Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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al-Sahmī

(202 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Ḥamza b. Yūsuf al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī al-D̲j̲urd̲j̲ānī. Abu ’l-Ḳāsim (b. at an unknown date towards the middle of the 4th/10th century, d. 427/1038 at Nīs̲h̲āpūr), traditionist and legal scholar. A native of Gurgān [ q.v.] in the Caspian coastlands, where he was a k̲h̲aṭīb and preacher, his major work, and apparently the sole surviving one, is his Taʾrīk̲h̲ D̲j̲urd̲j̲ān or Kitāb Maʿrifat ʿulamāʾ ahl D̲j̲urd̲j̲ān , essentially a rid̲j̲āl [ q.v.] work devoted to the scholars and muḥaddit̲h̲ūn of his native province, to which is prefixed (ed. Ḥaydarābād 1369/…

ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣ

(962 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(al-ʿĀṣī) al-sahmī , a contemporary of Muḥammad of Ḳurays̲h̲ite birth. The part which he played in Islāmic history begins with his conversion in the year 8/629-630. At that time he must already have been of middle age, for at his death which took place circa 42/663 he was over ninety years old. He passed for one of the most wily politicians of his time, and we must endorse this verdict. The more clear-sighted inhabitants of Mekka already foresaw shortly after the unsuccessful…

ʿAmr b. ʿUbayd

(380 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
b. bāb , one of the first of the Muʿtazila, with the kunya , Abū ʿUt̲h̲mān. His grandfather Bāb was captured by Muslims at Kābul. He himself was born at Balk̲h̲ in 80/699 and was a mawlā of a branch of Tamīm. His father apparently moved to Baṣra, and ʿAmr seems for a time to have been a member of the school of al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī, though al-Ḏj̲āhiẓ also speaks of him as a pupil of al-Faḍl b. ʿĪsā al-Raḳas̲h̲ī. He also had some connexion with Yazīd III. He gained a great reputation as an ascetic, and was known a…

al-Miḳdād b. ʿAmr

(1,105 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
b. t̲h̲aʿlaba al-bahrāʾī , a well-known Companion of the Prophet. He is attested in all the available historical sources, which more or less concur that his father ʿAmr fled to the Kinda [ q.v.] tribe after he had become involved in a blood feud in his own tribe of Bahrāʾ [ q.v.], a group of Ḳuḍāʿa. There, in Kinda, al-Miḳdād was born ca. 585 A. D. Then al-Miḳdād, in his turn, had to flee Kinda after he had wounded a fellow-tribesman in the foot. He made good his escape to Mecca. Having been adopted by al-Aswad b. ʿAbd Yag̲h̲ūt̲h̲ al-Zuhrī, he became a ḥalīf (confederate) of…

al-Ḳaʿḳāʿ b. ʿAmr

(296 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. Mālik al-Tamīmī , a warrior of the early Islamic period who, after the death of the Prophet, joined Sad̲j̲āḥ [ q.v.] for a time and became the lieutenant of K̲h̲ālid b. al-Walīd [ q.v.], taking part in the battle of Buzāk̲h̲a [ q.v.] as early as 11/632. After the capture of al-Ḥīra, he commanded a detachment which won a victory over the Persians in the region of al-Anbār, probably in 12/633. In Rad̲j̲ab 13/August-September 635, he took part in the conquest of Damascus and the following year led a troop of cavalry at the battle of Yarmūk [ q.v.]. He fought with distinction at al-Ḳādisiyya [ q.v.], …

S̲h̲addād b. ʿAmr

(159 words)

Author(s): Khoury, R.G.
b. Ḥisl b. al-Ad̲j̲abb … al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī al-Fihrī, Companion of the Prophet ( ṣaḥābī ), as also his son al-Mustawrid , who transmitted on the authority of his father. It is unknown when he was born or when he died. But since his son was also a Companion, he must have been of a certain age in the earliest Islamic period. But contrariwise, there is known a tradition of his from the Islamic period, transmitted by his son from S̲h̲addād and going back to the Prophet Muḥammad himself, “I went along to the Prophet’s side … took his hand, and lo, it was softer than silk and colder than snow” (see Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Iṣāb…

ʿAmr b. Maʿdīkarib

(293 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿabd allāh al-zubaydī , abū thawr , famous Arab warrior and muk̲h̲aḍram poet. Born of a noble Yamanite family, he is depicted as a fighter of uncommon strength who, armed with his legendary sword al-Ṣamṣāma, took part in many battles during the d̲j̲āhiliyya . In 10/631, he went to Medina and was converted to Islam, without, however, making any radical change in his way of life; on the death of the Prophet, he apostatised and took part in the rebellion of al-Aswad al-ʿAnsī [ q.v.]; taken prisoner in the course of the suppression of the ridda by Abū Bakr, he was free…

Ḍirār b. ʿAmr

(2,460 words)

Author(s): van Ess, J.
, Abū ʿAmr al-G̲h̲aṭafānī al-Kūfī ( ca. 110-200/ ca. 728-815), important Muʿtazilī theologian, disciple of Wāṣil b. ʿAṭāʾ (d. 131/749). In contrast to many other early Muʿtazilīs, he was of pure Arab extraction; he belonged to the ʿAbd Allāh b. G̲h̲aṭafān in Kūfa. He founded his prestige, however, through his teaching in Baṣra where Wāṣil had lived. By profession he is said to have been a ḳāḍī . After 170/786 we find him in Bag̲h̲dād in the circle of the Barmakids, where he took part, together with His̲h̲ām b. al-Ḥakam, the Ibāḍī scholar ʿ…

ʿAmr b. Kirkira

(151 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, abū mālik al-aʿrābī , mawlā of the Banū Saʿd, had learnt the ʿarabiyya in the desert and had settled at Baṣra. Since his mother had married Abu ’l-Baydāʾ [ q.v.], he acted as rāwiya to this last, but he owed his fame to his incomparable knowledge of the Arabic language, since, according to an oft-mentioned tradition, he knew it in its entirety, whereas al-Aṣmaʿī had only one-third of it, Abū ʿUbayda (or al-K̲h̲alīl b. Aḥmad) half of it and Abū Zayd al-Anṣārī (or Muʾarrid̲j̲) two-thirds of it. His speciality was rare words. Abū Mālik was allegedly the author of at least two works, a K. K̲h̲alḳ al-…

ʿAmr b. ʿAdī

(342 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. naṣr b. rabīʿa , first Lak̲h̲mid King of al-Ḥīra. His father ʿAdī employed a ruse (which frequently appears in Arab legend, cf. the story of ʿAbbāsa bint al-Mahdī) to win the hand of Raḳās̲h̲, sister of Ḏj̲ad̲h̲īma al-Abras̲h̲ [ q.v.], whose favourite he was; ʿAmr, the offspring of this union, succeeded in winning the favour of Ḏj̲ad̲h̲īma. but was then carried off by the d̲j̲inn , was considered lost, and was finally restored to his uncle. After al-Zabbāʾ (identified with Zenobia, queen of Palmyra) had seduced and killed Ḏj̲ad̲h̲īma. …

ʿAmr b. Hind

(246 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
, son of the Lak̲h̲mid prince al-Mund̲h̲ir and of the Kindite woman Hind; after the death of his father, he became "king"of al-Ḥīra (554-570 A.D.). He was a warlike and cruel prince; the story of how he sent the poets al-Mutalammis and Ṭarafa to the governor of Baḥrayn with letters ¶ containing their own death warrants, is well-known. The severity of his character earned him the surname of Muḍarriṭ al-Ḥid̲j̲āra ("he who makes the stones emit sounds"). He was also called Muḥarriḳ ("burner"); in explanation of this surname, the Arabs recount that…

ʿAmr b. Ḳamīʾa

(243 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. d̲h̲irrīḥ ( d̲h̲arīḥ ) b. saʿd al-ḍubaʿī , pre-Islamic Arab poet of the Bakrite tribe of Ḳays b. T̲h̲aʿlaba. The only biographical details we possess concern bis disputes with his uncle Mart̲h̲ad b. Saʿd, whose wife had tried to seduce him, and his journey to Byzantium with Imru ’l-Ḳays [ q.v.]. According to Ibn Ḳutayba ( S̲h̲iʿr , 45), he lived in the entourage of Ḥud̲j̲r, father of Imru ’l-Ḳays, but according to the Ag̲h̲ānī (xvi, 165-6), the two poets met when ʿAmr had already reached an advanced age, and ʿAmr died in Byzantine territory (be…

Zayd b. ʿAmr

(471 words)

Author(s): M. Lecker
b. Nufayl, a so-called ḥanīf [ q.v.] and “seeker after true religion”, who lived in Mecca before Muḥammad’s mission (though some pronounced him a Companion of the Prophet). In a major battle before Islam Zayd reportedly led the Ḳurays̲h̲ [ q.v.] clan to which he belonged, the ʿAdī b. Kaʿb. The cycle of reports about him in Islamic historiography all but presents him as Muḥammad’s precursor. Some scholars even went as far as declaring him a prophet who received revelations, and a ¶ messenger sent to mankind. Precisely like Muḥammad before his call, Zayd is said to have practiced taḥannut̲h̲ [ q.…

ʿAmr b. Kult̲h̲ūm

(324 words)

Author(s): Blachère, R.
, pre-Islamic sayyid and poet; through his mother he was the grandson of the sayyid and poet al-Muhalhil [ q.v.]. While still a youth he became chief of his tribe, the Ḏj̲us̲h̲am branch of the Tag̲h̲lib [ q.v.] of the Middle Euphrates. What we know of his life is confined to a few traditions ( k̲h̲abar ); one describes the circumstances of his assassination of the King of al-Ḥīra, ʿAmr b. Hind, about 568 A.D.; another serves as a commentary on some epigrams against another ruler of that town, al-Nuʿmān b. al-Mund̲h̲ir (580-602 A…

ʿAmr b. al-Layt̲h̲

(429 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Persian general, brother and successor of Yaʿḳūb b. al-Layt̲h̲ [ q.v.[, the founder of the Ṣaffārid [ q.v.] dynasty in Sid̲j̲istān. Said to have been a mule-driver in his youth, and later on a mason, he was associated with his brother’s campaigns and in 259/873 captured for Yaʿḳūb the Ṭāhirid capital Naysābūr. After Yaʿḳūb’s defeat at Dayr al-ʿĀkūl and subsequent death (S̲h̲awwāl 265/ June 879), ʿAmr was elected by the army as his successor. He made his submission to the caliph, and was invested with the provin…

ʿAmr b. Luḥayy

(406 words)

Author(s): Fück, J.W.
, the legendary founder of polytheism in Arabia and the ancestor of the Ḵh̲uzāʿa [ q.v.] at Mecca. The Kaʿba being, according to the Ḳurʾān (iii, 96/0), "the first sanctuary appointed for mankind", it was necessary to believe that polytheism was a later corruption. Neither the Ḏj̲urhum, Ismāʿīlʾs relatives, nor the Prophet’s tribe, the Ḳurays̲h̲, were likely to be responsible for it. So the blame was laid on ʿAmr b. Luḥayy, the leader of the Ḵh̲uzāʿa, who was said to have expelled the Ḏj̲urhum from Mecca. He w…

ʿAmr b. Saʿīd b. al-ʿĀṣ b. Umayya al-Umawī, known as al-As̲h̲dak

(365 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Umayyad governor and general. Governor of Mecca when Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya came to the throne (60/680), he was the same year appointed governor of Medina. On Yazīd’s orders, he sent an army to Mecca to subdue the anti-Caliph ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr, and entrusted the command to a brother of the latter, ʿAmr; but ʿAmr was taken prisoner and, with his brother’s consent, flogged to death by his personal enemies. At the end of the following year, al-As̲h̲daḳ was dismissed. Later he went with the Calip…

His̲h̲ām b. ʿAmr al-Fuwaṭī

(494 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(or al-Fawṭī ), a Muʿtazilī of Baṣra, where he was the pupil of Abu ’l-Hud̲h̲ayl [ q.v.]. After having probably been a wandering propagator of Iʿtizāl (Ibn al-Nadīm, Fihrist , ed. Fück, in Prof. Muḥ. S̲h̲afīʿ presentation volume, Lahore 1955, 68-9), he went to Bag̲h̲dād during the caliphate of al-Maʾmūn and died there at a date not known exactly, but probably before 218/833. His personal doctrine, which had a certain influence on al-As̲h̲ʿarī [ q.v.], differs appreciably, accoiding to Ibn al-Nadīm ( op. cit.), from the teachings of the other Muʿtazila, but the data given by th…

Ṭahmān b. ʿAmr al-Kilābī

(355 words)

Author(s): Seidensticker, T.
, minor Arab poet of the middle Umayyad period, whose exact dates are unknown. As the ak̲h̲bār on Ṭahmān’s biography in his dīwān (ed. al-Muʿaybid, 39, 42, 50, 52-5, related at length in EI 1, IV, 665-6) cannot be corroborated from his poems, but on the contrary are possibly read into them, his poetry remains the only reliable source for his life. A laudatory poem on the Umayyad caliph al-Walīd (no. 5) probably refers to al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik (cf. no. 8, 1. 7); hence Ṭahmān was alive at some time between the years 86 and 96/…

Salm b. ʿAmr al-K̲h̲āsir

(415 words)

Author(s): Gelder, G.J.H. van
, early ʿAbbāsid poet (d. 186/802), born in Baṣra in a family of mawālī . He was a pupil and rāwī of the poet Bas̲h̲s̲h̲ār [ q.v.], whose verse he is said to have plundered for motifs, and he befriended Abu ’l-ʿAtāhiya [ q.v.] until they became estranged. When young, he moved to Bag̲h̲dād and became a panegyrist of the caliphs al-Mahdī and al-Hādī, the Barmakids and other leading persons. He also excelled in elegies, which he sometimes seems to have prepared in advance. Notorious for his dissoluteness and libertinism ( mud̲j̲ūn [ q.v.]) and even accused of heresy by later writers (proba…
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