage (Sabine Clausus, with the vernacular variant of   Clodius , esp. in the 1st cent. BC). The Claudii supposedly immigrated to Rome from the Sabine city of Regillum at the beginning of the republic in 504 BC under their ancestor Att(i)us Clausus ( Appius) and were immediately accepted into the circle of patrician families (Liv. 2,16,4-6), which explains why the early members received the invented epithets of Inregillensis C. [I 5-6] and Sabinus C. [I 31-32], [1. 155f.]. The praenomen Appius came to signify the family. Named after them was the Tribus Claudi…

Claudius

(9,783 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Köln) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
Name eines röm. Geschlechtes (sabinisch Clausus, volkssprachliche Nebenform Clodius , bes. im 1. Jh.v.Chr.). Die Claudii sind zu Beginn der Republik 504 v.Chr. angeblich aus der Sabinerstadt Regillum unter ihrem Ahnherrn Att(i)us Clausus (Appius) in Rom eingewandert und sofort in den Kreis der patrizischen Geschlechter aufgenommen worden (Liv. 2,16,4-6), weshalb den frühen Angehörigen die erfundenen Beinamen Inregillensis C. [I 5-6] und Sabinus C. [I 31-32] beigelegt wurden [1. 155f.]. Das Praenomen Appius wurde kennzeichnend für die Familie. Die nach ihr benannte…
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