Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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(3,470 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W. | Lewinstein, K.
, an early Islamic religious group defined by the heresiographers as the name of a K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ite sect arising out of the breakup of the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ite community in Baṣra in the year 64/683-4. The heresiographers commonly derive the name from a founder variously called ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Aṣfar, ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Ṣaffar al-Saʿdī al-Tamīmī, or Ziyād b. al-Aṣfar, who was active at the time of the breakup. This founder is almost certainly fictitious. The scholars of the Ṣufriyya themselves, according to al-Mubarrad, narrated that the…

ʿImrān b. Ḥiṭṭān

(536 words)

Author(s): Fück, J.W.
, al-Sadūsī al-K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ī , an Arab sectarian and poet. He hailed from the Banu ’l-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Sadūs, a clan of the Banū S̲h̲aybān b. D̲h̲uhl. He was first a Sunnī, and is mentioned by Ibn Saʿd (vii/I, 113) in the second class of the “followers” ( tābiʿūn ) of Baṣra; he is named as a transmitter in the collections of Buk̲h̲ārī, Abū Dāwūd, and Nasāʾī. It is said that he was converted by his wife to the doctrines of the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īs [ q.v.] and became the leader of their moderate wing, the Ṣufriyya [ q.v.], who rejected indiscriminate political ¶ murder ( istiʿrāḍ [ q.v.]) and were lenient toward…

Muways b. ʿImrān

(793 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. Ḏj̲umayʿ b. Ziyād al-Baṣrī , Abu ʿImrān, eminent mawlā of Baṣrā who lived in the second half of the 2nd/8th century. His name is considerably distorted in the sources and in studies, such that the variants encountered include Mūsā (by confusion with Mūsā b. ʿImrān = Moses), Muʾnis, Mawīs, etc.; furthermore, his name would not feature in history at all were it not that al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ [ q.v.] mentions him quite frequently and that he participated in the movement of politico-religious ideas which developed at Baṣra in the 2nd and 3rd/8th-9th centuries. It is under…


(778 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S.
, the name of a Berber tribe belonging to the great family of the Butr [ q.v.]; they were related to the Zanāta and brethren of the Maṭmāṭa, Kūmiya, Lamāya, Ṣaddīna, Madyūna, Mag̲h̲īla, etc., with whom they form the racial group of the Banū Fātin. Like the other tribes belonging to this group, the Maṭg̲h̲ara originally came from Tripolitania; the most eastern members of the Maṭg̲h̲ara, however, known to al-Bakrī and Ibn K̲h̲aldūn were those who lived in the mountainous regions along the Mediterranean from Milyā…

Mirdās b. Udayya

(875 words)

Author(s): Levi Della Vida, G.
, K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ī leader in Baṣra, killed in 61/680-1. He belonged to the Rabīʿa b. Ḥanẓala b. Mālik b. Zayd Manāt (called Rabīʿa al-Wusṭā, Naḳāʾiḍ , ed. Bevan, 185, 5 = 699, l. 11; Mufaḍḍaliyyāt , ed. Lyall, 123, l. 12, 772, l. 8), a branch of the tribe of Tamīm which supplied so many leaders to the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ī movement. His father was called Ḥudayr b. ʿAmr b. ʿAbd b. Kaʿb and Udayya was his mother’s or grandmother’s name; she belonged to the tribe of Muḥārib b. K̲h̲aṣafa (Ibn Durayd, Kitāb al-Is̲h̲tiḳāḳ , ed. Wüstenfeld, 134; Ibn Ḳutayba, Kitāb al-Maʿārif , ed. Wüstenfel…


(1,855 words)

Author(s): Terrasse, M.
, a town of pre-modern Islamic Morocco. The ruined site of the ancient capital of the Tāftlālt is as poorly known as it is famous. The town, situated on the Wadi Zīz some 300 km/190 miles from Fās, on the southeastern fringes of mediaeval Morocco, occupies a key position as gateway to the desert. Moreover, it has had the good fortune of being the foremost urban centre of the region which provided the land with its present-day dynasty of rulers, the ʿAlawīs. Thus history and legendary prestige have beco…


(1,875 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
( al-Nakkāra , al-Nakkāriyya ) “deniers”: one of the main branches of the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ī sect of the Ibāḍiyya [ q.v.]. The existence of this sect has already been proved by E. Masqueray, A. de C. Motylinski and R. Strothmann; cf., however, the opinion of G. Levi della Vida, according to whom al-Nukkār is simply “an insulting epithet applied to K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īs in general” [see Ṣufriyya ]. The name al-Nukkār comes from the fact that the members of this sect refused to recognise the second Ibāḍī imām of Tāhert, ʿAbd al-Wahhāb b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Rustam [see rustamids ]. The…


(1,635 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F. | El Achèche, Taïeb
, meaning in Arabic “tall”, or “proud”, the name of at least four persons from the 1st century of the Hid̲j̲ra. On the basis of al-Āmidī’s (d. 370/980) Muʾtalif Cairo 1381/1961, ʿIzzat Ḥasan’s Introduction to the Dīwān of al-Ṭirimmāḥ b. Ḥakīm (2 Aleppo and Beirut 1414/1994) and, above all, Salīm al-Nuʿaymī’s article al-Ṭirimmāḥ , in Publics . of the Arab Academy , Bag̲h̲dād (1964), 401-22, four persons of this name can be disentangled: 1. al-Ṭirimmāḥ al-Akbar , or Ḳaʿḳaʿ b. Nafr or Ibn Ḳays al-Ṭāʾī, the paternal uncle of al-Ṭirimmāḥ al-Ḥakīm or rat…


(3,946 words)

Author(s): Levi Della Vida, G.
( al-K̲h̲awārid̲j̲ , sing. K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ī ), the members of the earliest of the religious sects of Islam, whose importance lies particularly, from the point of view of the development of dogma, in the formulation of questions relative to the theory of the caliphate and to justification by faith or by works, while from the point of view of political history the principal part they played was disturbing by means of continual insurrections, which often ended in the temporary conquest…


(2,822 words)

Author(s): Béguinot, F.
, in Berber Infūsen , name of a Berber tribe. According to the common genealogical scheme (cf. Ibn K̲h̲aldūn, Kitāb al-ʿIbar , i, 107-17), the Nafūsa are one of the four branches of the large body of the Butr, whose name derives from their chief Mādg̲h̲īs al-Abtar. At present, the dwelling place of the Nafūsa is south-west of Tripoli in Libya, on the plateau of the same name [see al-nafūsa , d̲j̲abal ] which from the frontier between Tunisia and Tripolitania tends eastward, and, if taken in the ¶ largest sense, comprises the regions of Nālūt, Fassāṭo and Yefren. The inhabitants of …

al-K̲h̲alīl b. Aḥmad

(2,139 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
b. ʿamr b. tamīm al-farāhidī ( al-furhūdī ; see W. Caskel, Ǧamharat an-nasab , ii, 343 f.) al-azdī al-yaḥmadī al-baṣrī abū ʿabd al-raḥmān , important Arab philologist. Born in ʿUmān, he grew up in Baṣra where he died, at over seventy, in 175/791, or 170/786, or 160/776 (Zubaydī, Ṭabaḳāt , 47; Marzubānī, Muḳtabas , 56; Fihrist , 42). As a young man he adhered to the Ṣufriyya [ q.v.], but he embraced Sunnī orthodoxy under the influence of his teacher Ayyūb al-Sak̲h̲tivānī (d. 131/748,) a well-known traditionist and faḳīh (Ziriklī, Aʿlām , i, 382). His studies in Ar…

Tamīm b. Murr

(2,536 words)

Author(s): Lecker, M.
(or Tamīm bt. Murr, when the tribe or ḳabīla is referred to), a very large “Northern” tribe which before Islam and in its early days lived in central and eastern Arabia. Its nasab is: Tamīm b. Murr b. Udd b. Ṭābik̲h̲a b. Ilyās b. Muḍar b. Nizār b. Maʿadd b. ʿAdnān. 1. Source material. The literary output about the Tamīm in the form of monographs is now lost. For example, Abu ’l-Yaḳẓān (d. 190/806), a mawlā of the Tamīm, compiled a monograph Ak̲h̲bār Tamīm , and also a K. Ḥilf Tamīm baʿḍihā baʿḍan ; Ibn al-Kalbī wrote K. ʿAdī b. Zayd [ q.v.] al-ʿIbādī and Ḥilf Kalb wa-Tamīm ; and Abū ʿUbayda [ q.v.] compile…


(15,273 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, one of the main branches of the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īs [ q.v.], representatives of which are today found in ʿUmān, East Africa, Tripolitania (D̲j̲abal Nafūsa and Zuag̲h̲a) and southern Algeria (Wargla and Mzab). The sect takes it name from that of one of those said to have founded it, ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibāḍ al-Murrī al-Tamīmī. The form usually employed is Abāḍiyya; this is true not only of North Africa ( e.g., in the D̲j̲abal Natūsa, cf. A. de C. Motylinski, Le Djebel Nefousa , Paris 1898-9, 41 and passim ), where it is attested in the 9th/15th century by the Ibāḍī writer al-Barrādī ( Kitāb Ḏj̲awāhir al-mun…


(10,263 words)

Author(s): Triaud, J.-L. | Kaye, A.S.
, Bilād al- , literally “land of the blacks”, the general name in pre-modern Arabic sources for the Saharo-Sahelian sector of Africa, that lying south of the Mag̲h̲rib, Libya and Egypt and stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Red Sea in the east. 1. The eastern part of the Sūdān. See for this, čad in Suppl; dārfūr ; kordofān ; nūba ; wādāy ; and for the modern period, sūdān , the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and the modern Republic of Sudan. 2. History of the Western Sūdān. It is by the name Bilād al-Sūdān al-G̲h̲arbī (although the “western” qualification is n…


(29,328 words)

Author(s): Yver, G. | Lévi-Provençal, E. | Colin, G.S.
, al-Mamlaka al-Mag̲h̲ribiyya . a kingdom of North Africa whose name in European languages (Fr. Maroc; Eng. Morocco; Span. Marruecos) is a deformation of the name of the southern metropolis of the kingdom, Marrākus̲h̲ [ q.v.]. 1. Geography . Morocco occupies the western part of Barbary; it corresponds to the Mag̲h̲rib al-Aḳṣā of the Arab geographers [see al-mag̲h̲rib ]. Lying between 5° and 15° W. longitude (Greenwich) on the one hand and between 36° and 28° N. latitude on the other, it covers approximately an area of between 500,000 and 550,000 km2. On the north it is bounded by the …


(25,019 words)

Author(s): Brunschwig, R. | Hafedh Sethom | Ammar, Mahjoubi | Chapoutot-Remadi, Mounira | Daghfous, Radhi | Et al.
, a region of the northeastern part of the Mag̲h̲rib. In mediaeval Islamic times it comprised essentially the province of Ifrīḳiya [ q.v.]. Under the Ottomans, the Regency of Tunis was formed in the late 10th/16th century, continuing under local Beys with substantial independence from Istanbul until the establishment of the French Protectorate in 1881, which in turn gave way in 1957 to the present fully independent Tunisian Republic. I. Geography, Demography and Economy . (a) Geography. Tunisia, situated between 6° and 9° degrees of longitude east, and between 32° and 37…