Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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(265 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a small town of the mediaeval central Deccan, now in the Bīd̲j̲apur District of the Karnataka State of the Indian Union (lat 16° 31’ N., long. 76° 20’ E.). It is famed as the assembly point and base camp for the combined forces of the South Indian sultanates (the ʿĀdil S̲h̲āhīs, Barīd S̲h̲āhīs, Ḳuṭb S̲h̲āhīs and Niẓām S̲h̲āhīs [ q.vv.]). These all marched southwards some 50 km/30 miles southwards to the Krishna river and the villages of Raks̲h̲asa and Tangadi, crossed the river and, at a point 20 km/12 miles south of the Krishna, after several skirmish…


(262 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, a town situated in 19°9′N., 77°20′E., a former district headquarters in Ḥaydarābād State, now in Mahārās̲h̲t́ra, on the north bank of the River Godāvarī. Once a fort of the Kākatīya dynasty, it was conquered early in the 8th/14th century by ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī [see dihlī sultanate ], passing through Tug̲h̲luḳ hands to the Bahmanīs; on the disintegration of the Bahmanī state it passed to the Ḳuṭb S̲h̲āhīs of Golkond́ā, forming a defence on their north-east frontier with the Niẓām S̲h̲āhīs of Aḥmadnagar, and apparently was later in the …


(315 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(i.e. Ilčī-yi Niẓām-s̲h̲āhī “ambassador of the Niẓām-S̲h̲āh” of the Dakhan), a Persian historian whose real name was K̲h̲wūrs̲h̲āh b. Ḳubād al-Ḥusaynī. Born in Persian ʿIrāḳ, he entered the service of Sultan Burhān [see niẓām-s̲h̲āhīs ]. The latter being converted to the S̲h̲īʿa, sent K̲h̲wūrs̲h̲āh as ambassador to Ṭahmāsp S̲h̲āh Ṣafawī. Reaching Rayy in Rad̲j̲ab 952/September 1545, he accompanied the S̲h̲āh to Georgia and S̲h̲īrwān during the campaign of 953/1546 against Alḳāṣ Mīrzā. He stayed in Persia till 971/1563, perhaps with occas…

Mīr D̲j̲umla

(395 words)

Author(s): Hidayet Hosain, M. | Bosworth, C.E.
, Muḥammad Saʿīd , prominent minister and military commander in 11th/17th century Muslim India, first in the service of the Ḳuṭb-S̲h̲āhī ruler of Golkond́ā ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad [see ḳuṭb-s̲h̲āhis ] and then in that of the Mug̲h̲als S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān and Awrangzīb [ q.vv.], died in 1073/1663. Stemming originally from Persia, he was at the outset a diamond merchant and accumulated a vast private fortune in the Carnatic, the region around Madras, from these dealings and from Hindu temple treasures, having his own private army of 5,000 cavalryme…


(459 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Mīrzā Ḥasan , Persian scholar of the 19th century and author of a historicalgeographical work on his native province of Fārs, the Fārsnāma-yi Nāṣirī (the latter part of the book’s title being a reference to the Ḳād̲j̲ār sultan Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh, in whose reign Ḥasan Fasāʾī wrote). He was born, according to the autobiography inserted into his book, in 1237/1821-2 in the small town of Fasā [ q.v.] in Fārs, of a family which had been prominent in the intellectual and religious life of S̲h̲īrāz for at least four centuries; various members of it had be…


(765 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, a small town in the former ʿUt̲h̲mānābād district of Ḥaydarābād State, situated in 17°49′N., 76°29′E., now in Mahāras̲h̲t́ra; its fort, standing above the ravine of the Bōrī river, is one of the best fortified strongholds in the Deccan. The name also appears as Naldurg, perhaps the better form ( durg = Skr. durga “ fort “). It does not figure in the Deccan campaign of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luk, and so probably came into Bahmanī possession after the imperial forces had withdrawn, in the late 8th/14th century; its stone fortifications, which appear to be …

Pūr-i Bahāʾ

(836 words)

Author(s): Hoffmann, B.
-i D̲j̲āmī , Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn, a Persian poet who was active in the second ¶ part of the 7th/13th century when Persia was ruled by the Mongols. Most of the biographical information is based on statements to be found in his verses. His tak̲h̲alluṣ was Pūr-i Bahāʾ. He was a native of D̲j̲ām in K̲h̲urāsān and was born into a family of ḳāḍī s and scholars; his ancestors had held the post of ḳāḍī in the wilāyat of D̲j̲ām since the days of the Sāmānids, but by Pūr-i Bahāʾ’s time had lost this function. In his youth he lived in Harāt, where Mawl…

Niẓām S̲h̲āhīs

(1,882 words)

Author(s): Martin, Marie H.
, one of five Deccani dynasties, with its capital at Aḥmadnagar [ q.v.] which emerged in South India as the Bahmanī [ q.v.] kingdom disintegrated. The chroniclers of the Niẓām S̲h̲āhīs emphasise territorial and power disputes and religious (and possibly racial) tensions. The history of the dynasty splits into four periods. Under the first four rulers, 895-994/1490-1586, there was the vigorous establishment of the kingdom. Under the five rulers from 994-1008/1586-1600, there was intensive internal dissension. The peri…


(5,009 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
( a) the name of a city in the Deccan (Dakhan) of India, situated 17° 22′ N., 78° 27′ E., now the capital city of the Indian state of Āndhra Pradēs̲h̲, and formerly the capital successively of the later Ḳuṭb S̲h̲āhī kings of Golkond́ā, of a Mug̲h̲al ṣūba after Awrangzīb’s conquest of the Deccan, of the Niẓām, and of the state of Ḥaydarābād after the independence of India; ( b) the name of a former state of the Indian Union, now absorbed within the provinces of Āndhra Pradēs̲h̲, Mahārās̲h̲tra, and Mysore (Mahisur); formerly the territory of H.E.H. (‘His ¶ Exalted Highnes…

Mahisur, Maysūr

(3,067 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Andrews, P.A.
, conventional spelling Mysore , a former princely state of British India, now the core of a component state of the Indian Union called Karnataka, with its capital at Bangalore, and also the name of the town which was the dynastic capital of the state. The native state was a landlocked one of South India, lying between lats. 11° 36′ and 15° 2′ N. and longs. 74° 38′ and 78° 36′ E. and with an area of 29,433 sq. miles. Its population in 1941 was 7,329,140…


(4,036 words)

Author(s): Algar, Hamid | Burton-Page, J.
, a Persian Ṣūfī order that soon after its inception in the 8th/14th century transferred its loyalties to S̲h̲īʿī Islam. The Niʿmat Allāhiyya first took root in south-eastern Persia where it continued to prosper until the time of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās. For the next two centuries it survived only in the Deccani branch that had been established in the 9th/15th century. Reintroduced into Persia with considerable vigour in the early 13th/late 18th century, the Niʿmat Allāhiyya became the most widespread Ṣūfī order in the country, a position it has retained until recent times. 1. The founder and th…


(8,557 words)

Author(s): Diez, E.
, the Arabic name used throughout the whole Muslim world for a tomb surmounted by a dome. Purpose and significance. The term is applied to the thousands of simple local domed tombs of s̲h̲ayk̲h̲s and saints made by the people as well as to great mausoleums. The term ḳubba became established as a pars pro toto abbreviation for the domes of tombs, for which it is exclusively reserved. All the special names for sepulchral buildings, which vary with country and language as well as with the style of building and person interred, come under the generic name of ḳubba. The classical word turba


(9,447 words)

Author(s): Calmard, J.
(a.) denotes, in contemporary usage, one who possesses the aptitude to form ¶ his own judgement on questions concerning the s̲h̲arīʿa , using personal effort ( id̲j̲tihād [ q.v.]) in the interpretation of the fundamental principles ( uṣūl [ q.v.]) of the s̲h̲arīʿa. The prerogatives of mud̲j̲tahid s are thus essentially linked to the diverse connotations of the term id̲j̲tihād which have varied in the course of time and according to schools. Its application to the field of jurisprudence is in fact a narrowing of the concept, the terms id̲j̲tahada / id̲j̲tihād sign…


(56,925 words)

Author(s): Ed. | S. Maqbul Ahmad | Mayer, A.C. | Burton-Page, J. | Nizami, K.A. | Et al.
, the name currently employed in Arabic for the Indian sub-continent. The current names in Persian were Hindūstān, Hindistān, “land of the Hindūs” [ q.v.], whence Ottoman Turkish Hindistān. The present article comprises the following sections: For Anglo-Muhammedan law, see s̲h̲arīʿa ; for political parties, see ḥizb ; for the development of the apparatus of modern government, see ḥukūma ; for the events leading to partition and for the history of Pakistan since independence, see pākistān . (Ed.) i.— The Geography of India according to the mediaeval muslim geographers. (a) The term “ Hin…

Manāra, Manār

(11,039 words)

Author(s): Hillenbrand, R. | Burton-Page, J. | Freeman-Greenville, G.S.P.
(a.) minaret. 1. In the Islamic lands between the Mag̲h̲rib and Afg̲h̲anistan. Unlike the other types of Islamic religious building, such as the mosque and the madrasa , the minaret is immediately and unambiguously recognisable for what it is. The reasons for this are worth investigating. It seems on the whole unrelated to its function of the ad̲h̲ān [ q.v.] calling the faithful to prayer, which can be made quite adequately from the roof of the mosque or even from a house-top. During the lifetime of the Prophet, his Abyssinian slave Bilāl [ q.v.], was responsible for making the call to …


(14,791 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.) nickname, and at a later date under Islam and with a more specific use, honorific title (pl. alḳāb ). For suggestions about its etymology, see L. Caetani and G. Gabrieli, Onomasticon arabicum . i. Fonte-introduzione , Rome 1915, 144-5; and for its place in the general schema of the composition of Islamic names, see ism. The laḳab seems in origin to have been a nickname or sobriquet of any tone, one which could express admiration, be purely descriptive and neutral in tenor or be insulting and derogatory. In the latter case, it was often termed nabaz , pl. anbāz , by-form labaz

Barīd S̲hāhīs

(1,186 words)

Author(s): Sherwani, H.K. | J. Burton-Page
A dynasty founded by Ḳāsim Barīd, who was originally a Turkish slave sold to Muḥammad S̲h̲āh III, the 13th of the line of the Bahmanids [ q.v.]. A man of outstanding personality, a good calligrapher and musician, he also proved his mettle on the battlefield and rose to be the kotwal in the reign of Maḥmūd S̲h̲āh, and after the death of Malik Ḥasan Niẓām al-Mulk, arrogated to himself the office of chief Minister of the tottering Bahmanī State. He had often to contend with the more powerful fiefholders of the Kingdom who had…


(1,298 words)

Author(s): Sherwani, H.K. | J. Burton Page
, a hill fort lat. 19° 57′ N., long. 75° 15′ E., ten miles N.-W. of Awrangābād, now in Mahārās̲h̲tra State, was called Deogiri (properly Devagiri), “the Hill of God”, in pre-Muslim times as the capital of the Yādavas, originally feudatories of the Western Čālukyas but independent since 1183 A.D., after which they continued to rule the territory from Deogiri independently. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn, nephew of Sulṭān D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Fīrūz K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī of Dihlī, actuat…

ʿImād S̲h̲āhī

(3,372 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, the title of a ruling family, founded by a Hindu convert to Islam, which ruled over Berar [ q.v.] for nearly a century from 896/1490 until 982/1574. The founder of the dynasty, Daryā K̲h̲ān, better known to history by his title Fatḥ Allāh ʿImād al-Mulk, was descended from the Canarese Brahmans of Vid̲j̲yanagar [ q.v.]. He fell as a prisoner of war in 827/1423 into the hands of K̲h̲ān-i D̲j̲ahān, the commander-in-chief of the Bahmani [ q.v.] forces in Berar, who appointed him to his personal bodyguard. Impressed by his talents and ability K̲h̲ān-i D̲j̲ahān quickly promo…


(2,688 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, term used in India for those African communities whose ancestors originally came to the country as slaves, in most cases from the Horn of Africa, although some doubtless sprang from the slave troops of the neighbouring Muslim countries. The majority, at least in the earlier periods, may well have been Abyssinian, but certainly the name was applied indiscriminately to all Africans, and in the days of the Portuguese slave-trade with India many such ‘Ḥabs̲h̲īs’ were in fact of the Nilotic and Bantu races. There is little detailed information concerning the numbers, the status an…
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