Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Ṣiffīn

(4,605 words)

Author(s): Lecker, M.
, a famous battle (37/657), or rather a series of duels and skirmishes between the ʿIrāḳīs under the caliph ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib [ q.v.] and the Syrians under the governor of Syria Muʿāwiya [ q.v.]. The battle was a major factor in shaping the regional and political identity of both the ʿIrāḳī S̲h̲īʿīs and the Syrian Umayyads (cf. Muk̲h̲taṣar Taʾrīk̲h̲ Dimas̲h̲ḳ li- Ibn ʿAsākir , ed. al-Naḥḥās et alii, Damascus 1404/1984 ff., xxiii, 46: naḥnu ahlu ’l-S̲h̲ām , naḥnu aṣḥāb Ṣiffīn cf. P. Crone, Slaves on horses. The evolution of the Islamic polity, Cambridge 1980, 203, n. 30). The political a…

Hās̲h̲im b. ʿUtba

(88 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. Abī waḳḳās al-Zuhrī abū ʿUmar , a Companion of the Prophet and a neph w of the more famous Saʿd b. Abī Waḳḳāṣ [ q.v.]. Converted to Islam on the day of the conquest of Mecca, he distinguished himself at the battle of the Yarmūk, where he lost an eye, and held important commands under his uncle at Ḳādisiyya and Ḏj̲alūlā. where he led the Arab forces. He was killed fighting on the side of ʿAlī at Ṣiffīn. (Ed.) Bibliography Caetani, Annali, index Tabarī, index.

Naṣr b. Muzāḥim

(228 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl al-Minḳarī al-Tamīmī, early S̲h̲īʿī historian (though probably not, as Sezgin rightly observes, the first one) and traditionist; his date of birth is uncertain, but he died in 212/827. He lived originally in Kūfa but later moved to Bag̲h̲dād; amongst those from whom he heard traditions was Sufyān al-T̲h̲awrī [ q.v.]. His own reputation as an ak̲h̲bāri and muḥaddit̲h̲ was, however, weak, and he was regarded by some Sunnī authors as a fervent ( g̲h̲ālī ) S̲h̲īʿī. He is best known for his Kitāb Waḳʿat Ṣiffīn (this has been reconstructed, from the p…

Abu ’l-Aʿwar ʿAmr b. Sufyān al-Sulamī

(307 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
general in the service of Muʿāwiya. He belonged to the powerful tribe of Sulaym (hence "al-Sulamī"); his mother was a Christian and his father had fought at Uḥud in the ranks of the Ḳurays̲h̲. The son, who does not seem to have belonged to the closest circle of the Prophet, went, probably with the army commanded by Yazīd b. Abī Sufyān, to Syria. In the battle of the Yarmūk he was in charge of a detachment, and from that time he followed faithfully the fortunes of the Umayyads. He thus exposed hi…

Ṭulaḳāʾ

(275 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.), the pl. of ṭalīḳ , which means “a person loosed, set free, e.g. from imprisonment or slavery” (Lane, 1874). The plural becomes a technical term in earliest Islam for denoting the Meccans of Ḳurays̲h̲ who, at the time when Muḥammad entered Mecca in triumph (Ramaḍān 8/January 630), were theoretically the Prophet’s lawful booty but whom he in fact released (al-Ṭabarī, i, 1642-3: ḳāla ’d̲h̲habū fa-antum al-ṭulaḳāʾ . Gf. Glossarium , p. CCCXLII, and Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Nihāya , ed. al-Zāwī and al-Ṭannāḥī, Cairo 1383/1963, iii, 136). It was subsequently used opprobriousl…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. K̲h̲ālid

(214 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H.A.R.
b. al-Walīd al-mak̲h̲zūmī , the only surviving son of the famous Arab general. At the age of eighteen he commanded a squadron at the battle of the Yarmūk. Muʿāwiya subsequently appointed him governor of Ḥimṣ and he commanded several of the later Syrian expeditions ¶ into Anatolia. During the civil war, after successfully opposing an ʿIrāḳī expedition into the Ḏj̲azīra. he joined Muʿāwiya at Ṣiffīn and was made standard-bearer. According to the received tradition, Muʿāwiya, fearing that ʿAbd al-Raḥmān might be a rival of Yazīd for the succ…

Ḥabīb b. Maslama

(198 words)

Author(s): Fück, J.W.
, a military commander of Muʿāwiya. He was born at Mecca c. 617 A.D. in a family belonging to the Ḳurays̲h̲ī clan Fihr. He took part in the conquest of Syria and distinguished himself in the fights against the Byzantines. By order of Muʿāwiya he conquered Armenia in 21/642 and the following years (for details vide supra i, 635); then he was given the governorship of Northern Syria and fought against the Mardaites (Ḏj̲arād̲j̲ima [ q.v.]) and the Byzantines. After ʿUt̲h̲mān’s death he supported the cause of Muʿāwiya against ʿAlī. At Ṣiffīn (37/657) he commanded the left …

Duldul

(181 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Pellat, Ch.
, the name of the grey mule of the Prophet, which had been given to him by the Muḳawḳis [ q.v.], at the same time as the ass called Yaʿfūr/ʿUfayr. After serving as his mount during his campaigns, she survived him and died at Yanbuʿ so old and toothless that in order to feed her the barley had to be put into her mouth. According to the S̲h̲īʿī tradition, ʿAlī rode upon her at the battle of the Camel [see al-d̲j̲amal ] and at Ṣiffīn. As Duldul in Arabic means a porcupine, it is possible that she derived her name from her gait, but This is far from certain. For…

al-Barāʾ

(161 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿāzib b. al-ḥārit̲h̲ al-awsī al-anṣārī , a Companion of the Prophet. He was too young to take part in the Battle of Badr, but he accompanied Muḥammad on numerous other expeditions and later took part in the wars of conquest; he brought Rayy and Ḳazwīn under Muslim dominion. He later espoused the cause of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib and fought under his banner at the Battle of the Camel [see al-d̲j̲amal], at Ṣiffīn [ q.v.], and at al-Nahrawān [ q.v.]; the famous ḥadīt̲h̲ of G̲h̲adīr Ḵh̲umm [ q.v.] was related on his authority. After his retirement to Kūfa, he lost his sight towards the end…

al-Ḥuḍayn

(290 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(not al-Ḥuṣayn) b. al-Mund̲h̲ir b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Waʿla al-Raḳās̲h̲ī al-Bakrī , Abū sāsān , a notable and poet of Baṣra ranking among the leading Tābiʿūn (d. ca. 100/718-9). His family was well-known even before Islam; some at least of its members had a reputation for avarice, which al-Ḥuḍayn seems to have justified, if we may judge by the words attributed to him by al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, which leave no doubt as to his love of riches. While still quite young, he took part in the battle of Ṣiffīn [ q.v.] and fought bravely; he carried the standard of the Rabīʿa in the army of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭāl…

ʿAmmār b. Yāsir

(373 words)

Author(s): Reckendorf, H.
b. ʿāmir b. mālik , abu ’l-yaḳzān , a Companion of the Prophet, later a partisan of ʿAlī. His father, a mawlā of the Mak̲h̲zūmite Abū Ḥud̲h̲ayfa, had married one of his master’s slaves, Sumayya, who was manumitted, but Yāsir and his family remained with Abū Ḥud̲h̲ayfa. They were early converts to Islām, and suffered severe tortures. ʿAmmār is said eventually to have emigrated to Abyssinia; after the hid̲j̲ra he returned to Medina. He took part in the early campaigns, and fought at Badr, at Uḥud, and, in general, in all the battles of Muhammad, who at the time of the muʾāk̲h̲āt

al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲

(427 words)

Author(s): Reckendorf, H.
abū muḥammad maʿdīkarib b. ḳays b. maʿdīkarib , of the clan of al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Muʿāwiya, a chief of Kindain Ḥaḍramawt. The nickname, by which he is most commonly known, means “with unkempt or dishevelled hair”; he is also called, but less frequently, al-As̲h̲ad̲j̲d̲j̲ , “the scar-faced”, and ʿUrf al-Nār , said to be a South-Arabian term for “traitor”. In earlier life he led an expedition against the tribe of Murād, who had murdered his father, but was taken prisoner and ¶ had to pay 3000 camels for his ransom. In 10/631 he was leader of the delegation ( wafd ) which offer…

Taḥkīm

(1,516 words)

Author(s): Djebli, Moktar
(a.), arbitration (the maṣdar of the form II verb ḥakkama . It denotes the action of making an appeal to arbitration by someone involved with another in a conflict or in some affair of a conflicting nature by mutual agreement. It also designates someone fulfilling the role of an agent with the power of attorney, or an authorised agent (with full powers to act) in a different or clear matter. This person should be qualified as a muḥakkam , a person who is solicited for arbitration. The ancient Arabs preferred to use the word ḥakam , arbitrator, from the verb ḥakama , to jud…

al-T̲h̲aḳafī

(466 words)

Author(s): Djebli, Moktar
, Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad , Abū Isḥāḳ, S̲h̲īʿī writer and scholar, b. at an unknown date around the beginning of the 3rd century A.H., d. 283/896. His ancestors, from the T̲h̲aḳīf, had always been faithful partisans of the ʿAlids, and his great-grandfather, the Companion Saʿd b. Masʿūd, had been governor of al-Madāʾin for ʿAlī, with his loyal qualities displayed at the battle of Ṣiffīn [ q.v.] in 37/658 (al-Samʿānī, Ansāb , ed. Ḥaydarābād, iii, 144). Regrettably little is known of Ibrāhīm’s life and intellectual development, but he was brought up…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Saʿd

(660 words)

Author(s): Becker, C.H.
, Muslim statesman and general. Abū Yaḥyā ʿAbd Allāh b. Saʿd b. Abī Sarḥ al-ʿĀmirī belonged to the clan of ʿĀmīr b. Luʾayy of Ḳurays̲h̲ and was as foster brother of the subsequent caliph ʿUt̲h̲mān a chief partisan of the Umayyads. He was less a soldier than a financier. The judgements of historians on his character vary greatly. His name is connected in many ways with the beginnings of Islam. First he is mentioned as one of Muḥammad’s scribes: he is supposed to have arbitrarily altered the revel…

ʿUbayd Allāh b. ʿUmar

(439 words)

Author(s): Robinson, C.F.
, a son of the second caliph and Companion of the Prophet, d. 37/657. ʿUbayd Allāh was the son of ʿUmar b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb by his wife Umm Kult̲h̲ūm Mulayka bt. Ḏj̲arwal of the Ḵh̲uzāʿa, who, divorced by ʿUmar after he converted to Islam, married a kinsman and remained pagan in Mecca. ʿUbayd Allāh is known principally for having avenged his father’s death in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a/23 November 644 at the hands of Abū Luʾluʾa, a Persian slave of al-Mug̲h̲īra b. S̲h̲uʿba [ q.v.]. According to most accounts, once captured, Abū Luʾluʾa killed himself, so ʿUbayd Allāh turned his wrath on…

al-Nad̲j̲ās̲h̲ī

(377 words)

Author(s): El Achèche, Taïeb
, Ḳays b. ʿAmr al-Ḥārit̲h̲ī, Arab poet of the 1st/7th century, probably called by this epithet because of his dark skin inherited from his Ethiopian mother, d. 49/669. Born in Nad̲j̲rān, he and his clan became converts to Islam at Medina in 10/632. His bellicose nature led him to compose virulent satires against ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Ḥassān b. T̲h̲ābit, who replied with the aid of his father. On the advice of al-Ḥuṭayʾa and Ḥassān [ q.vv.], the caliph ʿUmar had al-Nad̲j̲ās̲h̲ī imprisoned for his invectives against the B. ʿAd̲j̲lān and their poet Ibn Muḳbil [ q.v.]. At the battle of Ṣiffīn, he…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Wahb

(187 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H.A.R.
al-Rāsibī , Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ite leader, a tābiʿī of the Bad̲j̲īla tribe, noted for his bravery and piety and surnamed d̲h̲u ’l-t̲h̲afināt , "the man with the callosities", on account of the callosities on his forehead etc. resulting from his many prostrations. He fought under Ṣaʿd b. Abī Waḳḳāṣ in ʿIrāḳ and under ʿAlī at Ṣiffīn, but broke with him over the decision to arbitrate and joined the dissidents at Ḥarūraʾ. Shortly before their final departure from Kūfa in S̲h̲awwāl 37/March 658, the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites elected ʿAbd Allāh as their commander ( amīr , not k̲h̲alīfa , as…

Uways al-Ḳaranī

(240 words)

Author(s): Baldick, J.
, a legendary or semi-legendary younger contemporary of Muḥammad, said to have been killed at the battle of Ṣiffīn in 37/657, fighting on the side of ʿAlī. The nisba al-Ḳaranī connects him with the Ḳaran sub-group of the Yemeni tribe of Murād [ q.v.], and legend puts his early life in the Yemen. Uways first appears in the works of writers of the 3rd/9th century, Ibn Saʿd and Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, as an impoverished and ragged figure who chose to live a life of solitude. Muḥammad had allegedly foretold that Uways would come to see his second successor, ʿUmar, and said that Uways was both his bosom friend ( k…

Baḥdal

(280 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
b. unayf b. wald̲j̲a b. ḳunāfa belonged to the clan of the Banū Ḥarit̲h̲a b. Ḏj̲anāb, which was also called al-Bayt or the aristocracy of Kalb. A Christian like the great majority of his tribe, his chief claim to fame is that he was the father of ¶ Maysūn, mother of Yazīd I. His nomad clan lived to the south of the ancient Palmyra, whither Maysūn afterwards brought the young Yazīd, and where the Umayyads reunited after the congress of D̲j̲ābiya and the battle of Mard̲j̲ Rāhiṭ. Baḥdal was thus the founder of the great pr…
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