Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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(126 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, a Turkish word meaning living or livelihood. In the Ottoman Empire it was used to denote an income provided by the state, directly or indirectly, for the support of persons in its service. The term is used principally of the military fiefs (see timar), but also applies to pay (see ʿulūfa ), salaries, and grants of various kinds in lieu of pay to officers of the central and provincial governments. It does not normally apply to tax-farms, the basis of which is purchase and not service. (B. Lewis) Bibliography Ḏj̲aʿfer Čelebi, Maḥrūse-i Istanbul fetḥnāmesi, TOEM suppl. 1331, 17 Koçi Bey Risale…


(1,012 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, "gift", the term most commonly employed to denote, in the early days of Islam, the pension of Muslims, and, later, the pay of the troops. It is impossible to give here the history of the system of pay throughout the Muslim world, and this article will be confined to a general outline. The traditional starting-point is the organisation of the pensions by ʿUmar b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb. The first Muslims had derived no material advantage except their share of the booty from successful expeditions. The flow of taxes into the coffers of the nascent caliphate …


(1,747 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, as a financial term, assignation; in Islamic finance, an assignation on a muḳāṭaʿa [ q.v.] effected by order of the ruler in favour of a third party. The term is applied both to the mandate for the payment and to the sum paid. It is already established in these senses in ʿAbbāsid finance (see F. Løkkegaard, Islamic taxation in the classic period, Copenhagen 1950, 63-5). In the ʿAbbāsid empire, ḥawāla was widely used in both state and private finances to avoid the dangers and delays inherent in the transport of cash. The mandates were known as suftad̲j̲a [ q.v.] or ṣakk [ q.v.]. Thus we know tha…


(3,868 words)

Author(s): Calmard, J. | Bosworth, C.E. | Turner, C.P. | M. Athar Ali
(a.), used in a personal sense, with an extended ¶ meaning from Arabic “breast” > “foremost, leading part of a thing”, denotes an eminent or superior person or primus inter pares, whence its use for a chief, president or minister; cf. the Ottoman Turkish Grand Vizier’s title ṣadr-i aʿẓam [ q.v.]. The title was especially used in the Persian world for a high religious dignitary whose function ( ṣadārat , ṣidārat ) was concerned essentially with the administration of religious affairs. In the first mentions of the title and in the structural evo…


(31,524 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Orhonlu, Cengiz | Subhan, Abdus
, a word derived, via Syriac, from Greek χορηϒία, but attached by the Arabs to the native root k̲h̲ . r. d̲j̲ . Contrary to its original meaning, the word seems, in the current usage of the Near East, to have denoted “tax” in general, and is in fact found with reference to various specific taxes, thus causing considerable confusion [see d̲j̲izya ]. Arabic technical and legal literature uses it more specifically, at least in the period before the formation of Turkish states, in the sense of land tax, and it is this sense which is exclusively discussed in the present article. For other taxes, see bayt…