Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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(23,851 words)

Author(s): Kedourie, E. | Rustow, D.A. | Banani, A. | Kazemzadeh, F. | Spuler, B. | Et al.
, ‘political party’. The use of the word ḥizb in the sense of a political party is a recent one, dating from the beginning of the twentieth century or thereabouts, but this modern usage was in a way a natural and legitimate extension of the traditional and classical one (see preceding article). This traditional sense is the one found in the nineteenth-century dictionaries. Thus Kazimirski’s Dictionnaire (1860) defined ḥizb as a ‘troupe d’hommes’; Lane’s Lexicon (1863 et seq.) as a ‘party or company of men, assembling themselves on account of an event that has befallen them’; Bustānī’s Muḥīṭ…


(981 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B.
(a., pl. aḥzāb ) means primarily “a group, faction, a group of supporters of a man who share his ideas and are ready to defend him”, and this is why the term has been adopted in modern Arabic to mean a political party (see below); it means also “part, portion” and it is from this meaning that it has come to indicate a portion of the Ḳurʾān as well as a group of liturgical formulae. In this meaning the term is probably a borrowing from Ethiopie (see Th. Nöldeke, Neue Beiträge zur sem. Sprachw. , 59, n. 8) for, in Arabic, the verb ḥazaba means “to happen (speaking of a misfort…


(12 words)

[see Ḥizb (on political parties), al-milal wa’l-niḥal , ṭarīḳa ].

al-Dasūḳī, Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad

(43 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān , a Sūfī of repute, b. 833/1429, d. in Damascus S̲h̲aʿbān 919/October 1513, author of collections of prayers ( wird , ḥizb). (C. Brockelmann*) Bibliography Ibn al-ʿImād, S̲h̲ad̲h̲arāt, year 919 Brockelmann, II, 153 S II, 153.

al-Dasūḳī, Burhān al-Dīn Ibrāhīm b. Abi ’l-Mad̲j̲d ʿAbd al-ʿAẓīz

(949 words)

Author(s): Khalidi, W.A.S.
, nicknamed Abu ’l-ʿAynayn , founder of the Dasūḳiyya order, also known as the Burhāniyya or Burhāmiyya, the ¶ followers being generally called Barāhima. Born most probably at the village of Marḳus in the G̲h̲arbiyya district of Lower Egypt in the year 633/1235 according to S̲h̲aʿrānī in Lawāḳiḥ (but 644/1246 according to Maḳrīzī in Kitāb al-Sulūk and 653/1255 according to Ḥasan b. ʿAlī S̲h̲āmma the commentator on his ḥizb ) he spent most of his life in the neighbouring village of Dasūḳ or Dusūḳ where he died at the age of 43 and was buried. His father (buried at Marḳus) was a famous local walī


(905 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Jong, F. de
(a.), pl. waẓāʾif , literally “task, charge, impose obligation” (see Dozy, Supplément, ii, 820-1). 1. As an administrative term. In the early Islamic period, the form II verb waẓẓafa and the noun waẓīfa are used as administrative-fiscal terms with the sense of imposing a financial burden ¶ or tax, e.g. of paying the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ , ʿus̲h̲r or d̲j̲izya [ q.vv.], cf. al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ , 73, 193 (the waẓāʾif of the provinces of al-Urdunn, Filasṭīn, Dimas̲h̲ḳ, Ḥimṣ, etc.) and other references given in the Glossarium , 108. But as well as this loose sense, waẓīfa had a more specific one, a…

Muḥammad Farīd Bey

(479 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. Aḥmad Farīd Pas̲h̲a (1284-1338/1867-1919), Egyptian nationalist politician, active in the first two decades of the 20th century. Of aristocratic Turkish birth, he had a career as a lawyer in the Ahliyya courts and then as a supporter of Muṣṭafā Kāmil Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], leader of the nationalist opposition to the British protectorate over Egypt and founder in 1907 of the Nationalist Party ( al-Ḥizb al-Waṭanī ) [see ḥizb. i. In the Arab lands]. When Muṣṭafā Kāmil died at the beginning of 1908, Muḥammad Farīd succeeded him as leader of the party, but being by temperame…

ʿUmar b. Saʿīd al-Fūtī

(912 words)

Author(s): Abun-Nasr, Jamil M.
( ca. 1796-1864) a distinguished scholar and mud̲j̲āhid of the Tid̲j̲āniyya ṭarīḳa [ q.v.] in the western Sudan. ʿUmar was born in Halwar in Futa Toro (present-day Senegal) to a modest scholarly family of the Fulbe [ q.v.] ethnic group. He was initiated into the Tid̲j̲āniyya in Mauritania by ʿAbd al-Karīm al-Nāḳil. A turning point in ʿUmar’s life was his pilgrimage to Mecca, on which he set out, according to traditions cited by Ly-Tall ( Un Islam militant, 83), in 1825. While in the Ḥid̲j̲āz (1828-30) ʿUmar was attached to Muḥammad al-G̲h̲ālī, the Tid̲j̲ānī k̲h̲alīfa

Ibn ʿAd̲j̲ība

(1,035 words)

Author(s): Michon, J.-L.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. al-Mahdī Ibn ʿAd̲j̲ība al-Ḥasanī , Moroccan Ṣūfī of S̲h̲arīfian origin, was one of the most distinguished representatives of the mystical order of the Darḳāwa [ q.v.]. He was born in 1160 or 1161/1746-7 at al-K̲h̲amīs, an important village of the And̲j̲ra tribe (Mediterranean coastal region of Morocco, between Tangier and Tetuan). Having been attracted from his childhood to devotional observance ¶ and religious learning, he studied assiduously the ‘reading’ of the Ḳurʾān, theology, holy law and philology, first with local fuḳahāʾ

Ḥamādis̲h̲a, or Ḥmāds̲h̲a

(983 words)

Author(s): Crapanzano, V.
as they are locally called, are the members of a loosely and diversely organised religious confraternity or “path” ( ṭarīḳa ) which traces its spiritual heritage back to two Moroccan saints ( walīs or sayyids ) of the late 17th and early 18th centuries, Sīdī Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Ḥamdus̲h̲ (d. 1131/1718-9 or 1135/1722-3), popularly called Sīdī ʿAlī and Sīdī Aḥmad Dg̲h̲ug̲h̲ī (?). Although little is known historically of the two saints, their lives, like the lives of other popular North African saints, are rich in legend. These legends stress the saints’ acqu…


(703 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
(Barēlī) a district town in the Uttar Pradesh, India, situated in 28° 22′ N. and 79° and 24′ E. stands on a plateau washed by the river Rāmgangā. Population (1951): 194,679. Founded in 944/1537, the town derives its name, according to tradition, from Bās Dēō, a Barhēlā Rād̲j̲pūt by caste. It is popularly known as Bāns Bareilly, partly to distinguish it from Rāē Barēlī, the birth-place of Sayyid Aḥmad Brēlwī [ q.v.], and partly due to the proximity of a bamboo ( bāns ) jungle. During the reign of Akbar, a fort was built here to check the depredations of the Rād̲j̲pūt tribes of Ro…


(323 words)

Author(s): Jong, F. de
, a branch of the K̲h̲alwatiyya Ṣufī order [ q.v.] in Egypt, named after Marwān b. ʿĀbid al-Mutaʿāl (d. 1329/1911). His father, ʿĀbid al-Mutaʿāl b. ʿAbd al-Mutaʿāl (d. 1299/1881-2), had been initiated into the K̲h̲alwatiyya order by Ḥusayn al-Muṣaylihī (cf. Mubārak, K̲h̲iṭaṭ . xv, 45), a k̲h̲alīfa [ q.v.] of Muḥammad al-Ḥifnī’s disciple Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-S̲h̲intināwī. ʿĀbid al-Mutaʿāl later obtained al-k̲h̲ilāfa and acted as a s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of his own K̲h̲alwatiyya order, which had not yet differentiated itself, either in name or in p…

Taḳī al-Dīn al-Nabhānī

(328 words)

Author(s): Commins, D.
(1909-77), founder and chief ideologue of the Islamic Liberation Party ( ḥizb al-taḥrīr al-islāmī ), which has striven since its formation in 1952 to establish an Islamic state and has been particularly active in Jordan. Al-Nabhānī was born near Haifa, studied at al-Azhar and the Dār al-ʿUlūm in Cairo (1927-32), then returned to Palestine, where he taught religious sciences and worked in Islamic law courts. In 1952, he sought permission from the Jordanian Interior Ministry to form the Islamic Liberation Party as a lega…


(1,170 words)

Author(s): Couland, J.
(a.), nationalism, patriotism, civic pride, in all the modern applications of these terms. The word appeared at the end of the 19th century, in the context of the extension to the field of state politics of waṭan (pl. awṭān ) “homeland”, hitherto applied to place of birth or of residence. The noun-adjective waṭanī refers to the same sectors of meaning (autochthonous, national, patriotic), while the noun muwāṭin denotes a compatriot or fellow-citizen. A pioneering role in the inculcation of these notions is to be credited to Rifāʿa Rāfiʿ al-Ṭahṭāwī [ q.v.]. “Love of country” ( ḥubb al-waṭa…


(861 words)

Author(s): Bencheneb, M.
Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Sulaymān b. Abī bakr al-D̲j̲azūlī al-Samlālī , ¶ although both his father’s name and, still more, his grandfather’s are in dispute, according to his biographers and associates was descended from the Prophet, like all founders of religious orders. He was born and bred in the Berber tribe of D̲j̲azūla in Moroccan Sūs [ q.v.]. After having studied for a time in his native country he went to Fās and entered the madrasat al-ṣaffārīn where one can still see the room he occupied. Hardly had he returned to his tribe when he was compel…


(1,161 words)

Author(s): Chenoufi, Moncef
, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (b. Tunis 1876, d. 1 October 1944), Tunisian political figure and founder of the Liberal Constitutional Party ( al-Ḥizb al-Ḥurr al-Dustūrī ), commonly called the “Vieux-Destour” as opposed to its successor in 1934, the “Néo-Destour”. Of Algerian origin, he studied at the Zaytūna Mosque, but was early attracted to politics and journalism, and in 1896 founded a cultural weekly, Sabīl al-ras̲h̲ād , suspended a year after its first appearance. He made several journeys within the Mag̲h̲rib and to Crete, Greece and Turkey, in …


(8,186 words)

Author(s): Chenoufi, M.
or Ṣaḥāfa (a.), the written press, journalism, the profession of the journalist ( ṣaḥāfī ). The nineteen-fifties witnessed the attainment of national independencies and major political upheavals, such as the Egyptian revolution of 23 July 1952. The Arabic press which, paradoxically, enjoyed great success during the colonial period [see d̲j̲arīda. i], despite the somewhat repressive nature of judicial regulation of the press (since what was seen was the proliferation of a press of information, of ideas and even of warfare), developed in conjunct…


(563 words)

Author(s): Denny, F.M.
(a., pl. awrād ), denotes set, supererogatory personal devotions observed at specific times, usually at least once during the day and once again at night. Abū Ḥāmid al-G̲h̲azālī (d. 505/1111 [ q.v.]), writing shortly before the establishment of formal Ṣūfī orders, designated as awrād seven divisions of the day and five of the night for the performance of devotions (both obligatory and supererogatory) by any pious Muslim ( Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn , Book X, Kitāb tartīb al-awrād wa-tafṣīl iḥyāʾ al-layl , Cairo 1358/1939, i, 339-73). The term often has referred to Ṣūfī devotions, where a wird

Muḥammad b. ʿArafa

(568 words)

Author(s): El Mansour, Mohamed
(d. 1976), ephemeral Sultan of Morocco 1953-5. Muḥammad b. ʿArafa was the product of the Franco-Moroccan crisis of the early 1950s when sultan Muḥammad b. Yūsuf (after 1956, Muḥammad V) (d. 1961) defied the Protectorate authorities and openly supported the nationalists’ demand for independence. In March 1952 the sultan addressed a letter to the President of the French Republic demanding the abrogation of the protectorate treaty of 1912. The French not only rejected the sultan’s de…


(498 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.) “equality”, the maṣdar of form III of the verb sawiya “to be equal to, be worth”, with the same sense as form I; in modern times, it has been ¶ used for the political concept of human equality (Ottoman Turkish müsāwāt , modern Turkish mūsavat , Persian musāwāt , barābārī ). The root is found frequently in the Ḳurʾān, though only once in form III (XVIII, 95/96), in the sense “to make level, even up”. In the literary and cultural controversies of the ʿAbbāsid period, those of the S̲h̲uʿūbiyya [ q.v.], the non-Arabs seeking social equality with the ruling class of Arabs were sometimes known as the a…
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