Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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(881 words)

Author(s): Leiser, G.
, a Türkmen dynasty that ruled a principality located around the Gulf of Antalya from ca. 708/1308 to 826/1423. The origin and date of appearance of the Tekeog̲h̲ullari̊ are obscure. According to Yazi̊d̲j̲i̊-og̲h̲lu ʿAlī, they were descended from the Igdir Türkmen who were one of the tribes constituting the üč oḳ branch of the Og̲h̲uz ( Taʾrīk̲h̲-i āl-i Sald̲j̲ūḳ , written 827/1423-4 or 840/1436-7 and based on Ibn Bībī’s al-Awāmir al-ʿAlāʾiyya , ¶ Turkish text ed. Houtsma, Leiden 1902, 88, 322). When Kay K̲h̲usraw I, the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan of Rūm, conquered Antalya in…


(451 words)

Author(s): Reed, H.A.
, the name of a Turkoman leader, founder of the Anatolian dynasty of the Ḳarāmānids or Ḳarāmān-og̲h̲ullari̊ [ q.v.]; hence the name of the Ottoman province into which the territories of this principality were subsequently formed, with Ḳonya as its administrative centre, see below. Ḳarāmān was also the later Ottoman name for the town of Laranda [ q.v.]. The term Ḳarāmānli̊ / Ḳarāmānlü was applied to the turcophone Greek Orthodox Christians of the Ḳarāmān region, and Ḳarāmānli̊d̲j̲a (Grk. Karamanlidhika ) to their dialect of Turkish and their literature…

al-Muʾayyad S̲h̲ayk̲h̲

(754 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
( al-Malik ), Circassian Mamlūk sultan. He was brought to Egypt by the k̲h̲wād̲j̲ā Maḥmūd S̲h̲āh (732/1380-1), and bought by al-Ẓahir Barḳūḳ [ q.v.] whence his nisbas of al-Maḥmūdī al-Ẓāhirī. He was then about 12 or possibly (following Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī) some 10 years older, and was in due course emancipated and promoted in the sultan’s entourage. In 802/1400 he was appointed governor of ¶ Tripoli by al-Nāṣir Farad̲j̲ [ q.v.], and spent the next 12 years in Syria, holding various appointments. He was deeply involved in the factional politics in which the Ẓāhiriyy…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Rūm

(722 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
or Rūmī (d. 883/1478), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Being of ḳul status, his origins, whether Greek or Albanian, are obscure. Sultan Meḥemmed II [ q.v.] admitted him into his intimate circle after the unsuccessful Albanian campaign of 870/1466 during which Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a became Second Vizier. In 1468/872 he joined the campaign against Ḳaramān [see ḳaramān-og̲h̲ullari̊ ], during which he manifested his rivalry with the Grand Vizier Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Instead of him, Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a was charged with the deportation of selected members of the populations of the cities of Ḳaramān, Ḳonya [ q.v…

K̲h̲alīl Pas̲h̲a Ḏj̲andarli̊

(647 words)

Author(s): Imber, C.H.
, Ottoman Grand Vizier, the eldest son of Ḏj̲andarli̊ Ibrāhīm (d. 832/1429), who served as Grand Vizier to Meḥemmed I [ q.v.]. He was serving as Ḳāḍī-ʿasker [ q.v.] at the time of his father’s death. Murād II [ q.v.] raised him to the vizierate, and by 847/1443 he was Grand Vizier, becoming this sultan’s closest adviser. He appears to have been the chief architect of Murād’s policy of appeasing Hungary and the western powers in an effort to prevent a concerted crusader attack against the Ottomans in the Balkans. He was chief Ottoman …

Siwri Ḥiṣār

(566 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bosworth, C.E.
, also written Sifri Ḥiṣār , i.e. strong fortress (see Aḥmed Wefīḳ, Lehd̲j̲e-yi ʿOt̲h̲mānī , 459), the early Turkish and Ottoman name of two small towns in northwestern and western Anatolia respectively. 1. The more important one is the modern Turkish Sivrihisar, in the modern il or province of Eskişehir. It lies on the Eskişehir-Ankara road roughly equidistant from each, south of the course of the Porsuk river and north of the upper course of the Saḳarya [ q.v.] (lat. 39° 29′ N., long. 31° 32′ E., altitude 1,050 m/3,440 feet). …


(543 words)

Author(s): Leiser, G.
, a Turkish tribe that was prominent in central Anatolia between the 8th-10th/14th-16th centuries. The origin of the Ṭorg̲h̲ud is obscure. The earliest documentary sources say they were Turks. Nevertheless, their first recorded appearance in Anatolia was in the late 7th/13th century when that region was occupied by the Mongols; thus they may be linked with the Mongol tribe of the same name. According to a legend, the mystic Dedigi Sulṭān of K̲h̲urāsān, a descendant of Aḥmad Yasawī (d. 562/1166 [ q.v.]), sent his brothers Ṭorg̲h̲ud and Bāybūrd from K̲h̲urāsān to Anatolia in t…


(708 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, modern Kütahya , a town of north-western Anatolia, lying at an altitude of 3,251 feet/991 m. in lat. 39° 25′ north and long. 29° 59′ east. It is in the south-western corner of the well-cultivated plain of the Porsuk Çay, which eventually runs into the Sakarya river; the old town nestles on the slopes of the hill called ʿAd̲j̲em Dag̲h̲, which is crowned by the ruined citadel. In classical times it was Cotyaeum, the city of Cotys, and the largest city of Phrygia Salutaris, an early centre of Christianity and then in Byzantine times the seat of an archbishopric. Kutāhiya was taken by the Turkme…

Ṣāḥib Atā Og̲h̲ullari̊

(603 words)

Author(s): Imber, C.H.
, the modern designation for the descendants of the Rūm Sald̲j̲ūḳid vizier Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn ʿAlī (d. 687/1288), known as Ṣāḥib Atā. Literary sources record two sons of Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn, Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn Ḥusayn, the eldest (Ibn Bībī, ed. M.Th. Houtsma, Histoire des Seldjoucides d’Asie Mineure , Leiden 1902, iii, 337) and Nuṣrat al-Dīn (Aḳsarāʾī, ed. Osman Turan, Musāmarat al-ak̲h̲bār , Ankara 1944, 74). An anonymous Tawārīk̲h̲-i āl-i Sald̲j̲āḳ completed after 765/1363 also mentions a daughter (F.N. Uzluk, Anadolu Selçukluları devleti tarihi , Ankara 1952, facs . t…

Muṣṭafā K̲h̲ayrī Efendi

(1,058 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ürgüplü (1283-1339/1867-1921), S̲h̲eyk̲h̲ ül-Islām of the Ottoman Empire. A member of an old established local ʿulamāʾ family, he was born at Ürgüp as a son of ʿAbd Allāh ʿAwnī Efendi. Members of the family were the administrator of the waḳf of the town’s principal mosque complex, the ulu d̲j̲āmiʿ founded by Ḳaramānog̲h̲lu Ibrāhīm Bey [see ḳaramānog̲h̲ullari̊ ], K̲h̲ayrī received his early education locally inter alia in Arabic, Persian and Turkish classical literature and calligraphy. His elder brother, an Inspector of Justice in the wilāyet of Sivas [ q.v.], supervised his cont…


(910 words)

Author(s): Leiser, G.
“the country of the Teke”, a region in southern Anatolia around the Gulf of Antalya. Roughly corresponding to the classical areas of Lycia and Pamphylia, which constituted the western and eastern parts of Teke-Eli respectively, it took its name from the Teke beys who, as leaders of the Tekeog̲h̲ullari̊ [ q.v.] Türkmen, established a principality there in the 8th/14th century. Except for the alluvial plains at the mouths of, and along, several rivers, especially those to the east of Antalya [ q.v.], Teke-Eli was a rugged, mountainous country traversed by northsouth branches o…


(3,077 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Goodwin, G.
(Arabic and Turkish orthography, Ḳūniya), known in antiquity as Iconium, an important town lying on the edge of the Anatolian plateau, on a diagonal line connecting the Dardanelles with the Taurus passes leading into Syria. 1. History. Konya was, during the centuries of Arab invasion, a Byzantine military base which the attackers seem for this reason to have more or less deliberately avoided and circumvented, in preference either for Tarsus [see ṭarsūs ] to the south or especially for Cappadocia by the northern routes; this would seem to explai…

Murād II

(1,480 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
(824-48, 850-5/1421-44, 1446-51), sixth ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was born in 806 (1403-4) and ascended the throne in D̲j̲umādā I 824/May 1421, when he arrived in Edirne some days after his father Meḥemmed I’s death; his decease had been kept secret on the advice of the vizier ʿIwaḍ Pas̲h̲a until the new sultan’s arrival. As crown prince he had resided at Mag̲h̲nisa, and he had taken part in the suppression of the revolt of Simawna-Og̲h̲lu Bedr al-Dīn [ q.v.]. Immediately after his accession he had to face the pretender known in Turkish history as Düzme Muṣṭafā [ q.v.] and his ally D̲j̲un…


(6,428 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de | Reed, H.A. | Rogers, J.M.
, Larende or Karaman in modern Turkish usage, earlier Turkish Ḳaramān or Dārende, a provincial town in Anatolia, is the seat of one of the thirteen districts of Ḳonya [ q.v.]. The district of Karaman is the largest (4,647 km 2) ilçe in Turkey. The town lies outside the earthquake zone at lat. 37° N, long. 33° 10′ E, at an elevation of 1,038 m., on the plateau at the northern end of the pass leading through the Taurus Mts. to the Göksü (ancient Kalykadnos, or Saleph) river valley. The main roa…


(1,236 words)

Author(s): Leiser, G.
, one of the Og̲h̲uz (Türkmen) tribes. They are first mentioned in Maḥmūd al-Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī’s [ q.v.] Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-turk (written 464/1072, tr. R. Dankoff and J. Kelly as Compendium of the Turkic dialects, Cambridge, Mass. 1982-5, i, 101) as one of the 22 branches of the Og̲h̲uz. They may, in fact, have been the chief branch of that confederation. In the 4th/10th century, the Og̲h̲uz were spread across a wide area from the Issi̊ḳ-Kul west to the Caspian Sea (P. Golden, The migrations of the Oğuz , in Archivum ottomanicum, iv [1972], 45-84). According to Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn [ q.v.], in his sem…

Murād I

(2,118 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
(761-91/1360-89), according to the common tradition the third ruler of the Ottoman state, was a son of Ork̲h̲ān and the Byzantine lady Nīlūfer. Although some Ottoman sources profess to know the year of his birth ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī , i, 74, gives the year 726/1326), this date, like all dates given by Turkish sources relating to this period, is far from certain. The name Murād (Greek sources such as Phrantzes have ’Αμουράτης, from which later Latin sources make Amurath, while contemporary Latin sources from…

Ḳarā Ḥiṣār

(3,244 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H. | Planhol, X. de
, “black castle, black fortress”, name of several localities of Asia Minor distinguished from one another by means of other names or epithets, but nevertheless still frequently confused. One finds them already enumerated in the Muʿd̲j̲am of Yāḳūt (iv, 44), in the Nuzhat al-ḳulūb of Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī (ed. Le Strange, 97), in the Seyāḥātnāma of Ewliyā Čelebi (Istanbul 1314-18, ii, 384 = Narrative of Travels by Ewliya Efendi , London 1850. ii, 205), in the Lehd̲j̲e-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī of Aḥmed Wefīḳ, (Istanbul 1293, 911) and in the Tāʾrīk̲h̲ of ʿAlī Ḏj̲ewad (Istanbul…


(7,243 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
( ḳarāmānids ), a Turkish dynasty which ruled over the regions of Ič-Il, Ḳonya and Niğde [ qq.v.]. The claim made by Yazi̊d̲j̲i̊ -og̲h̲lu ʿAlī [ q.v.] that the Ḳarāmān-og̲h̲ullari̊ belonged to the Avs̲h̲ar [see afs̲h̲ar ] tribe is plausible. It is probable that they were settled in Arrān [ q.v.] prior to the Mongol invasion, that because of it they had to immigrate to the Sivas region, and that after taking part in the Babāʾī [ q.v.] revolt they moved to the Ermenek region and established their home there. The Ermenek-Mut-Anamur region was conquered in 622/1225 during th…


(4,019 words)

Author(s): Kellner-Heinkele, Barbara
(t. Türkmän; a. al-Turkumān, al-Turkmāniyyūn, al-Tarākima; p. Turkmānān) a term used collectively for Turkic tribes distributed over much of the Near and Middle East and Central Asia from mediaeval to modern times. Etymology A number of modern studies have taken up this question, rejecting the Persian popular etymology of Türk-mānand “similar to the Türks”, already proposed by al-Bīrūnī (cf. Golden 1992, 213) and al-Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī [ q.v.] in his Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-turk (tr. Dankoff 1984, ii, 363) and repeated by later authors including Ras̲h̲īd…


(8,885 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, modern Turkish Kıbrıs, Greek Kúpros (etymologically derived probably from the word for “copper”), in western languages Cyprus, is the largest island in the Eastern Mediterranean, with a surface area of 9,251 km2. The nearest distance to the mainland is from Cape Kormakiti in the north to Anamur on the southern coast of Turkey, 71 km. The distance to the Syrian coast between Cape Andreas and Raʾs ibn K̲h̲ān north of al-Lād̲h̲ikiyya [ q.v.] is 98 km. The distance to Crete (Arabic Iḳrīṭis̲h̲ [ q.v.] is about 553 km. The island consists of two mountain ranges, Kyrenia-Karpass ris…
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