Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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(1,574 words)

Author(s): Longrigg, S.H.
b. ʿAlī , Amīr and “Grand S̲h̲arīf” of ¶ Mecca and the Ḥid̲j̲āz from 1326/1908 to 1335/1916, and King of the Ḥid̲j̲āz from 1335/1916 to 1343/1924, was the elder son of the second son, ʿAlī, of the first Sharifian Amīr of Mecca of the ʿAbādila family of the ʿAwn branch of the Meccan S̲h̲arīfs, the famous Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Muʿīn b. ʿAwn, who died in 1275/1858. In spite of almost-successful attempts by the long-dominant Zayd branch of the S̲h̲arīfs to regain the Meccan amrate, the descendants of Muḥammad ibn ʿAwn in fact retained it until its disappearance. Ḥusayn, born in Istanbul in 1270/1…


(1,550 words)

Author(s): Lockhart, L.
, who was known until his accession to the throne as Sulṭān Ḥusayn Mīrzā, was the eldest son of S̲h̲āh Sulaymān, the Ṣafawid monarch who reigned 1077-1105/1666-94. Ḥusayn, who was born in 1079/1668, was by nature quiet and studious, with an inclination in his earlier years to austerity. Having been brought up in the harem, in accordance with the pernicious practice inaugurated by S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I, Ḥusayn was completely ignorant of state affairs and, indeed, of the world in general when, at the ag…


(581 words)

Author(s): Mantran, R.
b. ʿAlī , Bey of Tunis (1705-35), founder of the Ḥusaynid dynasty. The son of a ¶ Greek renegade recruited into the ranks of the od̲j̲aḳ , Ḥusayn was āg̲h̲ā of the sipāhis at the time of the war between Algeria and Tunisia (1704-5). Proclaimed Bey after the capture of Bey Ibrāhīm by the Algerian troops, Ḥusayn first repulsed the Algerians, then got rid of the Dey, Muḥammad K̲h̲od̲j̲a, who was supported by the army, and finally also of Bey Ibrāhīm after he had been set free. Ḥusayn was recognized by the Ottoman Sultan, who gave him the title of Pas̲h̲a with the rank of Beylerbeyi

Abū Ḥusayn

(13 words)

( Banū Abī Ḥusayn ) Sicilian dynasty [see kalbids ].

Sulṭān Ḥusayn

(569 words)

Author(s): Gandjeï, T.
Mīrzā b. Manṣūr b. Bayḳara was born in Harāt in Miḥarram 842/June 1438. At the age of 14 he entered the service of Abu’l-Ḳāsim Bābur. In 858/1454, when Abu’l-Ḳāsim Bābur made peace with Abū Saʿīd, Ḥusayn Mīrzā entered the service of the latter, but was imprisoned by him. After his release through the intervention of his mother, he returned to Abu’l-Ḳāsim Bābur, with whom he remained till his death (861/1457). He then joined Muʿizz al-Dīn Sand̲j̲ar, who held Marw, Māk̲h̲ān and D…

Ḥusayn D̲j̲ahānsūz

(6 words)

[see d̲j̲ahān-sūz ].

Ḥusayn Pas̲h̲a

(1,170 words)

Author(s): Aktepe, M. Münir
( Küčük Ḥüseyin Pas̲h̲a ) ¶ (1758-1803), Ottoman Ḳapudān Pas̲h̲a of Circassian origin. Since he was 46 years old at his death in 1803, he must have been born in 1758. He was presented to Sultan Muṣṭafā III by the Silāḥdār Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a, in 1181/1767-8. Although it has been asserted that he was the foster-brother of Selīm III ( K̲h̲arīṭa-i Ḳapudānān-i deryā , 105), it seems more likely that his first duty in the palace was in the service of Prince Meḥmed (b. 1767), the brother of Selīm III (Wāṣif, Taʾrīk̲h̲ , MS Ali Emiri (Millet Kütüp.) 609, fol. 197a; D̲j̲ewdet, Taʾrīk̲h̲, vii, 266). Küčük Ḥüse…

Ḥusayn Raḥmī

(1,853 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, in modern Turkish Hüseyin Rahmi Gürpinar (1864-1944), Turkish novelist and short story writer, who although outside all the literary currents and movements of his time, remained the most popular writer from the 1890’s until the late 1920’s. Ḥusayn Raḥmī was born in the Ayaspasa quarter of Istanbul on 17 August 1864, the son of Meḥmed Saʿīd Pas̲h̲a, an aide to Sultan ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz. The family came originally from Aydi̊n. He lost his mother at the age of three, when his father was serving in Crete. He attended primary and secondary schools in Istanbul and later the Mak̲h̲red̲j̲-i aḳlām

Ṭahā Ḥusayn

(1,404 words)

Author(s): Cachia, P.
(1889-1973): Egyptian critic, essayist, novelist, short story writer, historian, literary and political journalist, translator, editor, publisher and educator. (1) His formation. He was born in ʿIzbat al-Kīlū near Mag̲h̲āg̲h̲a in the governorate of Minyā, the seventh of thirteen children in a family of modest condition. At the age of two, he lost his eyesight. Local educational resources equipped him with little more than the memorisation of the Ḳurʾān. In 1902 he was sent to al-Azhar University under the care of an elder brother who ¶ was a disciple of its rector, Muḥammad ʿAbduh [ q.v.…

Ḥusayn D̲j̲āhid

(1,396 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
(mod. Turkish Hüseyi̇n cahi̇t yalçin , 1874-1957), Turkish writer, journalist and politician. His parents were from Istanbul. He was born at Bahkesir while his father ʿAlī Riḍā was serving as government accountant in the province. He attended the primary school at Serres in Macedonia and the lycée at Istanbul. On completing his studies at the School of Political Science ( Mülkiye ) in 1896 he became a civil servant in the Ministry of Education. In the meantime he had taught himself French. He taught Turkish and French in various schools and became the headmaster of the iʿdādī

Ḥusayn S̲h̲āh

(531 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
(1), Sayyid al-Sādāt ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Abu ’l-Muẓaffar S̲h̲āḥ Ḥusayn Sulṭān (to quote his full titles) b. al-Sayyid As̲h̲raf al-Ḥusaynī al-Makkī , the founder of the Ḥusayn-S̲h̲āhī dynasty of Bengal, claimed descent from the S̲h̲arīf s of Mecca. His father migrated from Tirmid̲h̲ [ q.v.] and settled in Rādh, a small village in the district of Čāndpūr, where he received his education from the local ḳādī , whose daughter he later married. After completing his education he entered the service of the Ḥabs̲h̲ī Sultan S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muẓaffar S̲h̲āh ( reg . 897/1491-899/14…

Sulṭān Ḥusayn

(826 words)

Author(s): Matthee, R.
, S̲h̲āh , Ṣafawid ruler, reigned 1105-35/1694-1722, the eldest son and successor of S̲h̲āh Sulaymān [ q.v.], born in 1080/1669-70 to a Circassian mother, and died in 1139/1726. He was crowned S̲h̲āh on 7 August 1694, nine days after his father’s death after divisions of opinion at court over the succession. S̲h̲āh Ṣultān Ḥusayn resembled his father in having grown up in the confines of the harem and in coming to power with limited life experience and virtually no training in the affairs of state. Exceedingly devout, he immediately fell under th…

Ḥusayn Kāmil

(1,057 words)

Author(s): Vatikiotis, P.J.
(1853-1917), Sultan of Egypt under the British Protectorate from December 1914 to October 1917. A son of Khedive Ismāʿīl [ q.v.], he was born in Cairo. When he was eight years old, he entered the school at the Manyal Palace specially opened by his father for his sons and the sons of notables. In 1867, he accompanied his father to Istanbul on a visit to the Ottoman Sultan. Soon afterwards he visited Paris, and stayed at the court of Napoleon III. He returned briefly to Egypt for ¶ the official opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, after which he was sent on a diplomatic mission to Vic…

Ḥusayn S̲h̲āh

(861 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
(2), b. Maḥmūd S̲h̲āh S̲h̲arḳī ( reg . 840/1436-862/1458) was the last of the line of the S̲h̲arḳī Sultans of the independent kingdom of Ḏj̲awnpūr [ q.v.], who ascended the throne in 863/1458 after the death, in an armed conflict, of his elder brother Muḥammad S̲h̲āh, at that time engaged in hostilities against Buhlōl Lōdī [ q.v.], the king of Delhi. Ḥusayn, immediately on his accession, concluded a four-year truce with Buhlōl. He utilized the respite by leading a powerful army into Tirhut and Orissa, both of which he reduced, compelling the Hindu ru…

Ḥusayn Djajadiningrad

(9 words)

[see hoesein djajad iningrat , above].


(534 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
b. al-Ḥusayn , the last dey of Algiers, was born at Izmir and ruled from 1818 to 1830. When his predecessor ʿAlī K̲h̲od̲j̲a died of the plague on 1 March 1818 Ḥusayn was occupying the high office of k̲h̲od̲j̲at al-k̲h̲ayl (tribute collector). Ḥusayn was raised to the dignity of dey without having sought it, and being of a moderate disposition opened his reign by gestures of clemency. His reward was two attempts at assassination. Thereafter he remained mostly in the kasbah, which dominated the city of Algiers, surrounded by Kabyle guards. There was unrest in Algeria: the beys of Consta…

Muḥammad Ḥusayn Haykal

(1,047 words)

Author(s): Vial, Ch.
(b. 20 August 1888, d. December 1956), Egyptian writer of the first rank. He participated, with several of his contemporaries (al-ʿAḳḳād, al-Māzinī, Ṭāhā Ḥusayn, etc.) in the formation in his country of a liberal way of thought and a modern literature marked by attachment to Muslim values, the influence of Europe and consciousness of an Egyptian specificity. Having graduated in law from Cairo in 1909, he won a scholarship to France, and in 1913 presented his thesis in law on “The Egyptian Debt”. On his return from Cairo, he published in 1914 his first novel, Zaynab , …
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